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Street Railway 




Street Railway Publishing Co., 
120 Liberty Street, 
New York. 







of securing 


a 166 

Acceleration : 


City & South London Railway, on [Mc- 

Mahon] *391 

Tests in Cleveland 363 

See also Train Resistance. 

Accidents: Amusing Letters about 92 

Blanks at Brisbane *443 

Cases, Bribery and Perjury in [Hodge]., a 239 

Peculiar in Australia 

Peculiar Testimony, Editorial on... 

Instructions in New Orleans 

Legal Liability to Linemen [Hodge].. 

Report System in Milwaukee 444 

-Stratford, Conn., at a 599 

Accountant's Association, Street Railway: 
Chicago Convention. 

Address of President 804 

Notes and Comments on [Kittredge]. 784 

Papers and Reports of 797 

Program of 246, *674 

Collection of Blanks and Forms.... 32, 186, 799 

Officers and Executive Committee *676 

Accounts: Accident, in Brisbane *443 

In Milwaukee 444 

— --Balance Sheet System of 756 

Ideal System of [Kittredge] 30, c 91 

Repair Shop, for Small Road *442 

Standard System of..c 149, 521, a 536, a 596, 799 

806, 807 

Store Room in Hartford *575 

Accumulators, see Storage Batteries. 

Advertising Bureau (Manufacturers) a 47 

Air Brakes, see Brakes, Air. 
Air Power, see Compressed Air. 

Albany, Consolidation with Troy System a 600 

Algiers, Electric Railways in *209 

Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft, Works 

of i 381, *719 

Aluminum: Electrical Uses of 113, 732 

Editorial on 95 

America, Electric Railway Practice in *613 

Gross Receipts per Capita and Mile of 

Track in Cities of 227 

American Street Railway Association: Chi- 
cago Convention 540, a 597 

Attendants at a 814 

Banquet of 774 

Entertainments 775 

Exhibits at *817 

Notice regarding Exhibits 261 

Papers read at 789 

Proceedings of 757 

Program of 151, *674 

Editorial on 776 

Officers and Executive Committee of *675 

Standard Rules and Regulations of..c 89, c 146. 

c 216, c 285, c 

American Steel & Wire Co 

Among the Manufacturers 65, 123, 196, 262 

418, 491, 550, 610, 752, 843 ; 
Amusements, see Parks and Pleasure Re- 

Anger, John E 

Annual Reports, Atlanta Consolidated Street 

Railway a 244 

Boston, Columbus and Chicago Railway 

Companies a 105 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company a 604 

General Electric Co 331 

New York City Companies 898 

Sixteen British Tramway Companies i 170 

Washington Railways a 172 

Arc Electric Headlight (Wellman) *322 

Argentine Republic, see Buenos Ayres. 

Armature Hoists and Jacks in Montreal c *221 

Armatures, Repair of, see Repair Shops. 
Atlanta: Atlanta Railway & Power Co., New 

Plans of 519 

Consolidated Street Railway Co., Annual 

Report of a 244 

Street Railway Complications in 541 

Street Railway Contest in a 600 

Australia: Accident Case in 352 

Brisbane, Accident Blanks in *443 

Light Railway Car in New South Wales.. *502 

Perth, New Plant in *454 

- — Tramway Matters in [Noyes] i 384 



Tramways in New South Wales, Report 

on i 237 

Austria: Czernowitz, Railway and Lighting 

System of [Ziffer] i *301 

Light Railways and Tramways in [Ziffer] i 236 

New Railways in [Ziffer] i *41 

Notes from i 884 

Recent Decrees affecting Street Railways, i 602 

Recent Franchises in i 460 

Trieste, Light Railways in [Ziffer] i 383 

See also Hungary and Vienna. 

Austria-Hungary, Electric Railway Practice 

in [Ziffer] *085 

Automobiles: Editorial on Possibilities of... 224 

Motors for (Siemens-Halske) *736 

Axles: Breaking of [Thompson] *211 

Letters on c 288 


Babbitt Melting Forge c 2SS 

Baltimore: City Passenger Railway, Parlor 

Car for *189 

Consolidation in 52 

— —Feeder Conduits in *193 

Barcelona, see Spain. 

Bearings: Lubrication for (Keystone) 325 

Lubrication of [Hobart] *213 

Belgium: Light Railways in Brussels i 380 

Tervueren-Brussels Electric Railway i 380 

Belts, Compound to Prevent Slipping (Cling 

Surface) *328 

Bennett, S. H 752 

Berlin, Conn., Entertainment at 398 

Berlin, Germany: Combination Car and 

Omnibus in *S67 

— — Earnings of Railway Companies i 885 

Measurements of Voltage Drop in i 382 

New Elevated Electric Railway in 871 

Power Stations in 864 

Black, Charles N 610 

Blackwell & Co., Ltd.. R. W. Organization 

of 897 

Blanks, see Accounts. 

Block Signal System for Single-Track Roads 

(Ramsey) *259 

Boiler Tube Cleaner (Chicago B. C. Co.).... *253 

(Union) *118, 545 

Boilers: Combustion, New Process of 

(Schlicht) *840 

— —Sectional (New York Safety) 3S;i 

Worthington *6U 

Boiler Works, Reorganization of Company 

(Nat. W. T. Boiler Co.) 60S 

Boker, H. H., Works of *740 

Bonds, see Rail Bonds. 

Boosters or Storage Batteries [Adams] 214 

Boston Elevated Railway Company, Annual 

Report of a 105 

4000-h.p. Engine in...r *894 

Large Engine Shaft for *544 

Large Installation of Special Work in *86S 

New Subway Proposed in 234 

South Terminal Station in *158 

Editorial on 152 

Boutell, F. H. Chevalier 491 

Bowen, M. K *334 

Braintree & Weymouth Street Railway, Car 

for *738 

Brake Handle, Ratchet (Brill) *725 

Brakes, Air: In Europe *405 

Improvements in (Standard) *723 

Rotary Compressor (Westinghouse) *707 

Storage System (Magann) *59, 748 

Test of *329 

Third Avenue Railway, New York, for 

(Standard) *257 

Works of Christensen Co 747 

Brakes, Electric: Improvements in (G. E. 

Co.) *721 

New (Hubbard) 838 

—Pittsburgh, in (G. E.) *138 

Brakes, Mechanical: (Sterling) 485 

New (Duff) >... *255 

New (McCollum) *840 

Brakes, Official Tests of, in New York a 303 

Brake Shoes, Demand for (Compo) 411 

Truing Flat Wheels (Griffin) *62 

Brazil: Bahia Electric Railway *207 

Para, Notes About 868 

Sao Paulo Electric Railway *449 

Brill, John A. Interview with, on Foreign 

Practice in Rolling Stock 869 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Annual Report. 604 

Changes in 89 

Combination Car for (Brill) *120 

Financial Analysis of 370 

New Traffic Arrangement in a 886 

Open Car for (Brill) *411 

Proportioning Feeders on Nassau Rail- 
road [Dexter] *34 

Strike 522, a 531 

Train Service on [McCormack] *790 

Buenos Ayres: Belgrano Electric Tramway, 

Construction of *588 

Electric Railway Practice in [Manville].. *693 

Hand Truck in *62 

La Capital Traction System *69 

Buffalo: Consolidation in 162, 417 

Electric Welding of Rail Joints in. . . .*362, *587 

— High Speed Koad from Tonawanda 852 

Trough for Steam Railroad Crossings *278 

Bullock Electric Co., Works of *48S 

Cable, Largest in the World 838 

Cahoon, J. B 550 

Calendars for 1899 52, 115 

Camden, New Car for *476 

Car Axles, see Axles. 

Carbon Works, New (Speer) 716 

Car Cleaning, Soap for (Modoc) 739 

Car Couplers, Automatic (Van Dorn) *744 

Car Equipments: Testing of [Herrick] *179 

Car Houses: Car Hoists and Jacks in Brook- 
lyn c *221 

Consolidated Traction Co., Pittsburgh *127 

Door Catch for, in Hartford *88 

Heating of (Sturtevant) *187 

New, in Hartford *573 

Car Mileage as a Unit [Mackay] 797 

Editorial on 780 

Cars, American Practice in 616 

Atlantic City, Open *893 

Argentina, Practice in [Manville] *698 

Austria-Hungary, Practice in [Ziffer] *688 

Birmingham, Closed *114 

Braintree, Open *738 

— -Brooklyn, Open *411 

Camden, Closed *476 

Care of [Vander Veer] *796 

Chicago, in *632 

Chicago City Railway, Closed 487, *569 

Cleveland, Closed *745 

Cleveland City Railway, Closed *895 

Combination (Brill) »62, *120 

Combination Car and Omnibus (Siemens 

& Halske) *867 

Comparison of Different Types [Higgins] 313 

Convertible c *24, *820 

Double Deck for Bolton, Eng i *164 

Hull, Eng., for *321 

Syracuse, for *577 

France, Open *255 

German Practice in [Magee] *655 

Grab Handles, see Grab Handles. 

Great Britain, Practice in [Short] *671 

Hydro Carbon *323 

Interurban, near Detroit *7 

Interview with Mr. Brill on Export Trade 

in 869 

Lancaster, Pa., Closed *183 

Legal Requirements for Accommodations 

in [Hodge] a 102 

Lewiston & Youngstown Frontier Rail- 
way, Freight *892 

Liverpool, Large Order in 898 

Manufactured in 1898 93 

Mileage and Capitalization in America... 101 

Mexico, Closed *839 

Funeral *547 

Montreal, Novel Open *506 

New South Wales, Light Railway *502 

Newton, Mass., Closed *56 

New York for Compressed Air Motors.. *188 

Parlor Car in Baltimore *189 

New Brunswick, N. J *325 

Private, Rates charged in Rochester a 531 

Roller Bearings for, see Roller Bearings, 

Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 



[Vol. XV. No. 12. 





St. Louis & Belleville, Closed *252 

Splicing in Philadelphia 81, *571 

Trailer Connecter for (Central Electric).. *545 

Vestibules, Arguments against [McNa- 

mara] a 243 

Not recommended in New York City. 194 

Width allowed in Germany 367 

Wilkes Barre, Trailer *727 

Car Steps, Non-slipping (American Mason 

Safety Tread Co.) *716 

Car Works: H. H. Boker, of 

-Preston, England, at 

-St. Louis, in (St. Louis Car Co.)... 

Cast Welding, see Rail Joints. 

Ceylon, Electric Railway in i *533 

Chicago: Annual Reports of Railway Com- 
panies a 105 

City Railway, Car for 487, *569 

Repair Shops *565 

Records of 222 

State Street Line 519 

Compressed Air Cars in *414, 547 

Consolidated Traction Co., Organization 


Consolidation in 

Convention at, see American Street Rail- 
way Association and Accountants' Street 
Railway Association. 

Electrical Exposition in 457 

Electric Traction Co. System of *559 

Fountain for Lincoln Park *327 

— —Franchises in a 107 

General Railway Company, Experiment 

with Low Fares *864 

Lake Street Elevated Railway, Tests of 

Railway Motors on (Chapman) 

Large Supply House in (Electric Appli- 
ance Co.) 

Northwestern Elevated Railway, Descrip- 
tion of *642 

Power Station of *452 

Sans Souci Park a *235 

South Chicago City Railway, Portable 

Oven *118 

South Side Elevated Railway: Feeder 

System *112 

Financial Results of [Sprague] 470 

Street Railway Systems of *617 

Underground Conduits for 489 

Union Traction Co., Repair Shops of..*509, *562 

Western Avenue Station, New Gen- 
erator *429 

— — Works of Siemens-Halske Co. in *734 

Christensen Engineering Co., Works of 747 

Chronology of Modern Electric Railway 

Operation [Sprague] 471 

Cicott, F. X 336 

Cincinnati: Street Railway Co., Notes on.*433, *507 

Repair Shops of *360 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Railway, 

Notes on *435 

Cincinnati & Hamilton Electric Railway, 

System of *82 

Circuit Breakers (Leonard) *737 

Clark, W. J 51 

Cleveland City Railway, Long Car for 

(Kuhlman) *895 

Cleveland Electric Railway: Power Station 

and Repair Shops of *199 

Strike on 455, a 531 

Closed Cars for *745 

Cleveland & Lorain Railway, Power Station 

Test [Roberts] 366 

Speed Tests on 363 

System of *265 

Cleveland, Riveting Rail Bonds in *289 

Cling Surface Belting Compound *328 

Coal Conveyor: (Mead) *415 

In Washington (Steel Cable Eng. Co.).. *744 

Columbus, Water Softening Plant in [Gold- 
smith] *116 

Combination Car and Omnibus *867 

Compressed Air Cars: In Chicago *414, 547 

New York, in *1S8, *372 

New Interests in 109 

Compressor, Portable (Christensen) *414 

Commutator Bars, Tempered Copper for a 171 

Concrete, Method of Mixing, in Pittsburgh.. 134 
Conduits, Electric: Difficult Construction in 

New York 558 

London, in *584 

New System (Estler) *721 

Paris in [Connett] *845 

Plows for, in New York 618 

Conduits, Feeder, see Feeder Conduits. 

Coney Island, Safety Third-Rail Road at.... *260 
Connecticut: Earnings of Some Railways in. *430 

Franchises in [Gager] 401 

Consolidation of Paper Journals 899 

Consolidations, Editorial on 

Controller Handle, Slow Feed (Wagenhals). 
Controlling System, Electro-Pneumatic for 

Trains *703, 

Multiple Unit System [Sprague] 

Cooper, H. S 

Corea, Electric Railroading in 

Core Oven at Schenectady *246 

Cork as a Frictional Agent 838 

Couplers, see Car Couplers. 
Cripple Creek District Power Station... 




Crusher Car in Scranton *215 

Cuba, Railroads in 

Curtains, Replacer for 

Curve Construction, Philadelphia. 
See also Special Work. 

Damper Regulator: (Locke) 


Dayton (Ohio) Change of Ownership in 

Dayton & Western Traction Co.: Auditing 


System of 

Denver, Improvements in 

Depreciation, Allowance for, in Milwaukee.. 

Editorial on 

Detectives, New Laws regarding 

Detroit: Interurban Railways around'. 

Purchase Plan in.. a 238, 310, 447, 477, 540, 

Track Construction in 

Dick, Kerr & Co., New Plans of 

Directory of Electric Railways 

Drills, Rail, Long Metal Shavings from 

Dynamos, New Type (Sturtevant) 

Diisseldorf, see Germany. 

Electrical Exposition: In Chicago 

In New York 

Electrical World and Engineer, Consolida- 
tion of 

Electrolysis: Editorial on 

Germany, in 

Peoria Case 

Electric Railway Practice: Editorials on 

America, in 

Argentina, in [Manville] 

Austria-Hungary, in [Ziffer] 

Germany, in [Magee] 

Great Britain, in [Short] 

Elevated Railway Construction in Chicago.. 

Elevated Railway Transportation, Problem 
of [Sprague] 

Ellis, Arthur 

Employees: Card Catalogue for.. 

Control of [Roach] 

— — Management of [Higgins] 

Man behind the Controller 

Uniforms for (H. C. & Co.) 

Uniforms for, in Milwaukee 

Engine Building in Milwaukee (Allis) 

Engines: Compound (Chandler & Taylor).. 

Compound (Harrisburg) 

Foundations for, in Hartford 

■ Fuel Economy of [Carpenter] 

Gas, see Gas Engines. 

(Harrisburg Standard) 

Large (Willans) 

Large in Boston (International P. Co.).. 

Large in Louisville (Allis) 

Large Orders for (Willans) 

Modern, Paper on [McKenzie] 

New (Alley-Maclellan) 

New (Sturtevant) 

Oil Pipe, tapping [Hobart] 

Shaft for, in Boston 

Engineering and Contracting Co., an Import- 
ant, Chicago (Arnold) 

England, see Great Britain and London. 

Europe: Electric Railways in 

Growth of Electric Railway Industry in.. 

See also Foreign Cities, France, Ger- 
many, Great Britain, etc. 

Excursion Business in Eastern Massachusetts 

Exhaust Head (Marlin) 


Exports of Electrical Goods 





a 50 
a 599 
a 600 


i 382 

i *172 
c 646 
a 106 

i *384 










Falk Co.: Change of Name 193 

-Recent Contracts of 415 

Fans, Special Types (Sturtevant) *121 

Fares: Distribution of a Five-Cent Fare a 886 

Experiment by Chicago General Railway. 864 

Foreign Cities in 605 

Four-Cent, Proposition for, in Milwau- 
kee a 598 

Problem of [Higgins] 314 

Reduction of, see also Municipal Control. 

Three-Cent in Detroit a 599 

Feed Water Purifiers and Heaters: (Hoppes) *725 

(Schlieper) *62 

Feed Water Purifier in Columbus [Gold- 
smith] *116 

Feeder Conduits: In Baltimore (American 

Vitrified) *193 

Terra Cotta *55 

Feeders, Proportioning: [Herrick] *437, *513 

New Graphical Method of [Dexter] *34 

Pittsburgh, in 

Fenders: Chicago, in *564, 

Increased Demand for (Consolidated).... 

Mutoscope Views of *4S4, 

Successful (Hipwood-Barrett) 546 

Finance: Brooklyn Rapid Transit System, 

Analysis of 370 

Central Connecticut, Earnings of Rail- 
ways in *430 

Comparative Cost of Three-Phase and 

Continuous Current Stations [Parshall] 249 
Comparison of Gross Receipts of 222 Com- 
panies 515 

Comparison of Operating Records in Dia- 
grammatic Form *528 

Construction, Report on Cost of, in Glas- 
gow [Young] 

Depreciation, Allowance made for, in Mil- 
waukee 352, 

Detroit Plant, Appraisement of...., 

Electric Traction and its Application to 

Suburban and Metropolitan Railways 

[Dawson] 316 

Germany, Increase of Traffic on Five 

Roads i 383 

Large Railways, Earnings and Ex- 
penses of 

■ Gross Receipts per Capita and per Mile 

of Track in America 

Large City Transportation Systems of the 

World, Financial Characteristics of 


Large Transportation Problems in Cities 

[Higgins] 311 

Making Investments Secure and Re- 
munerative [Yerkes] 789 

Editorial on 781 

New York City, Cost and Profits by 

Cable, Electric and Horse Traction 579 

Manhattan Railway, Expected Earn- 
ings of, from Electrical Equipment, a 165 

Rapid Transit System, Earning Power 

of 290, 

Transportation Situation In 

New York State, Receipts of Street Rail- 
ways in 

Paris: Expenses of Horse and Mechani- 
cal Traction in 

Tramway Opportunities of the World.... 98 

Trenton, Power Station, Cost of Opera- 
tion c 149 

See also Annual Reports, Statistics. 

Fireless Locomotives, see Locomotives, 
Stored Steam. 

Forced Draft 416, 749 

Ford Bill, see Franchises. 

Foreign Cities, Street Railways in 605 

Operating Conditions in i 599 

Opportunities in 98 

Practice in Rolling Stock [Brill] 869 

See also Europe. 

Fountain, Ornamental *327 

France: Amiens, Electric Railways at. ..281, i *531 

Open Car for (Brill) *255 

Tours, Surface Contact System in *486 

See also Paris 14 

Franchises: Chicago, in a 107 

— —Connecticut, in f Gager] 401 

Conditions in Foreign Cities 605 

Ford Bill: Comments on [Hodge] a 381 

Constitutionality of [Hodge] a 532 

Editorial on 368, 370 

Indianapolis, in , 512 

i 601 






Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 

December, 1899.] 



Milwaukee, in 898 

Taxation of [Hodge] i 379, a 381 

[Gager] 401 

Editorials on 28, 782 

Vienna, Recent in i 306 

Freight, Right of a Street Railway to Carry 

[Hodge] a 459 

Fusible Cut Outs, Design of LGlover] 888 

Fuller, F. L *842 

Furnaces: Chain Grate (Green) 748 

-Improvements for (Meldrum) *728 

Galion (Ohio) New Railway in a 531 

Gardner (Mass.) New Electric Railway in 530 

Gas Engines, for Electric Railway Service 

(Westinghouse) *717 

Huntington, at 309 

Standard Automatic *896 

Gears, Sectional (Peerless) *60 

Gears and Pinions: Lubricant for (Dreher).. 253 

Manufacturer of (Nuttall) *185 

Method of Cutting *562 

Method of Increasing Life of c 288 

General Electric Co.: Annual Report of 331 

Electric Brakes, Improvements in *721 

Method of Rating Motors [Potter] 701 

New Foundry *246 

Generators: G. E. 3500-kw *709 

— -New (Bullock) *733 

New (Siemens-Halske) *734 

New Manufacturer of (Scott- Janney) 603 

— —Westinghouse 500-kw *424 

• — —Westinghouse 800-kw *505 

Germany: Bad-Aibling-Feilenback Railway, i *593 

Bremerhaven, Accumulators in [Sieg] i *602 

Car Width permitted 367 

Diisseldorf, High-Speed Railway in. . .i 44, *523 

Elberfeld, Monorail Road at i *815, i *882 

Electric Manufacturing Industry in i 602 

Electric Railway Construction for Three 

Years in 407 

Electric Railway Industry, Status of i 303 

— —Electric Railway Practice in [Magee].... *647 

Failure of Municipal Ownership in i 882 

Financial Results on Large Railways 

i 601, i 885 

German Railway in South America *207 

Hamburg, Railway Changes in i 381 

Large Electrical Works in (A. E. G.)..i 381,*7I9 

Mail Transportation in 364 

Notes from i 382, i 459, i 601, i 884 

Railroad, Definition of 5So 

Track Specifications 519 

Editorial on 520 

Tunnel under Spree River 592 

Verein Deutscher Strassenbahn & Klein- 

bahn Verwaltung, Meeting of....i*814, i *SS2 

Wannsee Railway i 535 

See also Berlin. 

Glasgow, see Great Britain. 

Gongs, Rolled Steel 192 

Grab Handles, Rear, Argument against 

[Henry] 3G7 

Grades, Steep: in London [Tester] i *235 

Quebec, in *498 

Grate, Traveling (Green) *489 

Great Britain: Annual Reports of Sixteen 

Tramway Companies i 170 

-Bolton Tramways i *163 

• Corporation Managers i *172 

Bradford, Switchboard in i *237 

Brighton, Report of Tramway Committee, i 599 

Bristol Tramways [Robinson] 473 

Chester Tramways, Report on i 533 

Electric Railway Practice in [Short] *663 

Electric Traction in Towns i 1/1 

Glasgow, Large Cable in 838 

Proposed Distribution System [Par- 
shall] *247 

■ Special Report to Corporation 

[Young] 39 

Union of Lighting and Railway Power 

Stations 292 

Hull, Double-Deck Car for *321 

Wages in i 538, 584 

Isle of Thanet Railway 603 

Large Orders for Engines in (Willans).. 262 

Leeds, Tramway Report of i 531 

Light Railways: Editorial on 95 

Liverpool, Large Car Order for 898 

Overhead Construction in i *43 

Tramway System of i *238 

Middlesboro Tramways [Robinson] 474 

-Nottingham, Report of Electrical Com- 
mittee i 598 

-Organization of British Westinghouse 

Co 542, 606 

Plymouth, Storage Batteries in. 

... 726 

System of *589 

Sheffield, Tramway Apparatus for 749 

Supply House in (Elliott) 748 

Tramway & Light Railway Association... 542 

See also London. 

Gross Receipts per Capita per Mile of Track 

in America 227 


Hagerstown: Combination of Railway and 

Lighting Station in 93 

Hamburg, see Germany. 

Hartford: Mail Transportation in 353 

Notes in *573 

Novelties in «87 

Havana, Shipments to 891 

Headlights: Arc Electric (Wellman) *322 

Multiplex 732 

Heating of Car Houses (Sturtevant) *187 

Heaters, Electric: Catalogue (Gold) 546 

Improved (American) *724 

Heaters, Hot Water (Baker) *60 

Heavy Electric Railroading in France 527 

■ See also Interurban Railways and Loco- 
motives, Electric. 

Hobart, Garret A *900 

Holland, New Electric Railway in 561 

Hollow Engine Shaft, see Engines, Shaft for 

Hose Bridge, Portable (O. B. Co.) *413, 485 

Hose, Racks and Reels (Howard) *256 

House, Willam A 195 

Hungary: Interurban Railways and Tram- 
ways in [Ziffer] i 104 

Huntington, L. I., Railway System of 309 

Huntress, F. E 65 

Hydro-Carbon Car *323 

Indianapolis Street Railway Co.: Notes on.. *512 

— — Repair Shop 510 

Winding Armature Coils *28S 

Inspection of Car Equipments [Herrick] *179 

See also Testing. 

Insulating Compounds (P. & B.) 188 

Insulation (Reconstructed Granite) *329 

Insulators for High Tension Work (Locke).. *892 
International Street Railway Association: 

Meeting in 1900, Editorial on 27 

Program of 193 

Interurban Railways: Burgdorf- 1 nun Rail- 
way *853 

Car for Lancaster *1S3 

Cleveland & Lorain Railway ... .*265, 363, c 366 

Dayton & Western Traction Co *357 

-Detroit, about "1 

Diisseldorf-Krefeld, Germany *523 

Editorial on Possibilities of 28 

Norfolk (Mass.) Western Railway *553 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction Co. *353 

Titusville, Pa 140 

Trolley Wheels for (N. Y., N. H. & H. 

R. R.) *25 

■ (Star) 53 

Wannseebahn i 535 

Wilmington to Chester *431 

Ireland: Cork, Electric Tramways of *35, i *102 

Dublin Tramways [Robinson] 474 

Changes in Tramways Co 413 

Italy: Electric Traction in i 47 

Florence, System of 528 

Milan, Notes from i 169 

Jamestown, N. Y., Park Improvements in., a 463 

Japan, Electric Railways in [Eastlake] 8S1 

Jersey City, North Jersey Street Railway Co., 

Testing Armatures in *367 

Joints, Rail, see Rail Joints. 

Joints, Wire, Method of Making [Herrick].. *865 
Joplin, see Webb City. 


Kansas City, Track Construction in [Butts].. *795 

Kennedy, A. B. W 309 

Report on London Conditions i 595 

Kinetic Motor, see Locomotives, Stored 

Kingston, N. Y.: System of Colonial City 

Traction Co *861 

Laing, Wharton & Down, Recent Work of.. 719 

Lancaster, Pa., Car for *183 

Launches, Vapor *413 

Legal : 

Bribery and Perjury in Accident Cases., a 239 

Constitutionality of the Ford Bill a 532 

Decisions : 

Charters, Ordinances, etc.. a 41, a 102, a 166, 

a 240, a 304, a 382, a 459, a 532, a 593, a 882 

Liability for Negligence. . .a 41, a 103, a 167, 

a 240, a 305, a 384, a 461, a 533, a 594, a 883 

Patent Decisions a 46, a 104, a 170, 321, 

a 384, 413, 547, a 600, 838, a 886 

Heating and Other Accommodations in 

Street Cars a 102 

Liability to Linemen for Accidents a 166 

New Publication Notices a 386, a 882 

Question of Practice in Negligence Cases a 304 

Recent Electrical Legislation in Switzer- 
land j 306 

Right of a Street Railway to Carry 

Freight a 459 

Taxation of Franchises a 381 

Letters and Hints from Practical Men 24, 89, 

146, 216, 285, 365, 871 
Lewiston (Me.), Brunswick & Bath Railway 

Co., System of *155 

Lightning Arresters (Garton-Daniels) *256 

Light Railways in England, Editorial on 95 

Locomotives, Electric: (Brill) *115 

London, in [McMahon] *391 

Orleans Railway, Paris, for 114 

San Antonio, Tex., for *253 

Three-Phase *853 

Locomotives, Stored Steam: in Europe i *532 

— —Test of Kinetic 607 

London: Accident on Underground Rail- 
way, French Account of 145 

Alexandra Park Tramway [Tester] i *235 

City & South London Railway *391 

County Council, Report on [Kennedy]., i 595 

Letter i 106, i 172, i 242, i 307, i 383, i 461 

i 535, i 600 

Surveyors' Exhibition in i 381 

United Tramways, Contracts for 607 

Plans for *584 

System of [Robinson] 475 

Los Angeles: Wheel Records in 577 

Louisville, Large Engine in *8 

Low Fares, see Fares and Municipal Control. 

Lubrication: of Bearings (Keystone) 325 

Compounds and Cups (Albany) *61 

Gearing, for (Ironsides) 331 

Grease (Dreher) 253 

Power Stations, in [Edelin] 415 

Automatic (Siegrist) *120, 732 


Machine Tools: Interests in, consolidated.. 

Lathe, electrically driven 

Madison Square Garden, Electrical Exposi- 
tion at 

Madrid, see Spain. 

Magee, Louis J 

Mail Transportation: in Germany 

Hartford, in 

Map: Algiers Tramways 

Barcelona, Spain, Tramways 

Bolton, England, Tramways 

— —Boston, Steam Railroad Lines around 
and in 

Buenos Ayres, La Capital Traction Sys- 

Burgdorf-Thun Railway 

Central Connecticut, Electric Railways.. 

Chicago, Distribution of Population 

Chicago, Surface and Elevated Railway 


Cork, Ireland, Tramways 

Dedham Circuit Line 

Detroit Interurban Railways, about 

Diisseldorf-Krefeld Railway 

Eastern Massachusetts, Electric Lines.. 

Liverpool Tramways 

— Lewiston, Brunswick & Bath Street Rail- 


Madrid, Spain, Tramways 

Milwaukee Electric Railways. 

a 600 


i 163 



i 238 



Abbreviations: 'illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 



[Vol. XV. No. 12. 

New York, Metropolitan Street Railway.. 583 

New York, Proposed Route of Rapid 

Transit Railway 231, 874 

Paris, Showing Conduit Lines of Cie. 

Generale Parisienne de Tramways 846 

Pittsburgh, Consolidated Traction Sys- 
tem 128 

Pittsburgh, United Traction System 423 

.... 504 

.... 590 

Feeder System 

-Plymouth, England, Tramways. 

Quebec Railways 497 

Sao Paulo, Brazil, Tramways 450 

Stansstadt-Engclberg Railway 17 

Southwest Missouri Electric Railway 281 

Massachusetts, Consolidation in 4S8 

Possibilities of Excursion Business in 

[Derrah] *440 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 

Changes in 259 

McCulloch, Richard *418 

McCulloch, Robert 752 

McCormack, LA *843 

McGhie, John a 107 

McGuire, W. A 752 

Mechanical Draft, Efficiency of 416, 749 

Meter, Standard Portable (Mcintosh) *411 

Mexico: Funeral Cars in *547 

New Car for *839 

Report of Tramway Company i 536 

Mica, Large Company (Sills) *738 

Mileage, Cars and Capitalization in America. 101 

Milford, Mass., Electric Railway 454 

Milwaukee: Card Catalogue for Employees.. 561 
Diagrammatic Method of Tabulating Re- 
ports *528 

Franchise in 898 

— — Employment Contract 457 

Four-Cent Fare Proposition a 598 

Recent Extensions 74 

Report System for Accidents 414 

Street Railway System *339 

Uniforms *445 

Minneapolis, Transmission Plant completed.. 177 

Mixed Systems, see Storage Batteries. 

Monorail Road at Elberfeld, Germany . .i *815, i *882 

Montreal: Heavy Snows in c *287 

Novel Open Car in *506 

Morris, E. P. Banquet of 899 

Motive Powers: American Practice in 614 

Comparison of [Higgins] 312 

Motors, Compressed Air: in Chicago *414,547 

New York, in 368, *372 

Motors, Electric: Connector for (Knowles).. *737 

New (Westinghouse) *713 

New Manufacturer of (Scott-Janney) . . . . 603 

Notes on Rating [Lundie] 890 

Performance of [Potter] 701 

Repair Cost in Chicago 22" 

See also Repair Shops. 

Motors, Hydro-Carbon *323 

Motors, Stored Steam, see Locomotives, 
Stored Steam. 

Motors, Vapor: Clutch for (Prouty) *259 

Multiple Unit System [Sprague] 467 

Municipal Control: in Detroit a 238, 310, 447, 

477, 540, a 599 

Discussion on [Higgins] 316 

Editorial on 521 

Germany, in i 382, i 882 

Proposed Resolutions regarding [Foote]. 783 

-Proposed Solution [Foote] a 537 

See also Franchises. 


National Export Exposition at Philadelphia, a *811 

Newark (O.) & Granville Electric Railway, 

Sale of 544 

New Orleans & Carrolton Railway, New 

Construction 223 

New Orleans Traction Co., Accident Instruc- 
tions 289 

New Palz & Walkill Valley R. R., Snow 

Plow c *220 

New Publications 66, 126, 198, 264, 338, 420, 

493, 844, 902 

Newport Street Railway, Heavy Snow on *93 

New York City: Difficult Conduit Construc- 
tion in 558 

Manhattan Elevated Railway, Annual Re- 
port 898 

Circular on Electrical Equipment a 165 

Estimates of Saving [Sprague] 471 

Third- Rail for *871 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Car for 

Twenty-eighth Street Line *188 

Comparative Cost and Profits of 

Cable, Electric and Horse Traction. 579 

Compressed Air Motor Cars *372 

Plow 518 

Power Station at Ninety-sixth Street. *581 

Presentation of Cup *841 

Quarterly Report 898 

Strike on 522, a 531 

Editorial on 779 

Training Employees 369 

Transformers, Rotary Converters and 

Generators *709 

Rapid Transit System in, Editorials on. 225, 

290, 873 

Invitation to Contractors for Bidding 889 

Offer of Metropolitan Street Ry. Co... 

*230, 334 

Mr. Sprague on 298 

Report of Committee on Car Vestibules.. 194 

Third Avenue Railroad Co. : Air Brakes 

for *257 

Annual Report 898 

Cast Welding Rail Joints *205 

New Power Station 53 

Springs in Track Construction 53 

Transfer Arrangements of 334 

Transportation, Earning? and Profits in.. *876 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: 

Boston Terminal Station 152, *158 

Trial of Safety Third-Rail System at 

New Britain 897 

Trolley Wheel *25 

Storage Batteries at Hartford *330 

New York State: Ford Bill, see Franchises. 

Official Tests of Brakes in a 303 

Reports of Street Railways 404 

Taxes Paid by Railways 578 

Statistics of Railway Companies in a 108 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

Meeting of a 597 

Paper on Fuel Economy of Engines [Car- 
penter] *801 

New Zealand, Street Railway Conditions in., i 535 

Niagara Falls, New Suspension Bridge 542 

See also Buffalo. 

Norfolk (Mass.) Electric Railway in *553 

Nut, Self Locking *608 

Nuttall Co., Factory of *185 

Obituary 65, 123, 196, 334, 418 

October Issue, Editorial on 782 

Ohio Brass Co., Factory of *254 

Ohio Street Railway Association, Convention 

of 416, 458 

Oil City, Pa., Gas Engine in *896 

Oil Filters: (Kosmic) *121 

New (Famous) *743 

Omnibus and Trolley Car Combined *867 

"Other Side," A New Weekly 541 

Overhead Line Construction: [Herrick] . .*277, *437, 

*513, *865 

Chicago, in *627 

Liverpool, in i *43 

Straight Line Hanger (Cent. Elec.) *485 

Trolley Wire Clamp (W. E. S. Co.).... *53 

Trough for Steam Railroad Crossings *276 


Paint: Insulating, abroad (P. & B.) a 47 

Outside (Thomson) 407 

Paris: Electric Trains in *274 

Expenses of Mechanical Traction in 297 

Exposition [Drake] a *43 

Moving Platforms at i 305 

Transportation, System of 527 

Fireless Locomotives in . ..i*532 

Locomotives for the Orleans Railway 114 

Underground Electric Conduit Construc- 
tion in [Connett] *845 

Parks and Pleasure Resorts a *301, a *379 

Amusements for [Pincus] a 163 

Attractions for a *302 

Biograph for a *237 

Columbus, Ohio, at c *25 

Dramatic Attractions for (Packard) a 238 

Fountain for *327 

Jamestown, N. Y., at a 463 

Sans Souci Park, Chicago a *235 

Scenic Railway for *192 

Coney Island, at a 237 

Philadelphia, at a *164 

Theaters in [Gorman] a 380 

Transformation of Repair Shop a 164 

Woodside Park, Philadelphia a *164 

Patent Decisions, see Legal. 

Patents, List of 67 

Patent Office Reports 541 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, 

Convention of ...604, *808 

Personals 64, 122, 195, 262 , 335 , 417, 490, 548, 

608, 750, 842, 899 

Peoria, Electrolysis Case in 390 

Philadelphia: National Export Exposition . .334, 

a •811 

-Form for Winding Motor Fields *436 

Repair Shop, Practice in *21 

Splicing Cars in 81, *571 

Track Construction in *83 

Westchester Traction Co., System of.... *353 

Pipe Cutting, Convenient Tool for c*871 

Pittsburgh: Consolidated Traction Co., 
Changing Repair Shop to Amusement 

Resort a *164 

System of *127 

Power Station of *503 

Rheostat used by 518 

United Traction Co., System of *421 

Poles : [Herrick] *277 

Method of Setting [Herrick] *866 

New (Morris) *113 

New Type of Lattice *323 

Population of Principal Cities in America 

with Traffic Receipts 

Table showing Financial Characteristics 

and Statistics of Traffic of Principal 
Transportation Systems of the World.. 

Porter, H. F. J 

Porto Rico, New Railway in 

Power Stations: American Practice in 

Capital Traction Co., Washington, of.... 

Chicago, of 

Cleveland Electric Railway, of 

Consolidated Traction Co., Pittsburgh, of. 

Cripple Creek District, of 

Glasgow, Proposed at [Parshall] *247 

Lubrication in [Edelin] 416 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York. *581 


Northwestern Elevated Railway, Chicago. *452 

Records in Cleveland [Roberts] *268, 366 

Rheostat for 518 

Storage Batteries for [Adams] 214 

[Appleton] *110 

[Lloyd] *175 

Testing Combustibles for *444 

Test of 300-kw. Units at Richmond, Va... *887 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 53 

Trenton, Operating Expenses of c 149 

Union of Lighting and Railway, Editorial 

on 292 

Power Transmission: General Observations 

on [Parshall] 178 

Glasgow, Proposed at [Parshall] *247 

Lewiston, Me., in *155 

Limitations of Different Methods, Edi- 



torial on 225, 


London United Tramways [Robinson] 

Motor-Dynamos or Accumulators 

[Adams] 214 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York. *581 


Norfolk Western Railway *553 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction *353 

— Porcelain Insulators for (Locke) *S92 

Quebec *500 

St. Anthony Falls Plant completed 177 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 53 

— Three- Phase Railway at Burgdorf-Thun.583, *853 

Stansstadt, at [Rochat] *16 

Editorial on 28, 369, 873 

Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk Railway.... 740 

Works of A. E. G. Co., in *719 

I'reston Railway & Tramway Carriage Works *729 

Prospects for 1899 a 47 

Pumps, Feed, as a Specialty (Weir) 727 

Punches, Transfer Ticket (Woodman) *330 

Purdue University, Testing Laboratory of.. *184 

Quebec: Electric Railway System of *495 

Rail Bonds: Catalogue (Protected Railbond) 408 

Made by American Steel & Wire Co.... 708 

Method of Testing (Conant) *893 

Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 

December, 1899.] 



■ (Henry) *4S7 


New Copper (Brown) *733 

One Piece (Morris) *412 

—Riveting in Cleveland *289 

Tests on (Brown) 83b 

Rail Joints: Atlas *259, *742 

— -Cast Welded, in Chicago 638 

Kansas City, in [Butts] *795 

Milwaukee, in *341 

New Type (Milwaukee) *119 

New York, in *2l>5 

Continuous (Ellis) *715 

• Electrically Welded, Present Status of 

[Kleinschmidt] *362 

Work in Buffalo *B87 

New German Method of Welding (Gold- 

schmidt) 548, i 815 

Rails: Electrical Resistance of c 222 

Reversible c *24 

Rapid Transit in Dense Centers of Popula- 
tion [Lundie] .' 228 

Rapid Transit System of New York, see New 

Rating of Electric Motors [Lundie] 890 

Ray, W. D 752 

Refuse Removal, Street Railways for a 886 

Registers: (Sterling) 03, *254 

Large Order for (New Haven) 545 

Large Order in St. Louis (Sterling) 333 

Repair House (Advance) 119 

Repair Records of Motors in Chicago 222 

Repair Shops: Armature Bushings, drilling.. *92 

Armature Rest *3S 

Baking Coils [Hobart] 273 

Babbitt Melting Forge c 288 

Changing into Amusement Resort in 

Pittsburgh a *164 

Chicago City Railway, of *565 

Chicago Union Traction Co., of *509, *562 

Cincinnati Street Railway, of *360, 50S 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Rail- 
way, of *435 

Cleveland Electric Railway, of *199 

Indianapolis Street Railway, of *510 

Motor Coils, Form for *43b 

Winding c *22l 

Philadelphia, Union Traction Co *21 

Pittsburgh, Consolidated Traction Co.... *127 

Portable Oven in Chicago *118 

Testing Armatures in Jersey City *367 

Winding Armature Coils, Quick Method *28S 

Wrinkles in [Hobart] 441 

Return Circuits, see Electrolysis and Rail 

Rheostats: Cheap Form of 518 

Enclosed (Leonard) 838 

Richmond, Va. : Test of 300-kw. Units in.... *8S7 

Riter & Conley Manufacturing Co., Works of *1S6 

Roach, John M *842 

Rochester (N. Y.) Rates for Chartered Cars, a 531 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A., Works of 747 

Roller Bearings (Mossberg) *743 

(Standard) *261 

Rotary Converters for New York (G. E.).... *709 

Russia: Moscow, Tramway System of *33 

St. Petersburg, Railway Conditions in 54S 


St. Joseph, Mich., Additions at 739 

'St. Louis Car Co., Works of *190 

St. Louis & Belleville Electric Railway, Car 

for *252 

St. Louis Traction Co., Organization of 333 

San Antonio, Tex., Electric Locomotives for. *253 

Sand-Dryer in Hartford *87 

San Francisco, Recent Improvements in 37 

Scenic Railway, see Parks and Pleasure Re- 

Schenectady: Street Railway Park in a 380 

Visit to 390 

Scranton: Portable Stone Crusher in *215 

Track Construction in [Silliman] *810 

Short, S. H 310 

Siemens & Halske, A. G., Catalogue of 322 

Siemens & Halske Co. of America, Works of *734 
Single-Track Railway, Signal System for 

(Ramsey) 259 

Snow Plows, Cheap c *220 

Snow, Removal of, in Detroit 15 

Editorial on 153 

Montreal, in c *287 

Newport, in *93 

Snow Sweepers, Train of 749 

Soap for Car Cleaning (Modoc) 739, 891 

Southwestern Gas, Electric & St. Ry. Asso- 
ciation, Annual Meeting of 300, 390 

Spain, Electric Railways in Madrid and Bar- 
celona [Armstrong] *75, 101 

Railways in i 883 

Special Work: Large Installation in Boston *8U8 

-Manufacture of (N. Y. S. & C. Co) 109 

— —Manufacturers, Combination of a 599 

Speed Tests, Cleveland & Lorain Railway.... *266 
Splicing Cars, see Cars. 

Sprague Electric Co.: Rumored Merger of.. 510 

Multiple Unit System of 470 

Sprinkling Car, Large (Taunton) *546 

Springs, Spiral (Miller & Van Winkle) *191 

Stairway: Method of Stiffening 588 

State Street Railway Association, Functions, 

of 579 

Statistics: Europe, Electric Railways in 2S4 

German Electric Railways i Wl 

Hungary, Tramways in i 104 

New York State Railway Companies a 10S 

Rapid Transit in Large Cities, Effect of 

[Lundie] 228 

— —Steam Railroad 541 

Street Railway Mileage, Cars and Capi- 
talization in America 101 

Swiss Electric Railways and Tramways 

[Rochat] i 239 

See also Finance. 

Stillwater & Mechanicsville Street Railway.. 607 

Stokers, Automatic (Green) *489 

Storage Batteries: Bremerhaven, at [Sieg] . . i *602 

Chicago & Englewood Railway, of *559 

Combination Accumulator and Trolley 

Omnibus *867 

German Practice in [Magee] *660 

Germany, in i 602 

Hanover, in i 381 

Hartford, at *330 

Latest Progress in [Appleton] *110 

Motor-Dynamos, or [Adams] 214 

Pittsburgh Consolidated Traction Co *132 

Power Stations for [Lloyd] *175 

Plymouth, England, at 726 

-Traction, for (Tudor) *712 

-Vienna, Mixed System in i *45 

Washington, Cars in 541 

Stratford, Conn., Accident at 579, a 599 

Street Railway Accountants' Association, see 

Accountants' Association. 
Strikes: Brooklyn and New York, in. .522, a 531, 779 

McGuire Truck Works, at 416 

Should they be permitted? 522 

Subway at Kingston, N. Y *861 

Surface Contact Systems: (Campbell) 56 

(Estler) *721 

(McElroy-Grunow) 897 

(Safety Third- Rail) *260, *326 

(Thompson-Walker) *57 

(Westinghouse) i *409 

Tours, at (Diatto) *4S6 

Surveyors' Exhibition in London...' i 381 

Switchboards: Bradford, England, at i *237 

Circuit Breaker, Semaphore, at Hartford, 

for *87 

Instruments for (Keystone) *54 

(White) *724 

— —Lighting and Railway in Bolton i *16S 

Cork, in i *102 

Three-Wire in Pittsburgh *133, *425 

Switzerland: Burgdorf-Thun Railway 583, *853 

Concessions in i 538 

Electric Tramways in [Rochat] i 239 

Recent Electrical Legislation in i 306 

Stansstadt-Engelberg Railway [Rochat].. *16 

Syracuse, Lake Side & Baldwinsville Rail- 
way, Car on *577 


Tandy, L. D 335 

Taxation: Excessive, Editorial on 292 

Paid by Railways in New York 578 

Street Railway, Boston "Herald," on 572 

See also Franchises and Municipal Con- 

Telephones for Electric Railways: (General 

Electric Co., Ltd.) 708 

-(Viaduct) *58 

Tempered Copper for Commutator Bars a 171 

Testing: Armatures, in Chicago *564 

Jersey City, in *367 

Indianapolis, in *511 

Car Equipments [Merrick] *179 

Combustibles, Apparatus for *441 

Fuel Economy of Engines [Carpenter]... *801 

Laboratory at Purdue *184 

-Motors in Cincinnati *360 

Motors on Lake Street Elevated Railway 

(Chapman) 637 

Power Plant, Cleveland & Lorain Rail- 
way *268, 366 

Power Station Economy in Richmond, 

Va *887 

Rail Bonds, Apparatus for (Conant) *893 

(Henry) *487 

Hartford, in *575 

(Schnaus) *895 

Resistance of Overhead Construction 

[Herrick] *865 

Third-Rail for Manhattan Elevated Railway. *871 
Third-Rail Insulator: (Reconstructed Gran- 
ite) »329 

New (O. B. Co.) *732 

Third- Rail System at Coney Island *260, *326 

See also Surface Contact Systems. 

Three-Phase Railroads, Editorial on 28, 369, 873 

See also Power Transmission. 

Three-Wire System: Consolidated Traction 

Co., Pittsburgh *127, *503 

Union Traction Co., Pittsburgh *425 

Tickets: Destruction of Old 299 

Machine for Cancelling, in Vienna i 884 

Method of Auditing *587 

Tramways, for (Whiting) 544 

Titusville, Pa., Electric Traction Co *140 

Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk Railway 740 

Tower Wagon (English) i *302 

Train Resistance [Blood] *342, 234 

[Graftio] *293 

[Lundie] *96 

City & South London Railway, on [Mc- 

Mahon] *391 

Communications on c 149, c 219 

See also Acceleration. 

Train Service and its Practical Application 

(McCormack) *790 

Track Construction: American Practice in.. 615 

Argentina, Practice in [Manville] *695 

Austria-Hungary, Practice in [Ziffer] *686 

Chicago, in *636 

— —Cincinnati, in *433 

Detroit, in *88 

Editorial on 779 

German Specifications for 519, 520 

Germany, Practice in [Magee] 659 

Great Britain, Practice in [Short] *665 

Indianapolis, in *512 

Kansas City, in [Butts] *795 

Machine for tearing up Track *740 

Philadelphia, in *83 

Portable Crusher for, in Scranton *215 

Scranton, in [Silliman] *810 

Use of Springs in New York 53 

Track Scrapers: (Brill) 895 

Detroit, in 15 

Trade Catalogues 67, 126, 198, 264, 322, 338, 

408, 415, 420. 490, 494, 756, 902 

Trailers, see Cars. 

Tramway and Light Railway Association, Or- 
ganization of 542 

Transfer Tickets, Destruction of 299 

Problem of [Higgins] 314 

Transformers: Design and Operation (G. E.) 64 

New York, in *709 

Trenton: Power Station Record in c 149 

Trolley Poles: Catcher for (Wilson) *742 

Cord for (Samson) 333 

Method of Repairing " 572 

Seamless Steel *191 

Replacer 898 

Water Guard for (Hawken) *545 

Trolley Wheels: for High-Speed Roads (N. 

Y., N. H. & H. R. R.) *25 

(Star) w 

Method of increasing Life of c 288 

Trucks: Development of the Locomotive and 

Electric Truck [Brill] *319, *543 

Functions of [Peckham] *407, *4S3 

Heavy Service (Baldwin) *707 

Lord Baltimore Maximum Traction 64, *H7 

(Moore) *569 

New Double (Laconia) *738 

No. 14-B-3 (Peckham) *741 

No. 18 (St. Louis) »114 

Number Manufactured in 1898 93 

Paper on [Heulings] 809 

Truesdall, George 548 

Abbreviations: "illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 


Tunnel, New York and Long Island 458 

Spree River 592 


Underground Conduits, see Conduits, Elec- 

Underground Railroads: City & South Lon- 
don Railway [McMahon] *391 

Uniforms, see Employees. 

Utica, Arguments on Taxation in 292 


Valves: Automatic Shut-Off (Locke) *742 

Blow-Off (Lunkenheimer) *72B 

Veneer, Manufacturer of (Seguine-Axford) . . 606 

Ventilating Fan (Sturtevant) *410 

Verein Deutscher Strassenbahn u. Klein- 

bahn Verwaltung, Meeting of....i*814, i *882 

Vestibules: Arguments against [McNamara]. a 243 

Report of Committee in New York City.. 194 

Vicksburg, New Electric Railway in 417 

Vienna: Proposed Extensians in i 241, i 884 

— — Ringstrasse Railway i *45 

Traffic and Transportation Facilities [Zif- 

fer] i *812 


Tramway Company, Liquidation of i 47 

Tramways Act approved i 306 

Virginia Street Railway Association: Organi- 
zation of 223 

Convention of 458 

Vreeland, H. H., Presentation to *841 


Washington: Annual Reports of Railways a 172 

Capital Traction Co., Power Station of.. *9 

Coal Conveyor in *744 

Navy Yard, Surface Contact System in.. *409 

Traction & Electric Co., Organization of 

215, 333, 458, 548 

Storage Battery Cars for 541 

Water Cooler (Major) *544 

Water Guard for Trolley Poles and Ropes.. *545 

Waupaca (Wis.) Electric Railway 546 

Webb City, Rate War in 300 

Southwest Missouri Electric Railway *281 

Welding Joints, see Rail Joints. 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.: 

Organization of British Branch 542, 606 

Electro-Magnetic Traction System *409 

Electro-Pneumatic System of Control *703 

500-kw. Generator *424 

[Vol. XV. No. 12. 

800-kw. Generator »505 

New Types of Street Railway Motors.... *713 

Wheeler, G. H *610 

Wheel Grinder, (Hampden) *839 

Wheel Records: in Los Angeles 57 ( 

— — Quebec, in 497 

Wheels: Chilled Iron, British Manufacturer 

of 716 

Cushioned (Cameron) *326 

Flat, Effect of Brakes on 520 

Manufacture of [Henderson] *399 

Manufactured in 1898 93 

Steel Tired, Editorial on 27 

Wilkes Barre, Large Trailer for *727 

Wilmington: City Railway, Repair Shop Ac- 
counts *442 

Interurban Railway to Chester *431 

Wind Resistance, see Acceleration and Train 

Wire Ropes: Preservation of (Ironsides) *193 

Protection of (Ironsides) *608 

Wisconsin, New Line in 413 

Wood, Charles N 191 

Wyman, Edward B 550 


Young, John 64 

Abbreviations: * illustrated, c correspondence, a American edition only, i international edition only. 

Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XV. 


No. 1. 


The interurban electric railway system around Detroit is 
more extensive than that in the neighborhood of any other 
city in this country, with the possible exception of Cleve- 
land. There are no less than six interurban lines reaching 
out from the city in all directions, except where limited by 
the Detroit River, and of lengths varying from 20 to 40 
miles. The cars are nearly all of the long double truck 
type; when outside of the city limits they run at schedule 
speeds of from 30 to 40 miles an hour and, in some in- 
stances, exceed this. The tracks usually follow the highway, 
being built at the side, so as not to occupy the portion de- 
voted to vehicles, and, as a general thing, on toll roads 

during the last year, and, while the owners of all the lines 
prefer not to make public any financial statements of the 
operation of the roads, it is apparent that most of them are 
doing a good business, and practically all the companies 
are planning important extensions in the early future. 

The headway on most of the lines is thirty minutes, and 
the cars run on regular published timetables, giving a ser- 
vice more closely resembling that of steam railroads than 
that of ordinary city electric railways. All the companies 


whose owners are identical with or closely allied to those of 
the electric railway. Within the city the cars operate by 
a traffic arrangement over the lines of the Detroit Citizens' 
Railway Company, which controls all of the lines in that 
city, and all start from or near the central square in Detroit, 
around which they make a loop; while on the lines of this 
company the cars are operated by employees of the Detroit 
Citizens' Street Railway Company, which takes the local 
fares and pays the interurban railways a certain mileage for 
the use of the cars. Upon arriving at the city limits, or at 
the terminus of the Detroit Citizens' Railway lines, the 
crews are changed and employees of the interurban lines 
assume the operation of the cars. 

Two of the five most important lines have been built 

have offices in the city at which tickets can be purchased, 
and on one of the lines., mileage books are sold, though the 
coupons are detached in multiples of five. On one or two 
of the others duplicate fare receipts are issued by the con- 
ductor when fare is paid on the cars. All the roads are di- 
vided into 5-cent zones, and the average fare charged is 
about a cent a mile. Many, if not all, of the lines parallel 
steam railroads, and, although the running time between 
termini does not equal in point of speed that of the steam 
railroads, the frequency of the service, the ability to dis- 
charge passengers along the line and the low fares, have 
attracted considerable traffic from the steam rivals. The 
electric roads undoubtedly have also created a great deal 
of traffic. 


Vol. XV., No. t. 

Nearly all of the lines carry baggage and operate a light 
express system, and some operate regular freight trains, 
which they are entitled to do under the laws of the State 
of Michigan. These freight cars are of the regular box 
type, but neatly painted, and are run either as motor cars 
or as single trail cars, usually at night. Stations for the 
receipt of express and freight matter are located in the 
cities through which they pass. A considerable item of 
freight from the country into the city is milk, which is col- 
lected at points along the line in the early morning and 
delivered to depots in the city, where it is distributed in the 
usual way. 

In spite of the long distances involved, it is interesting to 
note that no attempt has been yet made to transmit and dis- 
tribute power by the alternating current system. The 
standard voltage on the trolley wire varies from 500 to 650, 
but the drop on the long lines is cared for by boosters, with 
which the stations of nearly all the companies are equipped. 

load than this. The circuit breakers are set at 11 50 amps., 
although the generators are rated at 392 amps. The switch- 
board is of the Westinghouse panel type, and a large Whit- 
ing crane runs the full length of the engine room. The 
gage board is of 2-in. marble, measures 4 ft. x 6 ft., and is 
particularly handsome. The floors are of concrete, laid 
with steel I-beams, with brick arches, making the station 
entirely fireproof. The boiler room is equipped with three 
batteries of 250 h.p., Babcock & Wilcox boilers, fitted with 
Roney mechanical stokers, which are giving excellent sat- 
isfaction. Mechanical draft is used, supplied by a duplicate 
set of 110-in. Detroit blowers belted to small Westinghouse 
Junior engines. An extra wheel is put on the stoker en- 
gine and is belted up to a shaft, by which the economizer 
scrapers are operated. The rest of the equipment of the 
boiler room includes Worthington compound duplex jet 
condensers, Baragwanath heaters, the Wefugo filters, and 
an American economizer. The feed water is first taken 

Street liailiuai, Juumat,N.Y. 


One outlying line, the Detroit & River St. Clair Railway, 
which extends from Chesterfield to Marine City, is now 
operated by steam power, the trains coming in from Ches- 
terville on the tracks of the Michigan Central Railroad. 
The electrical equipment of this line and its extension to 
Mt. Clemens at an early date, is probable, however. 


The Detroit, Ann Arbor & Ypsilanti Railway, the long- 
est line of the group, was put in operation last summer and 
takes its power from two stations, one at Dearborn, the 
other at Ypsilanti. The stations are identical, with the ex- 
ception of the number of units in each, so that a description 
of the Dearborn station will suffice for that at Ypsilanti. 
The station is of brick, 73 ft. 6 ins. x 68 ft. 5 ins., divided into 
an engine room 71 ft. x 31 ft., and a boiler room 71 ft. x 35 
ft. The former contains three 500-h.p. Westinghouse Kodak 
compound condensing units, with two boosters rated at 
150 kw. each, but frequently carrying a very much higher 

from the hot well, thence passes into the filter, thence to 
the heater, and thence to the economizers, from which 
point it is introduced into the boilers. The piping is extra 
heavy, on account of the high steam pressure used, viz., 
175 lbs. to the inch. From the boilers the live steam passes 
by 6-in. w.i. header to a 10-in. w.i. main, from which it is 
fed by 8-in. pipes to the engines. The usual Westinghouse 
steam loop and separators are employed, and no elbows are 
used in the live steam piping, which is covered by Johns 
magnesia covering. 

In the basement is a Worthington fire pump, 12 ins. x 
7 ins. x 10 ins., with a capacity of 320 gals, per minute. 
This is also used for washing cars in the car barn, sprink- 
ling the lawns, etc. Steam is always kept up in this pump, 
even when not in use, and it can be made to operate by the 
turning of a valve. The contractors for this station, as well 
as for all the electrical apparatus, were Westinghouse, 
Church, Kerr & Co. 

The power station of the Lakeshore Railway Company 

January, 1899.] 



is at Lakeside, and has an entirely different equipment. It 
is of brick, 100 ft. x 40 ft., with metal roof, and contains two 
Russell compound 4-valve engines, guaranteed to develop 
450 h.p. on 125 lbs. of steam, with an efficiency of 90 per 

an overflow pipe of the same size from the engines. The 
station, with the car house adjoining it, was built by the 
Arbuckle-Ryan Company, of Toledo, under the super- 
vision of the engineers of the company, Van De Mark & 


cent when working at the most economical point of cut off; 
each engine directly connected to a 300 kw. Siemens & 
Halske generator. There is also a 200 h.p. Russell 4-valve 
engine directly connected to a 100 kw. Siemens & Halske 
booster. The switchboard is of the usual type. The boiler 
room contains two Stirling water tube boilers, each 
equipped with a Jones mechanical stoker. The room also 
contains a Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon single-jet condenser 
for each engine, Wainwright closed feed water heater and 
the usual apliances. 

On account of the great depth and mass of the coal in the 
stoker, forced draft was considered desirable. The pressure 
of air ranges from i| oz. to 5 oz. per sq. in., according to 
the steaming capacity of the boiler, and the quality of coal 
used. The quantity of air delivered at these pressures 
ranges from 6500 cu. ft. to 12,000 cu. ft. per minute, which 
is sufficient for a consumption of from 1600 lbs. to 3600 lbs. 
of coal per hour. 

The blower used was made by the American Blower 
Company. The wheel is 34 ins. in diameter, and the dis- 
charge outlet 20 ins. in diameter. When running 830 r.p.m. 
this blower will produce i£ oz. pressure, and at 1525 r.p.m. 
will produce a 5-oz. pressure, with an expenditure of about 
2 per cent of the total output of steam from the boilers, for 
power to drive the blower when running at maximum 
speed. The blast piping runs along the front of the boilers 
over the fire doors with branches extending down between 
them and discharges into what is ordinarily the ash pit, but 
with these stokers it is an air chamber beneath the stokers. 
This piping is made of heavy galvanized iron, soldered and 
riveted to make it air tight. In each branch pipe from the 
main pipe is fitted a blast gate to control the volume of air 
delivered to each boiler, according to how the fire burns 
under each. The air finds egress through long narrow slits 
or openings in a row of tuyere blocks, running the entire 
length of the stokers. This brings the blast beneath the 
ignited coal and causes the fire to burn with equal force at 
the front, middle and back of fire-bed. 

The well from which the feed water is taken holds 39,000 
gals., and is fed by an 18-in. intake pipe from the lake and 

Hill. The road was financed by the International Con- 
struction Company, of Detroit. 

The power station of the Detroit & Pontiac Railway is at 
Birmingham. It contains two Westinghouse compound 
condensing engines with Worthington pump and con- 
denser, a Westinghouse generator belted to one engine and 
two Detroit generators belted to the other engine. 




Vol. XV., No. i. 

The boilers are of the horizontal return tubular type with 
vertical open heaters and New York filter. The total power 
capacity of the station is 600 h.p. 

The power station of the Wyandotte & Detroit River 
Railway is at Ecorce, and contains two 150 Dick & Church 
compound condensing engines, built by the Phoenix Iron 
Works, each belted to a Westinghouse 4-pole 100 kw. gen- 
erator. The boilers are of the Manning vertical tubular 
type, with Conover condensers and closed heaters. 

ances. The poles are universally wooden and the specifica- 
tions for those on the Lakeshore Railway, which are good 
samples of those employed, require that they shall be from 
30 ft. to 35 ft. in length, depending upon whether they are 
side poles or curve poles, 7 ins. in diameter at the top, of 
cedar, and set one-sixth of their length in the ground. The 
poles have all rock setting, are spaced 115 ft. apart, and are 
6 ft. 9 ins. from the center of the track. On the Pontiac 
and the Wyandotte lines every pole is numbered by miles; 


- "00" TROLLEYS 



300000 C. M. 

Uooobo C. I 


Street Railway Ji> 

• 0000 " BOOSTER 

"0000" FEEDER 

— J— 2.-8 

2 - 300 K. W. 100 K. W. 



The power station of the Rapid Railway contains two 
250 kw. and one 400 kw. Walker generators, driven by 
Dick & Church engines. The boilers are of the horizontal 
tubular type. 

The Grand River & Orchard Lake Railway power sta- 
tion is at Pontiac, and contains an American engine belted 
to a Walker generator. 


The overhead construction employed on all the roads is 
generally of the bracket type with flexible suspension. It 

thus, those in the first mile are numbered from o to 42 or 
43, in the next mile from 100 to 142, etc. The Wyandotte 
line was originally equipped with rigid brackets, but they 
were found undesirable for this service, as the wire would 
break at the hanger. On these two lines, which were for a 
long time under the same management and which are 
among the oldest of the interurban lines, pine, hemlock 
and cedar poles have all been used, and but little difference 
has been found in their life, each kind having to be re- 
placed at the end of six years. The Lakeshore Railway is 
employing bare feeder wires and its feeder system is shown 

I I Noll. I 

i ! i , .. i 

-] — 1- -l.h-S : 



5§ 1 4-c© 

tfimi}- — ta p 


is universal to use two trolley wires on all the single-track 
roads to avoid frogs, which have been found undesirable 
when running at high speeds. These trolley wires are con- 
nected together electrically at intervals of every five or ten 
poles, so that they reinforce each other and reduce by the 
amount of their cross sections the amount of feeder re- 
quired. The two latest roads built employ No. 00 Fig. 8 
trolley wire, equipped with Ohio Brass Company appli- 

diagrammatically above. This distribution is based on 
a service of six cars, each of which takes on an average 
about 150 amps, when running at 30 miles per hour on a 

Quite a little difference exists in the use of trolley wheels. 
The Lakeshore cars are fitted with two trolleys, one im- 
mediately in the rear of the other, but the two are used 
only in the case of heavy loads. The wheel has a diameter 

January, 1899.] 



of 6 ins., with a groove 2 ins. in width and flange ins. in 
height. Wilson-Thompson trolley pole catchers are em- 
ployed on this line. Practically all the lines employ the 
Kalamazoo trolley wheel, the hub of which is hollow and 
contains oil, providing excellent lubriction. This wheel 

x 8 ins. x 8 ft., and spaced 2 ft. centers. The ties are 
usually set in gravel, and where the rail is carried through 
the towns, the side is packed with gravel. The Ypsilanti & 
Ann Arbor road and the Lakeshore road employ Forest 
City protected bonds; Washburn & Moen bonds are used 


seems to answer well the requirements of high-speed 

Practically all of the lines maintain a telephone service 
throughout the entire line. Every car carries a telephone 
and connection can be made with the telephone wires at 
turnouts by means of junction boxes. If the conductor 
should desire to send a message between turnouts, he 
makes connection with the telephone wires by means of a 
flexible connection, and jointed poles furnished with hooks 
are hooked over the telephone wires. 


The T-rail is used throughout and the section of the 

on the Pontiac line. On the Lakeshore line American 
rail joints are used throughout; on the road, the special 
work was supplied by the Cleveland Frog & Crossing 


The tendency in rolling stock on the interurban roads 
around Detroit is unquestionably toward long, heavy cars. 
On the Lakeshore Railway they reach a maximum in being 
50 ft. 6 ins. over all. This line has six motor cars and four 
trail cars, and will place an order for ten more cars for 
spring business. The Detroit, Ypsilanti & Ann Arbor 
Railway has fourteen long cars in use on its interurban line 
and twenty short cars belonging to the old Ann Arbor & 

! 1 1 llllpMPIIlpl' 


American Society of Civil Engineers is popular. The rails 
weigh from 70 lbs. to 75 lbs. per yard on the lines lately 
equipped. On the earlier lines they are from 56 lbs. to 
60 lbs. The ties are usually steam railroad standard, 6 ins. 

Ypsilanti Railway and in use on the city lines in that city. 
The interurban cars on this railway and on the Lakeshore 
Railway were built by the Barney & Smith Company. 
The Rapid Railway has seventeen 42-ft. cars, supplied by 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

the Barney & Smith Company; one 47-ft. and eight 32-ft. 
cars, built by the Jackson & Sharp Company. In addi- 
tion, it has sixteen freight cars, all trail cars. The Detroit 
& Pontiac Railway has twelve Kuhlman cars, 42 ft. over all, 
for passenger service. The Wyandotte & Detroit River Rail- 
way is equipped with Jackson & Sharp single-truck cars 
measuring 30 ft. over all. The Grand River Railroad has 
on its Grand River section five motor cars and four trail 
cars, built by the Brill Company and the Wells-French 
Company. The Detroit & River St. Clair Railway, being 
equipped at present with standard steam equipment, will 
not be considered in this connection. 

The number of miles run per day by each car on the dif- 
ferent electric roads averages about 300. All the recently 



built cars are sim- 
ilar in appearance 
to steam railroad 
cars, and have 
straight sides. 
Views of a number 
of these cars are 
given herewith. 
Those on the Lake- 
shore will attract at- 
tention as being the 
most novel in floor- 
plan and general ar- 
rangement. Each 
car contains a bag- 
gage and smoking 

which is fitted with foldable seats; a state- 
room, containing four seats, which are 
rented for the trip for ten cents additional 
fare; complete toilet, water cooler, etc., be- 
sides regular passenger compartment seat- 
ing about fifty passengers. These cars are 
lighted with twenty-five 16-c.p. lamps each, 
and carry a Wagenhall's electric headlight. 
The weight of these cars without electrical 
equipment is: body, 25,320 lbs.; truck, 13,- 
140 lbs.; total, 38,460 lbs. The state-room 
idea is a novel one in electric railroading, 
and has proved extremely popular with the 
patrons of the line; it is often rented to a 
party of four commuters, who wish to play 
cards on the trip, or who desire special 
seclusion. The weight of the convertible 
on the same line is: body, 18,600 lbs.; 
trucks, 12,600 lbs.; total, 31,200 lbs. The floor plans of 
these cars give full information as to dimensions. 

The Detroit, Ypsilanti & Ann Arbor cars were also built 
by the Barney & Smith Company, and are very complete. 
They are of two types, one of which is illustrated. Both 
are equipped with combination baggage and smoking com- 

partments, toilet, etc. The long car weighs: body, 25,500 
lbs.; trucks, 13,600 lbs.; total, 38,100 lbs. The shorter car 
weighs: body, 22,900 lbs.; trucks, 13,600 lbs.; total, 36,500 
lbs. The trail cars on this line weigh: body, 20,500 lbs.; 
trucks, 13,600 lbs.; total, 34,100 lbs.; all without electrical 
and air-brake equipment. An interesting feature of these 
cars is the novel arrangement of the vestibule. Owing to 
the length of these cars the passengers are allowed to enter 
and leave the car at either end, and to prevent their passing 
through the motorman's compartment, the front of plat- 
form is only half vestibuled. On some of the cars which 
the company is proposing to install, the center of the 
front platform only will be vestibuled, leaving exits on 
each side for passengers without entering the motorman's 

The Detroit & Pontiac cars, which are 
also illustrated, were built by the G. C. 
Kuhlman Company, with a side aisle on 
what is commonly known as the Kuhlman 
pattern, and a number of them are fitted 
with baggage and smoking compartments. 
They measure inside 33 ft., and over all 
42 ft. One characteristic of these cars, be- 
sides their extremely handsome appear- 
ance, is that they are very low, in spite of 
the fact that 33-in. wheels are used. This 
result is accomplished by making the 
wheels swing inside the side sills of the car. 

The Rapid Railway cars, built by the 
Jackson & Sharp Company, also deserve 
special mention. 
The motor cars are 
of two lengths, one 
with 24-ft. body and 
32 ft. over all, fin- 
ished in cherry, with 
cross seats uphol- 
stered and rattaned, 
and a passenger and 
baggage car with 
37-ft. body and 47 
ft. over platforms, 
finished in qua r- 
t e r e d oak. The 
Jackson & Sharp 
Company also sup- 
plied this company 


with eight ten-bench open trail cars, with six reversible and 
four permanent seats, finished inside with white ash, with 
cherry moulding and white birch veneer ceilings. 

The motorman's vestibule in all these cars contains quite 
a variety of apparatus. A list of these as carried on the 
Lakeshore cars, which are a good sample of all, includes 

January, 1899.] 



a long-distance telephone, with flexible connections, for 
communicating with the central office from any point of 
the line; a G. E. circuit breaker, the Christensen airbrake 
controller with gage, fuse-box and automatic controller 
for the motor compressor; sand-box, bell, handbrake, and 

view of the motor and compressor directly connected 
and mounted on a single base, is given on this page. 
The compressor is of the rotary type, and the cast 
iron housing in which it is placed forms an oil reser- 
voir, the upper portion of which is a suction chamber. 

Smoking ami Raggago 


pi g q q q P 


hot-water heater, besides the regular motor controller and 

The heaters employed are generally of the hot-water 
type, Baker heaters being the most generally used. These 
heaters are of the "Mighty Midget" type, in which the 

The ribbed construction of the housing is for providing 
greater cooling surface for the compressor. The course 
of the air is from inlet A to the suction chamber, thence 
through a valve suitably arranged at B for allowing the 
air to pass into the pump and out at either of the reser- 

heater is carried on the front platform, and the interior of voirs. The compression is effected in two separate cylin- 


the car is warmed by hot-water pipes fed from it. The 
heater occupies but little room on the platform, and is 
cared for entirely by the motorman. Full particulars of 
this heater are given elsewhere in this issue, and it seems to 
be giving excellent satisfaction. On the Lakeshore and 

ders, one for high pressure, and the other for low pressure. 

The Pontiac Railway employs the Magann air brake, 
in which no compressor of any kind is in use on the car, 
but the air is stored to a pressure of about 225 lbs. in res- 
ervoirs carried on the car. These reservoirs are connected 
through a reducing valve with a working reservoir of about 
40 lbs. pressure, from which the jam cylinder is operated. 
The compressor for storing the reservoirs on the cars is 
located at the power station, in Birmingham. Connection 
is made by a flexible coupling, the cars are stored and dis- 
connected from the coupling in less than half a minute. 


on the Pontiac cars the heater is carried on the front plat- 
form; in the Ann Arbor cars, in a closet in the regular 
passenger compartment. 


There is a wide divergence in the practice in the use of 
air brakes, four different kinds being in use. The Detroit, 
Ypsilanti & Ann Arbor Railway employs the Westing- 
house airbrake with automatically controlled electric mo- 
tor and compressor, this being the first application of this 
system to any electric road. The general diagram 
of the arrangement of the system, together with a 


Full particulars of this air brake are given elsewhere in this 

The Lakeshore cars are equipped with the Christensen 
air brake, with motor compressor, which is carried under 
the car between the trucks. This system is working very 

On the Rapid Railway twelve of the cars are equipped 
with Hunt air brakes, with motor compressors, and two 
with Sellers, Beamer & Nauger air brakes, with com- 
pressors of the axle driven type with automatic cut-outs. 
Both are reported to be giving satisfaction. 


Vol. XV., No. i. 


The car wheels are usually of the plate type and vary 
from 500 lbs. to 350 lbs. each, depending upon the weight 
of the car. On the Pontiac Railway a spoke wheel weigh- 
ing 480 lbs. is employed, the management of this line think- 
ing that these wheels are more noiseless than the plate 

Brill 27 trucks are used on the Pontiac line, Barney & 
Smith trucks on the Ypsilanti and Lakeshore lines, Du 
Pont trucks on the Wyandotte lines, and Barney & Smith 
and Jackson & Sharp trucks on the Rapid Railway. 

The Ann Arbor & Ypsilanti and Lakeshore lines use 
four motors for each car, the type employed being 50-h.p. 
Westing-house, with West-inghouse 4-motor controller. 
The Pontiac line (double-truck cars 42 ft. over all) and the 
Wyandotte line (single-truck cars 32 ft. over all) use two 
motors on each car. On the Pontiac line the two motors 
are carried on the rear truck, the bolster of which is set 1 ft. 

Large Engine for Louisville 

The accompanying illustration shows side and end ele- 
vations of one of the largest engines, if not the largest, 
yet built for electric railway service. It is a vertical com- 
pound, with cylinders 40 ins. and 78 ins. x 48 ins. stroke, 
and was constructed for the Louisville Railway Company 
of Louisville, Ky., by the E. P. Allis Company. It is 
direct connected to a 1600 kw. General Electric generator, 
and the large size of cylinders was necessary on account 
of the low steam pressure used, about 100 lbs. 

The main shaft of the engine is solid, and is 27 ins. in 
diameter. The fly wheel is 25 fr. in diameter, and weighs 
160,000 lbs. The journals are 24 ins. x 48 ins. The 
crank pin is 12 ins. x 12 ins. The normal speed is 75 
r.p.m. The valve gear is of the legular Allis-Corliss type. 
The engine is fitted with two governors, one for ordinary 
running and one for operating the safety stop valve, 

161 Holes 


nearer the center of the car than is the bolster on the front 
truck. The motors on the first line are mostly Steel mo- 
tors, that on the latter Westinghouse No. 3, with old type 
resistance controllers. The Rapid Railway employs both 
practices on its long 42-ft. cars. The motors are mostly of 
the Walker type, and the general manager states that he 
finds two 75-h.p. motors more desirable than four 50-h.p. 
motors, and as easy to obtain traction with them. On this 
road, where two motors are employed, a motor is carried 
on the rear axle of each truck. 


Our experience has been that if the conductors and the 
passengers will use the transfers as we intended they 
should use them, we can afford to give them. — From ad- 
dress at the Montreal Convention, 1895. 

which becomes operative when the speed exceeds the nor- 
mal by five revolutions. The total weight of the engine is 
325 tons. 

The engine illustrates the current favor with which ver- 
tical engines for large units are regarded. The chief ad- 
vantages claimed for this type are the reduction in wear, 
less chance of cylinder cutting, and less lubrication. The 
limiting size, according to present practice for horizontal 
engines, seems to be in the neighborhood of 50 ins., cylin- 
der diameter. The saving in floor space is also an im- 
portant item. For the same capacity as the engine illus- 
trated a horizontal engine would have to be of the same 
width, but 40 ft. length instead of 25 ft. 

The engines being built by the Allis Company for the 
Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York, are 
also of the vertical type. 

January* 1899.] -f V STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 9 

The New Power Station of The Capital Traction Co., 
Washington, D. C, 

On Sept. 29, 1897, the power house of the Capital Trac- 
tion Company, on Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, 
D. C, was destroyed by fire, and the system which, up to 
that time, had been driven entirely by cable, was brought 
to a complete standstill. Traffic was resumed temporarily 
by means of horse cars, and the contrast between the 
modern system in use on other roads and the antiquated 
method which the Capital Traction Company was com- 
pelled to employ on Washington's streets at that time, 
emphasized distinctly the tremendous progress made in 
city transportation during" the last decade. 

In re-equipping the road the use of the trolley was pro- 
hibited by the municipal laws, so that choice lav between 

and 65 ft. high, and is divided into two parts by a heavy 
brick partition wall, the eastern end being occupied by the 
engines and dynamos, and the western end by the boilers. 
West of the main building is the coal handling building. 
Facing the power house on the other side of the canal is 
a large car barn and repair and machine shop. 

The boiler room, 162 ft. gi ins. long, contains eight 
Cahall, Babcock & Wilcox boilers of 350-h.p. capacity 
each, arranged in four batteries. The flues pass into a 
steel brick-lined stack of 9 ft. internal diameter and 150 ft. 
high, standing on a 25-ft. brick base, giving it a total 
height of 175 ft. The stack was built by the Campbell & 
Zell Company, and is provided with Locke regulators and 
dampers. The boilers are equipped with Roney mechan- 
ical stokers, built by Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Com- 
pany, and driven by three small Westinghouse engines, 


the electrical underground conduit system and cable. The 
former was adopted, and full particulars of the method 
of converting the existing cable conduit to one suitable for 
electric use was fully described in the Street Railway 
Journal for January, 1898. Since that time the power 
station of the company has been completed, and is dis- 
tributing power not only to the main lines of the com- 
pany on Pennsylvania Avenue and Seventh Street, but 
also to the suburban lines using the trolley system. 

The company was fortunate in possessing a location for 
its power house most conveniently situated for the pur- 
pose. On the banks of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
it owned an old warehouse, one side facing on the canal, 
the other on Grace Street, between Thirty-second and 
Potomac Streets. This it practically rebuilt. 

The present power house is 300 ft. long x 60 ft. wide 

two driving the stokers for the three main batteries, and 
one those of the battery made up of the boilers on the 
west side of the stack. 

The coal is taken directly from the canal barges on the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal by coal handling machinery 
furnished by the Steel Cable Engineering Company, of 
Boston, and operated by electric motors. It is housed in a 
small steel structure forming the western annex to the main 
building. A 30-h.p. motor operates a tub elevator, which 
raises the coal from the canal boats and dumps it into a 
receiving hopper, whence it passes to a weighing hop- 
per with a capacity of 2000 lbs. on a Fairbanks scales. 
After weighing it drops through a chute into a crusher 
driven by the same motor. After crushing, the coal drops 
into the conveyor, which is driven by a 15-h.p. motor. The 
conveyor carries it up and dumps it into the coal bins over 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

the boilers. The returning buckets pass down the eastern concrete on corrugated iron arch plates. They were built 

side of the boiler room and through a tunnel below the boil- by the Structural Iron Company, and have a capacity of 

ers, where they catch the ashes from the ash hoppers and 2000 tons. The coal is delivered into the furnaces of the 

bring them out on the return journey, dumping them into boilers through measuring hoppers, each having a capacity 

an ash tank, from which they are transferred to other canal of 1000 lbs. The coal from the rear or auxiliary bins can 


boats or to carts to be carried away. The capacity of the be chuted down through three supplementary chutes set 

conveyor is 30 tons per hour. The coal used is "run of between the boilers to the conveyer in the ash tunnel, and 

mine" Cumberland. The coal bins are duplicate bins, can then be carried up again and dumped into the forward 

built of steel, and occupy the entire space above the boil- or main bin. 

ers, or 162 ft. 9J ins. x 60 ft. The bins are lined with Water for the boilers is pumped from a well in the base- 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

ment of the engine room, supplied from the canal, into a 
4000-gal. tank, from which it passes into two Loomis- 
Manning filters having a capacity of 300,000 gals, in 
twenty-four hours, thence through Deane feed pumps to 
the primary heaters, then into a supplementary Berryman 
heater, and thence to the boilers. Water can also be taken 
from the city mains. After entering the main tank its 
course is similar to that of the canal water. Should the 
main feed lines or pumps break down from any cause, two 
Metropolitan injectors can be brought immediately into 
action on the auxiliary feed lines. 

The arrangement of the piping above the boilers allows 
any battery to be cut out at any time, and, in fact, the en- 
tire arrangement of the piping and valves is such that any 
engine or boiler or any length of pipe can be cut out 
should occasion require without interfering with the run- 
ning of the plant. The piping is in duplicate and extra 
heavy in both pipe and fittings. The valves are all of the 
Chapman Valve Company's make. All are constructed 
for a pressure of 200 lbs., although the initial steam pres- 


sure is at present only 140 lbs. The duplicate or auxiliary 
piping is arranged as a loop running from the main header 
in front of the boilers along the western, southern and east- 
ern walls and joining the main steam line again on the 
north wall. At the eastern end of the boiler room connec- 
tion from side to side of the loop is made by an interme- 
diate pipe. The main steam line is of 12-in. pipe, the 
auxiliary of 10-in. pipe, and the intermediate steam line of 
8-in. pipe. At the two points where the intermediate pipe 
joins the main and auxiliary piping a steam separator is 
provided. All piping is protected by Keasbey & Mattison 
magnobestos covering 2 ins. thick. 

Behind the boilers space has been left for the installation 
of economizers should their use be decided upon. Behind 
the boilers also have been fitted up a bath-room for the 
engineer and lavatories for the men. 

The engines, of which there are five, are Allis horizontal 
tandem compounds with 1890 frame, each 20 ins. and 40 
ins. x 42 ins., rated at 800 nominal h.p. at 100 r.p.m. They 
are provided with double-ported valves and double eccen- 

trics, and the ball governors have a safety attachment 
which automatically shuts the steam off from the cylinder 
in case the governor belt should break. Each fly-wheel is 
16 ft. in diameter and weighs 50,000 lbs. The engines can 
be run condensing or free exhaust. Each engine is an 
entirely separate unit with primary feed water heater, re- 
ceiver, condenser and separate free exhaust. The receiv- 
ers are each 30 ins. inside diameter and 12 ft. 6 ins. long. 
The condensers are the jet type, built by the Deane Steam 
Pump Company, and the condenser valves are controlled 
by valve standards on the engine-room floor. In the 
event of accident to the condensing apparatus an auto- 
matic action opens the valve from the engine into the free 
exhaust pipe, through which the steam passes to the open 
air. Bundy steam traps are provided — one to each re- 
ceiver, and one to the main steam lines. All the gages and 
instruments are of Crosby make. 

Lubrication of the engine cylinders is effected from two 
pressure oil tanks in the basement, the oil being forced up 
by steam pressure through brass pipes to the cylinders. 
A third tank supplies the oil for the boiler-room pumps 
and engines. Ashton sight feed lubricators enable the 
engineer to gage the supply of oil as desired. Lubrication 
of the bearings is effected by a gravity system, the oil de- 
scending from a 50-barrel tank on the east wall, whither it 
is pumped up again after use, after first passing through 

The generators are directly connected to the engine 
shafts, and four are set in pairs, each pair facing each 
other; that is, with the two commutators on the inside. 
The commutator of the fifth faces engine No. 4. The 
generators are set in a line down the south side of the 
engine room, and are faced by the switchboard on the 
south wall. They are of the standard General Electric 
eight-pole, 525-kw. type, running at 100 r.p.m. and de- 
livering current at 550 volts no load, and 600 volts full 

In order to compensate for drop on the Mt. Pleasant 
and Navy Yard lines — 4 miles long in the first case and 5 
in the latter — three boosters have been provided, two be- 
tween engines one and two and one between engines three 
and four. These boosters are generators series wound for 
a maximum load of 550 amps, at 180 volts, and so propor- 
tioned as to give practically a straight line from zero 
potential to 100 volts. They are six-pole machines, each 
of 100-kw. capacity, running at 600 revolutions, and were 
supplied by the General Electric Company. Each booster 
is driven by a six-pole, 110-h.p., 600-revolution motor 
wound for 550 volts and driven from the main railway 

The switchboard, about 50 ft. long, stands 5 ft. away 
from the south wall. It faces engines two and three, and 
is built up of standard General Electric panels. It com- 
prises five generator panels, one station panel, three 
booster motor panels, eight pairs of feeder panels, two 
booster generator panels, two pairs of panels for the four 
booster feeders, one rheostat panel and a special panel for 
controlling the power house and shop motor circuits and 
the 500-volt lighting circuits. Each generator panel is 
equipped with a standard M. K. automatic circuit breaker, 
5000-amp. current indicator, rheostat, two main switches, 
voltmeter switch and lighting switch. The station panel 
carries a G. Q. 5000-amp. Thomson recording station out- 
put wattmeter and an illuminated dial Weston ammeter 
reading to 8000 amps. Each feeder panel carries an M. K. 
circuit breaker, round dial ammeter reading to 1000 amps., 
and one double-throw, quick-break switch. The rheostat 
panel is equipped with an M. K. circuit breaker, 1500- 
amp. ammeter and three T200-amp, single-throw, single- 
pole switches. The booster motor panel carries a circuit 

January, 1899.] 



breaker, two main switches, an ammeter and one field 
rheostat, as well as one starting rheostat, which serves to 
start any one of the booster motors. The booster gen- 
erator panels carry an arrangement of switches which 
allows the engineer to throw the booster current on to 
either of the two pairs of feeders as desired. They are also 
equipped with circuit breakers, and in addition with an in- 
genious relay, devised by the engineers at Schenectady, 
which comes into action in case the motor circuit breaker 
trips, opening the booster generator circuit breaker and 
thereby preventing the generator from running as a motor. 
At the west end of the board is swung an illuminated dial 
Weston station voltmeter. The equalizing switches are 
erected on pedestals in front of each machine. 

The lighting of the power house, shops and car barns 
and the Union Station building is effected from a 50-kw. 
125-volt General Electric machine directly connected to a 

in three-light clusters scattered throughout the room. 
These clusters are made up of two railway lamps, one on 
each side of a 120- volt incandescent lamp. A similar 
system is followed in the lighting of the basement and the 
boiler room. All the arc, incandescent and railway branch 
lighting circuits in the engine room run in tubing. In 
the basement all the branch circuits to the brackets run in 
tubing, while the other wiring is run on insulators. In the 
boiler room the incandescent and arc branches, as well as 
the railway series circuits, are run in tubing, the other 
wiring on insulators. 

The railway feeder cables drop from the switchboard to 
the basement, to the ceiling of which they are attached by 
insulators, rise up the partition wall and run along it to the 
canal side of the power house. They are then carried on 
a rack along and over the north side of the boiler room 
to a bridge crossing the canal. Passing across this bridge 


75-h.p. Harrisburg Ideal engine, the set occupying a posi- 
tion at the west end of the room next to the partition wall. 
The lighting switchboard is made up of two panels 
equipped with a 500-amp. Weston ammeter, 150-volt volt- 
meter, P. C. rheostat, one three-blade main switch and six 
double-blade, quick-break switches for the separate cir- 
cuits. The lighting is effected by General Electric in- 
closed arc single-globe and reflector lamps and incandes- 
cent lamps. The inclosed arc lamps in the engine room 
are swung on brackets made up of a 12-ft. length of gas 
pipe so hinged that they may be swung against the wall 
to allow of the passage of the 15-ton Case travelling crane, 
which travels the length of the room. Ten arc lamps 
illuminate this room, two over each engine, and each lamp 
is provided with its own knife switch. Six arc lamps are 
used in the boiler room. The incandescent lamps are set 

they drop down into a manhole, and proceed underground 
to their several destinations. The feeders are lead-covered 
1,000,000-c.m. cables from the Roebling works, Trenton, 
and are laid in National Conduit Cable Company's con- 
duits, and in Camp and Potomac terra cotta ducts set be- 
tween the tracks. The first named are iron cement-lined 
pipes 8 ft. long and 3^ ins. inside diameter. The latter are 
terra cotta 18 ins. long and of the same diameter. At in- 
tervals of about 400 ft. on the straight track and at shorter 
distances on the curve sections suitable manholes have 
been constructed between the tracks. Each manhole has 
concrete walls 12 ins. thick, and on the two sides next to 
the tracks wooden blocks are let into the cement to sup- 
port the brackets for the feeder and tap wires. Each man- 
hole is 4 ft. x 4 ft. and 6 ft. deep, but where the conduits 
drain into them the depth is increased to 7 ft. 6 ins. Slot 


hatches are provided at intervals of 800 ft. along the slot, 
to allow the conductors to be drawn into the conduits and 
run to their proper positions. 

The conductor rails are set 13 ins. to the center below 
the wheel rails, the distance between the face of each being 
6 ins. The conductor rail weighs 23^ lbs. to the yard, with 
an area of 2.3 sq. ins., and is made up of 3 i-ft. 6-in. sec- 
tions. The face is 4 ins. deep and § in. thick, and the rail 
is provided with ai|x f-in. rib. The conductors are held 
in position by insulators suspended from a cast iron two- 
armed cup 5^ ins. deep, with a corrugated inner surface 
holding a heavy porcelain cup insulator, with exterior cor- 
rugations to correspond to the interior of the cup. Be- 
tween the porcelain and the iron cup cement is poured, 
which holds the porcelain firmly in place. The bracket 
support for the conductor is bolted to a stud screwed and 
cemented into the porcelain cup. The distance between 
the center of the stud and the face of the conductor is 5^ 
ins. The arms of the cup holding the porcelain insulator 
are bolted into the slot rail. Over 16,000 insulators in all 
are used. 

Each bracket is also provided with an arm, which is 
fastened to the conductor rail by two keys. Each length 
of conductor is bounded to the next by means of two 
flexible Washburn & Moen copper bonds, having a total 
cross section of 423,200 cm. — one bond n-| ins. long, the 
other 14 ins. long. These insulator brackets are placed at 
intervals of 15 ft. 9 ins. on the tangents, and at 9-ft. inter- 
vals, or every other yoke, on the curves, and access to each 
is had by a hand-hole. 

The entire length of the main line operated on this 


underground conduit system is about 22 miles of single 
track. An angle was riveted to the old slot rail, as ex- 
plained in the January, 1898, issue, and illustrated in the 
section of the conduit herewith, and a part of the old track 
on Pennsylvania Avenue, from Seventeenth Street to the 
Capitol, a distance of about 1 1-3 miles, was replaced by 
6-in. grooved girder Johnson rails weighing 86 lbs to the 
yard. All rail joints are cast welded. Seventh Street, 
Georgetown, Fourteenth Street and the Navy Yard sec- 
tions are laid in 82-lb. 6-in. grooved girder rails. 

Vol. XV., No. 1. 

The rolling stock consists of 188 motor cars and 174 
trailers. All the new motor cars are from the shops of the 
American Car Company, and measure 26 ft. over all. They 
are mounted upon Lord Baltimore trucks constructed by 
the Baltimore Car Wheel Company. Each motor car is 
equipped with two G. E. 1000 A-3 motors, the character- 
istic curve of which is shown in Fig. 8. The motors are 
provided with sixty-nine-tooth gear and fifteen-tooth 
pinion, giving a reduction of 4.6. The series parallel con- 
trollers are of the K-9 magnetic-blowout type. Each car 


is lighted by three three-light clusters, the extra light burn- 
ing on either platform as the case may be. All cars are 
provided with the "Parmenter" front fender and wheel 
guard, made by George Parmenter, Cambridgeport, Mass., 
and with registers made by the International Register 
Company, Chicago. 

In addition to the rolling stock mentioned above, four 
Brill snow sweepers are used. 

The contact plows used are the forms eight and nine, 
General Electric plows. Type nine is shown opposite. 
The plow handle is provided with a slot at each end, and 
the plow is supported by these slots on two iron bars each 
9 ins. long, which run transversely on the truck. The 
plow can move along them transversely to the truck 4^ ins. 
on each side of the center, but if it runs more than 4$ ins. 
it runs off these supports 01 guides and drops into the slot 
sufficiently far to allow the bottom of the motors to pass 
over it without touching it. The conductor connections 
from the plow run to other connectors attached to hinged 
couplings on the car. When the plow falls these are 
pulled apart by the strain, and connection between the 
plow and the motors is instantly broken. Thus, should 
the plow follow along the wrong switch, it moves trans- 
versely to the truck until it falls from the guides, drops down 
into the slot and breaks the circuit at the connectors. As it 
cannot move either vertically or longitudinally the ad- 
vantages of this construction can be readily understood. 
This method is intended to prevent delays, which would 
necessarily occur should the plow jam in the slots at any 
of the switches, turnouts or crossovers. 

The conversion of the Seventh Street line of the same 
company has also been effected. The remarkable feature 
of this conversion is that it was made while the cable was 

January, 1899.] 



running, without interruption whatsoever to the service. 
It is the first case of this kind on record, and the skill with 
which it has been carried out is a tribute to the ability of 
the company's engineers, D. S. Carll and W. B. Upton, 
and to the contractor, E. Saxton. The length of the 
Seventh Street system is about 3 miles of double track. 
The cable was hauled out on May 25 last, the last cable 
car hauled into the car barn on the tail of the cable and 
without interrupting the service the underground contact 
cars entered upon their duties. 

Along U Street, from the junction of the Seventh Street 
line as far as Eighteenth Street, 1 mile of double track is 
laid down with the Love system. This terminates at 
Eighteenth Street, the cars then running under the over- 
head trolley as far as Chevy Chase, a distance of 6 miles. 
The Love system will be made uniform with the rest of the 
system, and may be extended as far as Rock Creek. 

borer and grindstone. On the east side of the car shed are 
the machine and blacksmith shop, in which the machinery 
is driven by steam. 

In addition to this building, the Capital Traction Com- 
pany has five car barns in the following localities: Union 
Station, Georgetown; Navy Yard, Seventh Street, Mount 
Pleasant and Chevy Chase. 

The Capital Traction Company has a capital of $12,000,- 
000. Its officers are G. T. Dunlop, president; C. C. Glover, 
vice-president; C. M. Koones, secretary and treasurer, and 
D. S. Carll, chief engineer and superintendent. W. B. 
Upton is principal assistant engineer; J. H. Hanna, assist- 
ant superintendent; H. P. Clark, master mechanic, and 
Carroll Hashall engineer of power house. 

The entire work of installing the electrical system was 
carried out under the direction of a building committee 
consisting of the president, Henry Hurt, director, and S. L. 

Scale l'A'Ll' 

Street Ky. Joun 



On the opposite side of the canal from the power house, 
the Capital Traction Company owned another large build- 
ing, used in the horse-car days as car barn and stable. 
This has been entirely remodelled, and is now divided into 
car barn, paint shop, repair shop and machine shop. The 
car shed has nine tracks, divided transversely by tracks, 
on which run two transfer tables. Each track is provided 
with a pit, and floors and pit are of cement. To move the 
cars a trolley device is employed. This is a small four- 
wheeled trolley resting on two conductors, strung longi- 
tudinally between and over each pair of tracks. From this 
depend two conductors, which are connected by their own 
terminals to the plow terminals on the cars. Switches on 
a slate switchboard on the wall control the car-shed cir- 
cuits. On track No. 9 is set a Murphy car-wheel grinder, 
driven by a G. E. 800 motor. Reduction in the speed of 
the car wheels during grinding is effected by means of 
water rheostats. 

The paint shop is a spacious, well-lighted room, pro- 
vided with every facility for rapidly handling the cars. The 
machinery in the repair shop, on the south side nf the 
building, is driven by a 20-h.p. motor, and consists of a 
planer, joiner, mortising machine, band saw, circular saw, 

Philips, a stockholder. Dr. Louis Duncan was consulting 
electrical engineer. 

An Ingenious Method of Removing Snow from Tracks 

The street railways of Detroit are employing snow 
boards or scrapers attached to the trucks for cleaning snow 
from the tracks, instead of regular snow plows. The board 
employed is 2 ft. wide x 10 ft. long and is set on a diagonal 
under the rear platform. It is shod with iron, and is at- 
tached to the side bars of the trucks, which are of the 
Du Pont type. All the cars run on loops, so that the board 
always remains under the rear platform. In the case of a 
light snow storm every fourth or fifth car sent out from 
the car house carries one of these scrapers. If the severity 
of the storm should demand it, every car is so equipped. 
The method has the advantage, of course, that no extra 
men are needed and that snow is kept off of all parts of the 
system at the same time. The company also has a leveler, 
which is run out to throw the snow from the side of the 
track, where it is piled by the scraper into the gutter, but 
it is not necessary to run this leveler during a snow storm 
over any track more than once or twice during the day. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

The Three-Phase Electric Railway from Stansstadt to 


The year 1898 will mark an interesting date in the his- 
tory of electric traction by the application, on a large scale, 
of the alternating current, utilized directly for the propul- 
sion of electric cars and trains. The first attempt made in 
this direction was in 1896, when a small city tramway with 
a length of 4.5 km. was installed at Lugano, but the roads 
put in operation during the past year leave this modest in- 
stallation far in the rear. 

Several weeks ago the mountain railway up the Gorner- 
grat,near Zermatt,and the first section of the Jungfrau rail- 
way from Scheidegg to Eigergletscher were put in opera- 
tion, and then, most recently, the electric railway from 
Stansstadt to Engelberg. It is this latter road that I now 

of the ordinary type, depending upon adhesion for traction. 
From Obermatt to a place called Gherst the roadbed is 
furnished with a rackrail of the Riggenbach type, the same 
as that used on the Rigi; then from Gherst to Engelberg 
the track is again of the ordinary adhesion type. The 
rackrail has a length of 1.54 km. (0.95 mile), and the grade 
surmounted by its help has an average of 25 per cent. The 
maximum grade on the sections depending for traction on 
adhesion are 5 per cent, and the minimum radius of curves 
is 50 meters (164 ft.). The track is built of Vignole 
rails weighing 20 kg. to the meter (41 lbs. per yard), placed 
on metal ties of 22 kg. (48 lbs.) The rails have a length of 
of 10.5 m. (34.6 ft.), and the ties are spaced eleven to each 
rail length. 

The problem of equipment has been complicated, as can 
be easily seen, by the presence of a section of rack road, 
laid in between the two sections of ordinary track. After 
a study of the conditions the engineers decided to employ 


wish to describe to the readers of the Street Railway 

By a half hour's trip by boat from Lucerne, the starting 
point for tourists in Switzerland, and in the center of a re- 
gion of that incomparable beauty which characterizes cen- 
tral Switzerland, is found the small town of Stansstadt, which 
is located in the canton of Unterwald. It is here that our 
railway commences. It then traverses the little coquettish 
town of Stans at the foot of the Stanserhorn, and the cap- 
ital of the demi-canton of Nidwald. It then rises through 
the entire length of the beautiful valley of Engelberg to 
come out at the locality of that name, after traversing a dis- 
tance of 22.5 km. The profile of the railway is represented 
on the map herewith (Fig. j), which gives the names of the 

From Stansstadt as far as Obermatt, where the power 
station is located, or about 18 km. (11.2 miles), the track is 

large cars with a seating capacity of forty-eight, operated 
as motor cars on the ordinary sections, and drawn on the 
rackrail section by an electric locomotive. 

The entire line passes through a very interesting coun- 
try, and beautiful vistas are presented on the trip. It is 
built upon its own right of way and not upon highways. 
The stations are tasteful in design, and the depots are fur- 
nished with facilities for handling baggage. This makes 
the system resemble a railway more than an ordinary tram- 


The character of the current adopted is the three-phase 
alternating, supplied directly to the motors of the cars and 
the locomotives by means of two trolley lines carried over- 
head at a height of 4.5 meters (14.9 ft.) above the track and 
supported 0.9 meter (2.96 ft.) apart. The rails form the 
third conductor for the system. The diameter of the trol- 

January, 1899.] 



ley wire is 7.5 mm. (.295 in.). They are supported 
by steel span wires of 5.5 mm. (.216 in.) diameter, held be- 
tween two wooden poles placed on each side of the track 
and about 35 meters (1 15.5 ft.) apart. The poles are of 
spruce, creosoted, and have a diameter at the base of 230 
mm. (9 ins.) and at the top 170 mm. (6.7 ins.) All the 
mechanical details of the construction of this line have 
been calculated with a factor of safety of four against 
breakage. The trolley line has a double insulation against 
the soil. The insulators employed were supplied by the 
Billings & Spencer Company, of Hartford. 

The three-phase current is produced at the power station 
at a potential of 750 volts, and for the section immediately 
adjoining the station is conducted directly to the trolley 
wire. The power station is located close to the track at 
Obermatt. In addition, feeders are run from the power 
station to Grafenort for one section and to Griinenwald 
for another section, in order to reduce the loss of voltage 
on those parts of the line having the steepest grades. To 
feed the section situated near Stans, a part of the current 
of the generators is led into a transformer of 90 kw., and 
is raised from 750 volts to 5000 volts. This high tension 
current is carried by an overhead conducting system of 
three wires of 3.5 mm. (.141 in.) in diameter each as far 
as Dallenwyl, situated at 11.1 km. (6.9 miles) from the 
power station. Here it is led to another transformer. 

reference has already been made. The overhead wires are 
protected at the point where they leave the station by light- 
ning arresters of the Siemens horn type, placed on the 
first pole of the line. At the side of the station is a siding 
for the electric locomotives. 

An interesting feature is the method of braking; when a 
train descends the grade of 25 per cent the motors of the 
locomotive are connected in parallel with the generators 
at the central station, and so produce a certain amount 
of power. This power is utilized directly in part by the 
other cars on the section, but as the amount of power pro- 
duced in descending this steep grade is generally greater 
than the consumption of the other trains, the surplus has 
to be absorbed in some other way. Consequently at the 
central station there has been installed a water rheostat, 
consisting of three rails laid in the discharge canal from 
the turbines. The distance between these rails and their 

. Hiyh tension feeder 
. Trolley line 
. Telephone line 
90 Kw. transformer 


(14 MILES, 22. 5 KM.) 

Utraet Ruilway Joui~nal,'N.l'. 


< 12 X — 46 : — 29 — 


2 3 ^ 

< 96- 

< u i 5 i 4 i 3 l 9 A 4 1 10 J< ,o h 2 l 17 

< — - — - — - — - — w 


12.5 MilES OR 20 KM. 

3. 1 

5 KM. 

12.5 MILES 
OR 20 KM. 



which lowers the tension from 5000 volts to 750 volts. 
This second transformer is also of 90 kw. capacity. 

The generators have a capacity of 200 h.p. each, operate 
at a speed of 650 r.p.m. and are each driven by a separate 
impulse wheel, working under a very high head; the num- 
ber of periods in the current is 3900 per minute. Two 
generators are at present installed. They are excited by 
two small continuous current generators of from 10 to 12 
h.p. each, operating at a voltage of no and running at 
1800 r.p.m. Each of these is driven by a small turbine. 

The power station, shown on page 20, is built with a 
capacity of three generating units, and can be enlarged if 
the needs of the traffic require it. The switchboard car- 
ries the usual apparatus, such as voltmeters, amperemeters, 
circuit breakers, etc. In the rear of the board are the fuses 
and the different connections of the transformer, to which 

length has been so adjusted as to permit their absorption 
of from 140 to 240 h.p. When a train starts to descend 
the steep grade the central station is advised of the fact by 
telephone, and the engineer at the central station throws 
in the water rheostat by means of two special switches. 
The system, although somewhat primitive, has given ex- 
cellent results so far. 

Another interesting feature is the device intended to pre- 
vent accidents from the breakage of the wires of the 5000- 
volt circuit. The State railway department has imposed 
on the Stansstadt-Engelberg Railway Company the fol- 
lowing condition: to install a device which will immediate- 
ly interrupt the current in case of a break of the high ten- 
sion wires. Complying with this, the company has in- 
stalled the device illustrated in Fig. 5. The primary coils, 
A, B and C, of the three small transformers, are connected 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

to three wires of the high-tension circuit at the points 
where they leave the station, and possess a common point 
o, which is led to earth. The secondary currents of these 
three transformers are connected in series to single cir- 
cuit, in which is connected the apparatus which will pro- 
duce the interruption of the primary circuit at the moment 
designed. The secondary e.m.f. of these transformers is 
50 volts. The automatic circuit breaker in the circuit at 
/ is an arc lamp. The following result is then secured: 
When there is nothing abnormal in the circuit, that is to 
say, when there is no broken wire, there is an equilibrium 
of the entire system, and the secondary coils of the three 
small transformers are not transversed by any current. 
When, on the other hand, any one of the three wires is 
broken, the equilibrium is interrupted. The unequal 

Street liuilway Juurnal,N F. 


■ ■■ "' ... 

Street Kuilway Journal, X. 1'. 
T,— Transformer .750/ MOO Volts, 90 Kw., at the Central Station 
T 2 = " 5000/750 " 90 " at Dalleuwyl. 

I = Automatic circuit breaker (are lamp) 


phases excite the secondary coils and the current circu- 
lates in the lamp circuit arranged, so that the moment the 
carbons light they interrupt the exciting circuit of the 
generators. The tests made with this apparatus have con- 
sisted in letting a wire of the transmission circuit fall to 
the ground, and have shown that the interruption of the 
exciting circuit of the generators is produced in a length of 
time varying from four to seven seconds. The effect is then 
not absolutely instantaneous, but it would not be difficult 
10 increase sensibly the rapidity of its operation, for ex- 
ample, by substituting for the arc lamp a circuit breaker 
which would open the circuit almost instantaneously. To 
avoid the disastrous effect of a sudden interruption of the 
current it would be possible to substitute for the circuit 
breaker an automatic switch, which would shunt the ex- 
citing current through a rheostat in series with the main 
switch on the exciting dynamos. The exciting circuit be- 
ing no volts, there is not much danger, however, in break- 
ing the circuit quickly. There is another inconvenience, 

however, in that the apparatus might be too sensitive, and 
that it might be operated by lightning. This arrange- 
ment, although somewhat crude, is still interesting to men- 
tion, for it is possible of having wide application, the high- 
tension lines being extremely numerous and the dangers 
resulting from them increasing with the number of in- 


The rolling stock is composed of two electric locomo- 
tives, five motor cars and four freight cars. The locomotives, 
which have a weight of 16.5 tonnes (36,300 lbs.), are in- 
tended, as stated, to draw the cars on the rackrail section, 
as well as to handle the freight trains. These locomotives 
are mounted on two axles, and are equipped with two elec- 
tric motors of 75 h.p. each, and drive the rack gear wheel 
by a double reduction gearing. The motors operate at a 
speed of 650 r.p.m., and the speed on the rackrail is 5 km. 
per hour. In addition, the locomotives are so built that 
the rack gear can be disconnected, and they can operate 
on the ordinary sections at a speed of 11.5 km. per hour. 

G= Alternating generator, 750 Volts. 
R = Regulating rheostat. 

Strcet Railway Journal.N.T. 
E = Exciter, 110 Volts.. 
T = Transfon 

ner, 75u/5O0O Volts. 


The equipment of the locomotives includes a switch, a 
diverter, a volt and ampere meter, lightning arresters and 
fuse plugs. The duties of the engineer are very simple. 
He closes first the main switch and slowly cuts out the re- 
sistance which is in the circuit of the motors. The motors 
operate then in synchronism with the generators of the 
power station and at a constant speed, independent of the 
load drawn. When ascending a grade of 25 per cent and 
pushing a motor car completely loaded the locomotives ab- 
sorb an average of from 95 to 100 amps, at 750 volts. In de- 
scending and with the same conditions of load, the motors 
furnish a current from 60 to 65 amps, going up to a maxi- 
mum of 75 amps. The current is taken from the over- 
head wires by means of two sliding bow contacts, which 
are composed of two long cylinders of aluminum sepa- 
rated from each other by a piece of wood soaked in para- 
fine. The bow system of contact has been adopted in 
order to avoid the difficulties of construction with overhead 

January, 1899.] 



frogs, which were not considered desirable with two trol- 
leys. The bows have given up to the present excellent 

The locomotives are fitted with the following braking 
apparatus: first, ordinary brake shoes that operate on the 
four wheels; second, the motors working as generators 
when the current is reversed, the speed of the motors being 
constant whether they work as motors 
or generators; third, the emergency 
brake, ' operating simultaneously on 
the two grooved pulleys or drums, 
of which one is mounted on the 

in and power is transmitted through the car axles through 
the intermediary of two gears of 432 mm. (17 ins.) diame- 
ter connected by means of cranks with two others of the 
same diameter mounted on the car axles. Below the 
motors is a diverter, operated by a handle, which con- 
nects the carbon contacts with the different sections of 
the resistance. All of the controlling mechanism of the 

I = Switch 

R— Rails in ivatcr 

DVNAMO 750 V. "O Street Railway Journal,N.Y 


shaft of the motor and the other on the countershaft 
placed between the motors and the axles. These two 
brakes are connected mechanically together in such a 
way that the pressure divides itself uniformly on the two 
axles. When the eight brakeshoes are applied a pressure 
is brought to bear against the grooved pulleys at the same 
time. The rack brake is operated in two different ways, 
by hand and automatically. To secure this a speed gov- 
ernor is used, which puts the brake in operation when the 
speed exceeds the normal. Moreover, 
when the main switch is opened the 
brakes are automatically set. 

The locomotives for driving gear are 
fitted with two shafts, of which one is 
supplied with a gear toothed for fitting 
into the rack. The motors drive an in- 
termediate shaft placed between the two 
main car axles, and on which is 
mounted a toothed pinion, which is 
loose on the shaft. This pinion is oper- 
ated by the electric motors through the 
intermediary of two trains of gears, re- 
ducing the speed in the proportion of 
about 15 to 1, for operating on the 
rack. Each motor transmits its work 
by a pinion of 156 mm. (6.1 ins.) 
diameter, mounted on the extension of 
its shaft. This pinion engages with a 
gear of 1092 mm. (43 ins.) diameter 
mounted on an intermediate shaft. On 
this shaft are found two other gears of 
256 mm. (10 ins.) diameter, which en- 
gage in their turn with two gears of 
608 mm. (24 ins.) diameter placed on 
each side of the toothed wheel engag- 
ing in the rack. The intermediate axle 
on which are mounted the two gears of 256 mm. (10 
ins.) carry at their ends a friction coupling in order 
to throw the regular wheels into gear. The driving 
gear in the rack is then always connected mechan- 
ically with the motors, while the driving wheels are 
uncoupled during the ascent on the rack. For operat- 
ing on the ordinary line, the friction coupling is thrown 


locomotive is located in the cab, which is furnished on all 
sides with windows and has two doors. 

The motor cars at present are five in number, and have 
a length of 14 meters (46.2 ft.). They are mounted on two 
trucks having a wheel base of 1.80 meters (5.94 ft.) and 
spaced 8.30 meters (27.9 ft.) apart. The car is built accord- 
ing, in compartments, to the French system. The number 
of these compartments is six, not counting the compart- 
mentfor baggage placed at the end of the car. The number 


of seats varies from 44 to 48. The two platforms are 
inclosed by a vestibule, the windows of which can be low- 
ered at pleasure. The forward platform is reserved for the 
motorman, who has at hand the following apparatus for 
controlling the speed: a switch, a lever for throwing in the 
resistance of the diverter, and hand brake. 

The approach of the car is signaled by means of a horn, 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

and the car carries a small, primary battery, so that the 
conductor, who is on the rear platform, can signal to the 
motorman on the front platform. The two motors are 
carried on the two axles of the same truck; they are of 35 
h.p. each with six poles, revolve at 480 r.p.m. and drive the 
axle by gearing. The free swivel truck is furnished on 
one axle with a toothed gear engaging in the rack and 
arranged to be braked by means of an emergency brake 
carried on the rear platform of the car. The efficiency of 
the motors at full load is 80 per cent, including the gears. 

The regulating resistance, which is thrown in the induced 
circuit of the motors, is carried on the roof of the car and 
enclosed in a water tight case. The electric equipment of 
the cars is completed by fusible plugs and lightning ar- 
resters, as well as lamps for the general lighting of the in- 
terior of the car, and two signal lamps carried regularly on 

the hood. OPERATION 

As stated, the distance from Stansstadt to Obermatt, 
where the power station is located, is about 18 km. (11 
miles) of ordinary track, on which the grades do not ex- 
ceed 5 per cent. This section is operated by single motor 
cars, which are designed to be capable of drawing one 
trail car. They weigh 5 tonnes (11,000 lbs.) empty, and 
26 tonnes (57,200 lbs.) loaded. At Obermatt the motor 
car first runs on the rack for about 20 meters (66 ft.). Then 
the electric locomotive is run up behind it, and, without 
coupling, the train proceeds up the grade under the power 
of the locomotive only. The rack has a length of 1540 
meters (5050 ft.) and terminates at Gherst. On arriving at 
that point the motorman on the car turns current into the 
motors and the car proceeds under its own power without 


being obliged to uncouple from the locomotive, as ex- 
plained above. The locomotive remains at Gherst to wait 
for the return car. A siding at this place permits two 
trains to follow each other, if desired, the locomotives 
being shunted onto the siding. To descend, the motor 
car runs on the rack section just far enough so that the 
gear wheel of the emergency brake is able to engage in the 
rack. Then the locomotive is coupled onto the car and 
the descent commences. When they arrive at Obermatt 
the locomotive is uncoupled and is then shunted onto the 

siding, and the motor car proceeds independently after 
about two minutes required for uncoupling. The speed 
of the cars is absolutely constant, a result which naturally 
follows the use of the alternating current, and on the ordi- 
nary track is about 20 km. per hour, although on the rack 
section it is only 5 km. per hour, owing to the change in 
gearing. The speed is the same in descending and ascend- 

From the standpoint of the operation of locomotives and 
motor cars this constant speed is without doubt of ad- 


vantage, for the motorman is not able to waste current by 
lack of judgment; in a word, to take liberties with the 
timetable. He has absolutely only to close the switch and 
to cut out the starting resistance. This comprises all his 
work. On the other hand, from a practical standpoint, it 
is often desirable to be able to vary the speed within cer- 
tain limits, either to gain lost time or else to vary the speed 
according to grades of the track, curves, where the car is 
passing through towns, etc. From this standpoint a three- 
phase current as applied in this instance has a disadvantage 
as compared with the continuous current, for the latter is 
undoubtedly much more flexible in its employment. 

The different stations are connected between each other 
by telephones, using a complete metallic circuit to over- 
come the effect of induction and leakage from the alter- 
nating currents used. The two telephone wires are crossed 
every five poles, corresponding to a distance of about 175 
meters (574 ft.). The wires of the public telephone sys- 
tem, which parallel the railway for a considerable distance, 
have been crossed every pole to eliminate induction. Since 
this was done the telephone circuit works very satis- 


One great advantage of the direct application of the 
three-phase alternating current for traction lie in the facil- 
ity of transporting the electric energy over considerable 
distances at high tension and of reducing it to a working 
voltage without recourse to rotary transformers, which are 
more or less complicated and expensive. The transform- 
ers for the alternating current are simple, take little space 
and require practically no attention. There are other ad- 
vantages, however. The motors are of simple and strong 
.construction as compared with continuous current motors, 
and have no commutator. On the other hand there are 
some undoubted drawbacks. Reference is not made to 
these to cast any discredit on the builders, who deserve 
great credit for their pioneer work, but to call to their at- 
tention those points which are yet capable of improvement. 

From a construction standpoint the overhead line is un- 
doubtedly more difficult to build, more costly and more 

January, 1899.] 



heavy than that required for a continuous current. The 
installations at switches are particularly complicated and 
heavy. The difficulties attending the taking of current 
from the trolley wires are considerable, especially with the 
system of bow contact, where there is no guide to the 


current collector. From an operating standpoint the 
great disadvantage is the necessity of maintaining a con- 
stant speed whether on grades or on level; that is to say, 
without regard to the work required of the motors. It is 
absolutely illogical, for example, that a car should have a 
speed of from 18 km. to 20 km. per hour on levels and on 
grades. On the former the speed ought to be much 
greater than 20 km., and descending a grade it ought to 
be somewhat less. There is another disadvantage of the 
system in that there is absolute dependence on the trolley 
line for operating the electric brakes. An example will 
demonstrate this. Let us consider our car descending a 


grade of 5 per cent at a speed of from 18 to 20 km. per 
hour, and that we have good contact with the overhead 
wires. The motors are in phase with the generators and 
the speed cannot exceed or be less than that determined 
by the periodicity of the latter. Let us suppose that the 
current suddenly stops or that the generators are cut out 
for some cause or another. Our car immediately acquires 
a high speed, which may become dangerous if the car be 
not immediately checked by the ordinary mechanical 
brakes. With a continuous current where in descending 
grades the motors can be made work as generators it is 
possible to maintain the speed within desired limits, and 
this can be done with complete independence of the over- 
head line. 

The foregoing are briefly certain critical considerations 
which suggest themselves to me in comparing the con- 
tinuous alternating current as applied to electric traction. 
The criticisms, as stated, are not directed against the build- 
ers, whose work at this installation ought to be considered 
as a valuable contribution to the science of electric rail- 
roading. The objections may no doubt be overcome, and 
the alternating current, in the future, may be a consider- 
able if not a formidable rival of the continuous current, at 
all events, under certain conditions. In conclusion I 
wish to express my thanks to the builders of the line, who 
have kindly supplied me with information for this article, 
viz.: Messrs. Brown, Boveri & Company, of Baden, 


Switzerland, who carried out all the electric work; La 
Societe Industriele Suisse, at Neuhausen, who supplied 
the cars, and La Societe Suisse pour la Construction de 
Locomotives, at Winterthun, who build the two electric 

Electrical and Repair Shop Practices in Philadelphia 

It is the practice of the superintendent of the overhead 
lines and cables of the Union Traction Company, of Phila- 
delphia, to furnish the emergency repair men blue prints 
showing the trolley sections fed by each cable. These blue 
prints are numbered, and sections belonging to power sta- 
tion No. 1 run from 1 to 199; those from station No. 2, 
from 200 to 299, and so on to the other stations, of which 
there are seven, and one battery station, the latter being of 
the chloride accumulator type. These blue prints show 
all the trolley sections in detail, giving the location of 
points where connection is made from the underground 
cable to the trolley wire and the location of section in- 
sulators. The number of the adjacent sections are also 
given, as shown by the accompanying sample print, Fig. 1. 

Since the consolidation of the different companies there 
has been a rearrangement of feeder lines, so that the dif- 
ferent stations are coupled in the most economical manner, 
resulting in a large saving of current and copper by the 
transfer of cables to new districts. It should be remem- 
bered that in this system nearly all feeders are carried 
underground in the company's own conduits. There are 
over 1000 miles of underground cable, composed of 620 
miles of lead-covered feeder cable, 170 miles of telephone 
cable, and 210 miles of return cable. Since the burning of 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

the Thirteenth and Mt. Vernon Street station, and the con- 
sequent disarrangement of the cables in the power-house 
vaults, a systematic arrangement of the cables in these 
vaults has been effected, and the contrast is shown in the 
accompanying illustrations. 

Fig. 2 shows the condition of a portion of one of the 
vaults before the change, and Fig. 3, the same manhole, 

the Standard Telephone Company, and an independent 
switchboard is provided. The current for operating the 
call circuit of the telephone system is generated by a pair 


AT 31st. ST. 

AT 20TH. ST 

W. OF 27th. ST, 




with the cable systematically arranged. Figs. 4 and 5 also 
show how order was brought out of confusion in another 
vault. Fig. 6 illustrates the method of supporting lines 
of lead cable round a corner and also from the ceiling. In 
this connection, however, it may be noted that a peculiarly 
formed metal bracket has recently been devised by this 

IN FIG. 2 

department. It is intended to replace the wooden strips 
used in the manholes, as the supports made from wood are 
found to rot out after about three years of service. 

Five plumbers with the necessary number of helpers are 
employed in keeping the lead-covered cables in proper 


The company maintains an independent telephone sys- 
tem of about 100 instruments, which connects the depart- 
ment offices, and also the emergency stations, power 
houses and car houses. The system is known as that of 


of motor dynamos, which are located in the same room as 
the switchboard. There are two of these machines, but 
only one is operated at a time. These machines are of the 
Crocker-Wheeler type, and transform a 500-volt direct 
current down to 75 volts alternating. The switch con- 
nected with these machines is provided with an automatic 
cut-out and rheostat, so that if the current breaker in a 
power station opens, the current is automatically cut off 
from the motor transformer. 

An operator is always on duty, who also acts as emer- 
gency dispatcher and keeps a record of all calls answered 
by the emergency wagons. Trouble of all kinds is re- 


ported to the central office, and this department is also 
connected with the city fire alarm signals, the emergency 
wagon running on each fire alarm, the same as the fire 
engines. At fires, the tower wagons are frequently used 
as hose bridges, so that the cars are allowed to pass 
through. Each wagon crew is composed of a lineman, 
helper and driver, and the lineman reports by telephone 

January, 1899.] 



the nature of all the calls to which he may respond and the 
time consumed. 

The company employs eight emergency tower wagons, 
six of which are on duty throughout the twenty-four 
hours, and two that are on duty for twelve hours. These 
tower wagons are of the McCardall & West type, manu- 
factured at Trenton, N. J. 

Some idea of the work required of this department can 

IN FIG. 4 

be formed from the statement that the system embodies 
about 500 miles of trolley wire and 300 miles of overhead 
feeder cable. No. 00 trolley wire is used in re-equipment 
throughout the entire system. The overhead construction 
is supported by tubular iron poles 30 ft. in height and in 
three sections; the telescoped sections are 7 ins., 6 ins. and 
5 ins. A special device is employed at the overhead cross- 
ings, which prevents the wearing out or crystallizing of 
the trolley wire at these points. This consists of a sheet of 

between the repair shop on one side of the track, and the 
wood working department on the other, and crosses the 
tracks of the repair pits and the station storage tracks. 

The table operates on four tracks, which are slightly 
depressed, so that the tracks on the platform are on a level 
with the shop tracks. The current for operating the motor 


is collected by an under-running trolley, which is in con- 
tact with a T rail, used as a conductor. This rail is em- 
bedded in asphalt between the track rails, and its surface 
is about 2 ins. below the asphalt paving. An ordinary 
car motor of the G. E.-800 type, with type K-2 controller, 
is employed, and this is geared to the main axle, as in car 
practice. The resistance coils are in three sections, and 
boxed in directly under the main axle. The fuse box and 
switch are placed near the operator. Each axle has four 
wheels, those on the motor side of the table being 30 ins. 
in diameter, of special pattern undished, while the wheels 


steel about 3 ft. in length and 4 ins. in width placed above 
the wire with the ends turned up, and so arranged that 
when the trolley wheel approaches the crossing the flanges 
of the wheel come in contact with the curved plate, freeing 
the groove from the wire and relieving the latter from the 
blow that is otherwise dealt at the rigid point. 


In the main repair shop, which is at the corner of Eighth 
and Dauphin Streets, there is a home-made electric trans- 
fer table, Fig. 7, which eliminates almost all the hand labor 
required for shifting cars. This table is of sufficient length 
to accommodate the longest and heaviest cars, and plies 

on the opposite side of the table are 15 ins. in diameter. 
The outside wheels of each set are plain, without flanges 
and their axles are coupled to the driving axle by a pe- 
culiar clutch coupling, which allows them to turn inde- 
pendent of the driving axle. Roller bearings are provided 
for each journal, and these are what are known as the 
Standard roller bearing. 

The middle driving wheel next the controller is provided 
with a band brake, which is operated by a foot lever within 
easy reach of the operator. The table runs very rapidly, 
and is readily controlled by the brake. The company has 
two of its shops equipped with this type of transfer table, 
and both are giving excellent satisfaction. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 


Reversible Street Railway Rails 

Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 2, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

The reversible girder rail is by no means a new idea. 
Such a rail was patented in England and Germany many 
years ago, and, as is well known, is used to-day largely in 
Great Britain and on the Continent of Europe; however, 
the rail forms which I illustrate in this letter are, in matter 
of design, proposed method of manufacture and applica- 
tion, original with the writer. 

It is well known that in cities, under heavy traffic, the 
average life of the straight-line rail is from seven to ten 
years only; on curves this life is reduced to from two to six 
years. In Europe, the experiment of reversing double- 
headed rails on steam roads has proved a failure, due to 
the fact that the double or "bull"-headed rail is set on 
chairs, and the wear is thus concentrated on that part of 
the rail in contact with the chair. The consequence is that 
the rail is worn on the under side, and presents a series of 
indentations, sometimes amounting to as much as an 
eighth of an inch in depth. 

This indentation of the rail does not occur when the rail 
is in contact with wood or has a uniform bearing of large 
surface on metal or concrete. As a maintenance of way 
engineer and one engaged in the manufacture of rail work, 
it has been a study with the writer for years how to in- 
crease the life of rails, and, while an earnest advocate of 



which overcomes any difficulty of this kind. The con- 
crete roadbed for street work is used so successfully abroad 
and at home that its introduction in such an event may be 
considered on the line of improved practice. 

The fatigue of metal in a rail long in use would be an 
argument against in steam road practice, but conditions 
are radically different on the street railways, where the 
breakage of rails in use is rare. With the tremendous 
traffic developed by electric service in cities has come the 
demand for something more permanent than what is 
known abroad as "permanent way," but which unfor- 
tunately hardly deserves this title. Figuring the length 
of street railways in the United States at 12,000 miles, and 
assuming the average weight of rail 70 lbs. to the yard, 
which is low, the annual saving per mile of track per 
annum would be $136.19, or a total for the United States 
of $1,634,280, representing at 4 per cent a capitalization of 
$40,857,000. On such a system as the Union Traction 
Company, of Philadelphia, the annual saving would be 
nearly $70,000. G. W. Chance. 

Proposed Convertible Car 

Johnstown, Pa., Dec. 5, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

Upon reading your editorial upon convertible cars in the 
curj>£nt issue of the Street Railway Journal, the con- 
struction shown in the sketch herewith suggested itself. 
/Upon examination and research it will probably be found 
"as old as the hills/' yet I cannot remember seeing it be- 
fore. The length of the car must be a multiple of the 
width, which permits the same seats to be arrangedjength 
or cross wise for winter or summer, as desired. The sketch 


high carbon and special steels, yet even the recourse to 
such has not solved the problem of economical main- 
tenance, in the writer's opinion. In the illustration are 
shown several designs of reversible rails; some of these 
are no doubt of little utility; others are superior. 

Figuring at the present price of steel rails, their average 
life and renewal costs, allowing current prices for scrap, 
with interest on increased investment in the case of the 
reversible rail, also taking into account additional present 
cost of rolling the reversible rail, it appears that this form 
of rail presents an economy of at least one-third over the 
present form of rail. The pros and cons may be stated as 

1st. Increased cost of rolling. 

2d. Increase of capital in investment, due to increased 
weight of rail. 

3d. Difficulties of fastening. 
4th. Fatigue of metal. 


1st. Increase of life, double that of single head. 

2d. Ease of change, when renewal comes. 

Answering objections, I would state that with the 
method of rolling which I propose, the cost will not be in- 
creased, and a better rail will be obtained than in the case 
of a thin base, making a rail subject to internal stresses. It 
is true that the capital investment is slightly increased, but 
this is more than offset by gain in efficiency. 

With the New York type of rail, shown at the extreme 
right, there is no increase of difficulty in fastening the rail 
to the tie over the ordinary base rail, and with the other 
forms it is generally proposed to use a concrete roadbed, 


. WINTER jj 

—±\ — 





( \ 



£ ! r 



1 j 


1 i 

I ! 



illustrates a car 18 ft. body, having three doors in the side 
and one at each end. The side doors can slide, as noted in 
the sketch, so that in winter they can be securely tightened 
in place, like cab doors. Two extra seats may be provided 
on the platforms for summer travel, which is almost always 
greater per car than in winter. I have paid no attention to 
detail, as I am not building such a car, merely offering it as 
a suggestion. For summer use the end doors are securely 
closed and the running boards are used for steps. The 
side doors are then fastened back or taken off. The only 
work involved in the alteration is the shifting of the seats. 
The two extra seats for the summer car would be the only 
parts requiring winter storage, and they can be so made 
that they will retain their shape in or out of use. 

S. E. Clarkson. 

January, 1899.] 



Street Railway Park at Columbus, Ohio 

The Columbus Central Railway Company, 

Columbus, Ohio, Dec. 11, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

The view herewith is a flash-light photo taken of the 
audience at our theater, Minerva Park Casino, on the 
evening of Oct. 2, 1898. We consider this picture a strong 
argument in favor of street railway parks and summer 
vaudeville, which many of your contributors seem in- 
clined to regard as at least partial failures. Without be- 
ing posted on the local conditions obtaining, the price paid 
for artists by these gentlemen would, it seems to us, ac- 
count for the failures, as performances costing $200 to 
$250 will not draw, while performances costing twice that 
amount will command in business many times the dif- 
ference paid for performers. 

At Minerva Park Casino we maintain an excellent or- 
chestra of fifteen pieces, which doubles to brass for a short 
concert before the performance. We pay from $500 to 
$600 for artists, and book all acts separately, thus avoid- 
ing anything objectionable or undesirable. 

We have in the capacity of amusement manager a com- 
petent theatrical man of extended experience, and book 
without charge attractions for a circuit of street railway 
parks extending from Pennsylvania to Illinois. The ob- 
ject of this circuit is to enable us to contract with per- 
formers for ten or twelve weeks' steady work with short 
railway jumps and consequent small traveling expense, at 
a reduction in salary of 25 to 50 per cent to the advantage 
of those in the circuit. 

Regarding fares, we issue an excursion ticket during the 
summer season for 15 cents, including a coupon for ad- 
mission to Minerva Park. Five cents is credited to the 
park for every coupon taken at their turnstiles. No ad- 

the addition of the vaudeville greatly increases the value 
of the numerous concessions on the grounds. 

As a further argument that summer vaudeville can be 
successfully run in street railway parks, we can point to 
Minerva Park as a railway park that is self-sustaining, and 
which brings in considerable traffic to this road. 

F. N. Bendelari, Agent for Receiver. 
♦ ♦♦ 

Trolley Wheel for High Speed Roads 

In the early experiments in high-speed heavy electric 
railroading with overhead construction carried on by the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company 
on its Nantasket Beach and New Canaan branches, con- 

m n N» 


y ','/',//>></>,; ; 


1 VL-TIP?-* 

, 1 (, 1H>— ~< 

\'t — m- 

.11 l:,.lluc,vJ.,i,rmil.S r. 


mission is charged to the Casino, but we reserve 1200 
seats at 10 cents and 100 box-seats at 25 cents. The bal- 
ance of the house is free. The total seating capacity is 
about 3000. Reserved seats are on sale at the principal 
hotels ten days in advance. 

Minerva Park covers 156 acres, and contains all the 
usual amusements. The stimulus given to business by 


siderable difficulty was experienced in getting a satisfactory 
form of trolley wheel. As explained by Col. Heft in the 
issue of Street Railway Journal for November, 1897, 
it was found that as soon as the speed of the 
cars was increased beyond a certain point 
the ordinary trolley wheels would jump the 
wire very frequently, particularly at curves. 
Many trolley poles were broken in this way 
in addition to the damage done to the over- 
head construction. It was also found that 
the wheels were very often destroyed by the 
almost continual arcing when taking from 
the wire the heavy currents required in 
starting and during acceleration as well as 
the smaller currents taken at the maximum 

In order to overcome these difficulties the 
form of trolley wheel shown in the accom- 
panying illustration has been devised and is 
now the standard type on all the overhead 
electrical divisions of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad. The wheel is 
made up of a cylinder of composition metal 
3 ins. in diameter, and with curved edges, 
which fit against 5-in. steel flanges which 
are J in. thick and riveted through the body 
of the wheel. The tread for the wire is i-l- 
ins. wide, this large gage being employed 
in order to give to the wheel more play 
upon the trolley wire and thus prevent it 
from jumping at high speeds. The tread 
can be easily replaced when worn out without renewing 
any of the other parts of the wheel. 

The New York Auto- Truck Company is the title of a 
corporation recently organized in New York to build auto- 
mobile drays, operated by compressed air motors. Joseph 
H. Hoadley and Henry E. Knight are largely interested. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 




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Papers and correspondence on all subjects of practical ititerest to 
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the discussion cf problems of operation, construction, engineering, 
finance and invention. 

Special effort will be made to answer promptly, and without 
charge, any reasonable request for information which maybe received 
from our readers and advertisers, answers being given through the 
•.olumns of the Journal when of general interest, otherwise by letter. 

Street railway news and all information regarding changes of 
officers, new equipment, extensions, financial changes, etc., will be 
greatly appreciated for use in our Directory, our Financial Supple- 
ment, or our news columns. 

All matters intended for publication in the cur-rent issues must 
be received at our office not later than the twenty-second of eac^monlh. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemever Building, 26 Cortlandt St., Nt7v York, 

Street railway earnings are improving — not by leaps and 
bounds, but steadily and satisfactorily. The improvement 
appears to be general over the entire country. The great 
rise in the prices of "traction stocks" in the New York, 
Boston and Philadelphia stock markets since election day 
has excited widespread comment and has made bankei s 
and brokers eager to put new enterprises upon the market 
— enterprises which in some cases have been shelved for 
several years waiting for favorable money conditions. Wall 
Street is full of money, full of confidence and full of daring 
to-day. In the vernacular of the Street, "stocks are boom- 
ing" and "anything goes." It is superfluous to say that 
there is danger to the permanent investor at such times as 
this, and much discrimination should be used in sorting out 
the sheep from the goats. Nevertheless, the fact remains 
that the street railway industry of the country is in good 
condition, so far as earnings are concerned, and needs only 
a few years of continued prosperity to become favored of 
capitalists as a field for investment. 

Americans cannot longer ignore broad world problems 
and responsibilities. Whether we will or not, "imperialist," 
or "expansionist," ideas must prevail in the long run, and 
no "strict construction" group of legislators or individuals 
can prevent it. We say this calmly and dispassionately, 
more as recording a prediction than as supporting a debat- 
able policy. If the history of our own and other countries 
proves anything, it proves that nations are constantly 
broadening out in their interests and ambitions — not turn- 
ing all their efforts back into the narrower grooves of self- 
improvement. The reflex action of a widening national 
policy upon the individual citizen is not the least valuable 
of the results which will follow. So long as Americans deal 
with purely national or local matters they are individually 
provincial. So soon as they reach around the world and 
grapple with international ones they become cosmopolitan. 
The London bus driver gravely discusses with his nearest 
top passenger the morning's report of Russian encroach- 
ments in Manchuria. The flower of British young man- 
hood is winning fortune and fame in India, South Africa or 
Alaska. French and German capitalists examine all coun- 
tries for opportunities for investment. Shall Americans, 
then, in proud but short-sighted self-sufficiency, say, "Our 
country is large enough for us ?" 

It would be hard for American manufacturers, and par- 
ticularly for the makers of street railway apparatus, to be 
other than "expansionists." When the crash in prices came 
five years ago and home business had to be taken by our 
manufacturers without profit, or at a loss, the foreign mar- 
kets began to be explored, at first diffidently, if not 
despondently. Greatly to their surprise, they found better 
chances for success than had been deemed possible. The 
high prices paid for American labor were counterbalanced 
by a much less rate of production per workman in foreign 
countries, where trades unions hold full sway, while the 
magnitude of our markets was, and is, such that division of 
labor and use of labor-saving machinery can be carried to 
the highest perfection, and so large a quantity of manufac- 
tured product can be turned out that much of it can over- 
run into other countries and be sold at a price less than the 
foreign cost of production with their smaller and greatly 
subdivided markets. As a consequence, we see enormous 
annual increases in the foreign shipments of American 
manufactured goods, which have excited the wonder of our 
own and of foreign statisticians, and have raised us at least 
to the second position among the creditor nations of the 
world. Moreover, it is not true, at least in the street rail- 
way manufacturing industry, that American makers have 
been forced to content themselves with lower prices for 
goods sent abroad than for those sold at home. Instead of 
this, materially higher prices have ruled for foreign con- 
signment and reports of heavy price cutting and losses, 
circulated at home as well as abroad, are false. America 
has as fine a corps of selling and distributing agents in 
Europe as is possessed by the manufacturers of any coun- 
try. We have not, however, properly and fully sought the 
trade of the Orient and of South America. The Philippines 
should be invaluable to us as a vantage point for the im- 
mense and just opening development of the Chinese Em- 
pire, for which Russia, Great Britain, Germany and France 
are striving. With the Nicaragua Canal constructed, Avith 
the Hawaiian Islands as stepping stones to Eastern Asia, 

January, 1899.] 



and with a Pacific cable binding our new possessions more 
closely to us, the American Empire will be firmly estab- 
lished in the front rank of the great world powers, and will 
be able, with dignity, fairness and moderation, to preserve 
or improve its standing, and to obtain for its citizens a 
rapid increase of individual and collective wealth and pros- 

The Paris Exposition of 1900 promises to draw to that 
city a very large number of Americans, among whom will 
undoubtedly be numbered many of our readers, who will 
take the opportunity which the visit to Paris affords to in- 
spect the tramway systems of France, and perhaps those 
of some of the other countries of Europe. The next con- 
vention of the International Tramways Union is scheduled 
for Paris in 1900, and Americans, who are interested in 
street railway enterprises here, and who expect to attend 
the Paris Exposition, would do well to time their visit, if 
possible, so as to be present at the meeting of that associa- 
tion. The date of that meeting has not yet been announced 
by the executive committee of the Union, but will be duly 
published in the Journal when it is made public. In this 
connection, Mons. Lavalard, one of the managers of the 
General Omnibus Company, of Paris, the largest tramway 
company in that city, has sent us a letter in which he sug- 
gests that a congress of all the tramway companies in the 
world be held in Paris at the time of the Exposition, and 
states that he believes that a great deal of mutual benefit 
would be derived from such a meeting. The plan of a 
World's congress seems an excellent one. In spite of the 
differences in steam railroad practices between this country 
and Europe, the International Railroad Congress, held 
abroad, is always well attended by American railroad offi- 
cials. The differences existing in electric tramway practice 
here and abroad are much less than in steam railroading, 
and, in the essential features of the mechanical and elec- 
trical sides of the subject, are practically nil. It is not too 
much, therefore, to expect good results to follow such a 
meeting, and what city and time are more appropriate for 
the first meeting than Paris and 1900? 

A very large amount of the wear to which special work 
is subjected is caused, not by the normal, but by the abnor- 
mal, wear of the wheels. A properly proportioned wheel 
will not be anywhere near as destructive to special work as 
an improperly proportioned wheel, or one which through 
wear has lost its original shape. For this reason, wheel 
wear must not be considered as being limited to the wheels 
themselves, but as covering a very much wider field, and, 
as wheels are very much cheaper than special work, it is 
almost a truism to say that there is no economy in trying 
to get wear out of wheels after they lose their shape to any 
considerable extent. In other words, after they have 
reached a certain point, they are so destructive to track and 
special work, particularly when the latter is not of the hard- 
ened center type, that there is no economy in trying to save 
the metal in the wheel. This is one argument against the 
use of steel-tired wheels, which are more popular abroad 
than in this country. As we have repeatedly pointed out 
in these columns, the use of steel-tired wheels on tramways 
or street railways, where there is apt to be grit and dirt on 
the track, is an entirely different proposition than on steam 

railroads where the track is laid with exposed ties. With 
the head of the rail on a level with the pavement steel-tired 
wheels soon lose their shape, and while they can be run 
within much closer limits, so far as flange breaking and 
chipping is concerned, than chilled iron wheels, it is need- 
less to say that when worn out ot shape they are exceed- 
ingly destructive to the track construction. On the perfect 
condition of the latter hinges directly the life of the cars 
and motors, together with the comfort of the passengers, 
so that a badly worn wheel, if persistently used, is apt to 
produce effects of a far-reaching nature to all branches of 
a road's permanent way and rolling stock. 

We commend to the special attention of street railway 
secretaries, treasurers, auditors and accountants the paper 
in another column on "An Ideal System of Street Railwaj 
Accounts." This is an entirely dispassionate discussion, 
from the standpoint of a professional accountant, of the 
relationship which the different classes of accounts in the 
profit and loss statement and the balance sheet bear to 
each other, and to the general accounting scheme. The 
key-note of the discussion lies in the statement that "the 
one aim of the skilled bookkeeper is to be able to produce 
when necessary a clear and correct final balance sheet. 
=»■ * * * 1 he ideal in bookkeeping, therefore, is a per- 
petual balance sheet, a balance sheet that is an integral 
part of the accounting system, and not something that is 
made up outside of the books at intervals." (In this last 
use of the term "balance sheet" there is included the profit 
and loss statement.; In other words, there is brought out 
in this discussion for the first time, so far as we are aware, 
a description of the "Balance Sheet System" of bookkeep- 
ing as applied to street railway accounting, and we heartily 
indorse the suggestion on its broad lines as a good one. 
The "Chart of Analysis and Classification" presented by 
Mr. Kittredge will be of great value to accountants, as it 
expresses the locations and relationships of the different 
accounts in the clearest possible manner. 

The remarkable presentation in our November issue of 
the "Comparative Costs and Profits of Electric Cable and 
Horse Railway Operation in New York City" has natural- 
ly been widely noticed, and in many cases reproduced, by 
the engineering and daily press at home and abroad, while 
it has been reprinted in pamphlet form for the use of mem- 
bers of the London County Council and of the Glasgow 
Council. Many analyses and attempted applications of 
these figures have been made in editorial and corre- 
spondence columns, and by the advocates of different mo- 
tive powers in municipal councils. The New York figures 
have surprised and puzzled many people, for one reason 
and another, and the mistake has frequently been made of 
trying to fit them to other conditions. Whenever startling 
differences in receipts and operating expenses of any two 
roads give rise to speculation as to causes, it is a quite safe 
plan to turn first to the car mileage records and ascertain 
the differences of practice between the roads in the mat- 
ters of schedule speeds per hour, miles per car-day, use of 
trailers, etc. Among others, we notice in a recent number 
of the "Railroad Gazette," an interesting comparative 
schedule of the costs per car-mile of the conduit electric 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

system of New York, and the trolley system of Chicago, 
and of the cable systems in the two cities. The differences 
are remarkable, and, unfortunately, little attempt at ex- 
plaining them is made by the author. The putting to- 
gether of figures of this kind without an accurate statement 
of the differences in practice is a mistake from the stand- 
point of the true statistician, since wholly incorrect deduc- 
tions may be drawn by the ill-informed, and action may 
sometimes be taken involving the gravest financial con- 
sequences from mere impressions given by such figures. 
How can New York and Chicago results be compared? 
In New York no trailers are used on either grip or elec- 
tric cars, while in Chicago a grip car carries from one to 
four trailers, according to the time of day, thereby saving 
greatly in power consumption and in transportation ex- 
penses per car-mile; the schedule speeds per hour in the 
two cities are quite different, which affects both transpor- 
tation expenses and power: the time interval between cars 
on the Broadway system is so short that the load and wear 
upon its cables are terriffic, thereby causing an expense for 
renewals of cable alone amounting to 20 per cent more 
than the entire maintenance of way expenses of the Chicago 
City Railway Company; transportation wages per hour 
are different in the two cities; electric cars are mostly long 
m New York and short in Chicago, and, finally, many of 
the expenses are functions not of car mileage, but of miles 
of road or gross receipts. The car-mile unit for compari- 
son is extremely fallacious and misleading — the ton-mile 
unit, when possible to obtain it, far better. 

The increasing unwillingness of municipalities in Europe 
and America to grant any but short-time franchises or re- 
newals of franchises to their street railway companies is 
deplorable, from almost every point of view. Granting 
that the public should derive the greatest possible benefit, 
in one form or another, from the use of its streets for trans- 
portation purposes, it is yet always possible to arrange 
compensation over a long term of years on some sliding 
scale, such that this desirable end can be obtained without, 
on the other hand, forcing the street railway companies to 
borrow money at high rates or to have their securities re- 
garded as unstable. It is always to the advantage of the 
municipalities, as well as of the companies, to have the 
former's securities regarded as low rate — 4 per cent, for ex- 
ample — investment, but a short tenure of franchise or any 
other element which makes the immediate future uncer- 
tain tends to raise the rate of interest demanded by capital, 
and therefore reduces the concessions which can be made 
to the public in the way of improved service, extensions, 
etc. The English plan of twenty-one-year franchises has 
worked so wretchedly by emasculating enterprise and re- 
tarding the growth and expansion of cities, that the object 
lesson ought to be taken to heart by well-informed Ameri- 
cans. On the other hand, the magnificent enterprise 
shown by private companies in those places, in America, 
particularly, where franchises have been granted for long 
periods, is an object lesson of the other kind. Does any 
one suppose the New York City street railway companies 
would have spent $30,000,000 to $40,000,000 in the adoption 
of the cable and electricity, or would have instituted their 
almost universal transfer system and improved their cars 
and car service so tremendously had their franchises been 

granted but for twenty-five, or even fifty, years, instead of 
in perpetuity ? Or would the City of New York itself, had 
ii owned its own railways, have grappled with the city's 
transportation needs and problems in so bold and far-see- 
ing a manner? No. The "debt limit" scare, or the fear 
of showing a temporary deficit would impel politicians at 
the moment in charge of the city's development to look to 
the present, rather than the future, and the "conservative" 
element would prevail. We have little need to cast our 
eyes over the water to British cities, which own their tram- 
way systems, to see how true this is, and how impossible it 
must be for large bodies of elective trustees of the public 
interests, such as the London County Council, to act 
promptly or in a broad-gage manner on the most urgent 
problem with which they have to deal, that of providing a 
centrifugal force, in the form of transportation facilities, 
for throwing their populations farther and farther away 
from their congested districts. 


In Chicago, we are just now seeing the beginnings of a 
retrogressive action, which may be one of the most dis- 
astrous calamities which that city can suffer. A young 
man, with an ambition for high political preferment, is 
Mayor of the city. It is openly alleged, and so far with- 
out contradiction, that he has entered into an agreement 
with all but one of the prominent daily newspapers of 
Chicago, by which he is to assist them in their efforts to 
"hold up" the great traction companies of Chicago for 
large sums of "hush money," in consideration of their 
support of himself as candidate for another term as Mayor, 
and eventually for higher office. In pursuance of this 
alleged agreement, the Mayor and these newspapers of 
Chicago are working together in every conceivable way 
to excite the people against the companies, and to prevent 
the passage of an extension ordinance in the council. 
These newspapers are refusing the companies a hearing in 
their columns. They have actually, in times past, refused 
to publish the text of the legislative bills which they have 
been fighting, even when the street railway companies 
offered to pay them for such publication at regular ad- 
vertising rates. The companies have been forced to reach 
the public through the one newspaper independent of the 
"combination," and by circulars in their own cars. Mass 
meetings have been called, and threats of violence against 
the Aldermen, in case they vote for the measure, have been 
freely made, and the Mayor — an officer, sworn to uphold 
the law and to preserve public order — has intimated in 
public that he would not be disposed to call out the city's 
protective forces to prevent such violence. To the credit 
of the public of Chicago, it should be said that their love 
of fair play appears to have caused them to resist to some 
extent these inciting influences. Mass meetings appear to 
be not "overflows," by any means, and one instance is re- 
corded of a mass meeting attended by four people only, 
who passed "without a dissenting voice" (as the combina- 
tion papers said the following day), a vote declaring for 
municipal ownership! 

Some Facts and Probabilities About Interurban Electric 

The interurban electric railway system around Detroit, 
an extended description of which is published in this issue, 

January, 1899.] 



is a good example of a branch of electric railroad work in 
which comparatively little has as yet been done. Outside 
of the interurban electric railways around Cleveland and 
Boston, there is no system in this country which can com- 
pare in extent to that around Detroit, and, of course, there 
is none in any other country. It is difficult to say to what 
length these interurban electric railway projects can be 
carried to advantage. Those in the neighborhood of De- 
troit already reach out, in some instances, a distance of 
about 40 miles from the city, and nearly all of them are 
from 20 to 25 miles in length, while a railway from Detroit 
to Toledo is already under way, and appearances are that 
it will be completed. The roads around Boston, to which 
reference has been made, differ materially from those 
around Cleveland and Detroit, in that while as long trips 
in a direct line can be made on electric cars, the system is 
made up for a large part by the lines of separate companies, 
which bear a closer resemblance to the ordinary city or vil- 
lage railway than in the case of Cleveland and Detroit. In 
these last cities each radiating line is operated as a unit, 
the cars are long, resembling in appearance steam railroad 
cars, and more of an effort is made for through business 
than in the case cited in New England. It would seem as 
if these roads are prototypes of extended electric systems 
which will spring up around large cities, or between 
smaller towns, where there is a sufficient number of in- 
habitants along the route to develop traffic, and the effect 
of these lines on steam railroad traffic, while comparatively 
small in individual cases, must in the aggregate amount to 
considerable. It has been shown that with the saving 
which these lines can effect by building along the line of 
the highway and in the cheap subdivision of power possi- 
ble with electricity, passengers can be profitably carried at 
an average rate of about a cent a mile, a figure which seems 
impossible under present conditions with steam railroads. 
The latter already recognize a dangerous competitor in 
electric railroads for this short distance traffic and are do- 
ing their utmost to suppress it; but it is a condition, not a 
theory, which confronts them, and if electric roads can be 
built and operated at these low fares, village and town 
authorities will find some way of granting them the neces- 
sary franchises. 

In some, in fact, in a great many respects, the interurban 
railway proposition is an attractive one, especially to those 
railway owners and managers who have had experience 
with city properties. In the first place, the question of 
franchises is usually much simpler than with city railways, 
in spite of the fact that concessions have to be secured from 
a greater number of municipal or other governing bodies. 
The reason of this lies in the fact that (a) the abutting 
property owner is benefited to a greater extent, or "in- 
jured" to a less extent, by having the railway in front of his 
property than in the case of city roads, as esthetic objec- 
tions to the overhead wires do not trouble him, there is less 
noise from the railway traffic, and it gives him direct means 
of transportation at his door; and (b) the community, as a 
whole, welcomes a transportation agency which is always 
more convenient and cheaper than that which existed be- 
fore. In the second place, the franchises are usually for defi- 
nite and longer periods and are less apt to be reviewed by 
common councils with a change of administration. In the 
third place, the ability to run at high speeds offers a con- 
tinuous opportunity to reduce transportation charges, while 
the traffic on such a road has nearly always as great possi- 

bilities of development as the city railway without as much 
danger of competition. In the fourth place, many of the 
mechanical problems which make the life of the city man- 
ager a burden and keep him awake at night disappear in 
the interurban railway. One of the most important of these 
is that of track, which can be built according to steam 
railroad standards with exposed rails and ties, on which 
joints can be watched and bolts kept constantly tight, with- 
out continuous pavement excavation. Many problem- 
connected with interurban electric railroading yet remain 
to be solved, but, taken as a whole, they do not seem to be 
any greater than those connected with city railway service, 
even in its present development, and there seems little 
chance that any radical changes will be effected. 

In one respect, interurban electric railroading as prac- 
ticed in this country seems to have taken a direction which 
has somewhat surprised owners of similar projects abroad, 
and that is the universal employment of the continuous 
current for transmitting power and for use on the line. In 
another article in this issue we print an extended descrip- 
tion of an interurban railway in Switzerland, which is con- 
siderably smaller in extent than very many in this country, 
but on which the alternating current motors are employed. 
The author of the article, M. Charles Rochat, who has 
charge of the engineering branch of the Railway Depart- 
ment of the Swiss Government, in reviewing the applica- 
tion of 3-phase currents on this road, takes occasion to 
point out certain defects in alternating current motor work. 
One of these, that of constant speed under all conditions, 
does not seem to be unsurmountable. The use of two trol- 
ley wires is certainly a drawback, for while most of the 
single-track interurban railways in this country employ 
two trolley wires, they do so for the sake of avoiding 
switches at turnouts, and with the 3-phase system, if over- 
head switches are to be eliminated, four overhead wires 
would have to be used. Evidently the possibilities for 
trouble in the use of polyphase currents for traction work 
and the comparative newness of this branch of the work has 
so far discouraged railway managers in this country from 
taking it up. The continuous current motor has reached 
a high state of development. Its defects, though numer- 
ous, are all known and tend to decrease with the size of the 
motor and with time. The only immediate saving in the 
introduction of the alternating system would be in reducing 
the size of the feeders, and, as we all would 
" Rather bear those ills we have, 
Than fly to others that we know not of"; 

the continuous current is likely still to remain a favorite, 
especially as, with the use of boosters and from 600 to 650 
volts on the trolley wire, the feeder cost can be kept down 
considerably below that required by current city practice. 

Electrical improvement has cost individuals and com- 
munities large sums of money, but it has in every case pro- 
duced more than the cost; and it has been cheaper to have 
these improvements than to do without them. This fact 
cannot be questioned, and the isolated cases of failure in 
practical experiments or poorly calculated investments are 
but the sacrifices by which the general good has been 
gained. I think I may venture the statement that the elec- 
trical industry has produced more changes in the mechan- 
ical service and convenience of civilized life than has ever 
been caused by the application of any other force subject to 
the service of man. — From paper read at the Montreal 
Convention, 1895. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

An Ideal System of Street Railway Accounts * 

BY A. O. KITTREDGE, F. I. A., C. P. A. 

One of the most eminent authors of modern treatises on 
accounting says: "The object of all good bookkeeping is 
the exhibition of the growth or decline and present value 
of capital, and of each of the parts of which capital is made 
up. A perfect balance sheet shows all this in the clearest 
and most concise manner. A perfect balance sheet should 
not only give the present value of each of the component 
parts of capital, but should also indicate its growth and 
decline since the last statement. The one aim of the skilled 
bookkeeper is therefore to be able to produce, when neces- 
sary, a clear and correct final balance sheet." 

From this we derive inferentially that the more fre- 
quently a balance sheet is made up, the more thorough is 
the showing with reference to the condition of the capital, 
its growth or decline and its distribution in different 
places. The ideal in bookkeeping, therefore, is a perpetual 
balance sheet, a balance sheet that is an integral part of the 
accounting system, and not something that is made up out- 
side of the books at intervals. In this last use of the term 
"balance sheet" there is included a profit and loss state- 
ment. A balance sheet, so arranged as to be an equivalent, 
for example, of the cash account, and which, through the 
medium of its divisions, shows the growth and develop- 
ment of the business in all its branches, just as the cash 
account shows fluctuations in the cash on hand, is a desid- 
eratum worth striving for. On the other hand, a perpetual 
profit and loss statement, which shall show the relation of 
expenses to earnings in all proper detail, is also something 
well worth the effort required to secure it. 

The analysis of accounts, which it is the purpose of this 
article to describe, and which is herewith presented in chart 
form, is that which is required where the balance sheet is 
made an integral part of the bookkeeping system and 
where the profit and loss statement is made perpetual and 
also a going part of the bookkeeping system. What is 
shown is no new or untried scheme. It is something that 
is now in successful use in some hundreds of enterprises 
throughout the country and something that has been found 
entirely satisfactory in various lines of business, from 
that of transportation companies to banking, from manu- 
facturing enterprises to mercantile houses, and from the 
largest jobbing concerns down to small retail establish- 
ments. The universal success which the application of this 
plan of analysis has met, wherever tested, warrants its pres- 
entation to the street railway accountants of the country. 
That its application requires some books of peculiar con- 
struction and certain mechanical facilities which it is not 
the purpose of this article to describe, should not in the 
least detract from its interest. Suffice it to say in this con- 
nection that whatever is special in this regard is far less in 
amount and expense than the necessary equipment of vari- 
ous other improved methods used every day in offices of 
street railway companies, as well as in other directions. 

At the outset it is only right that attention should be 
called to certain divisions or elements recognized in the 
chart, which to some accountants, who have not had a 
broad experience, will appear strange and unusual, and yet 
the function of each of these, it is believed, will be made 
clear as the explanation proceeds. Again, it should be re- 
marked that in describing an ideal system it is necessary to 
include more in items and detail than perhaps ever would 
be employed in any individual case. The system, to be 
adequate, must be exhaustive in its presentation, leaving 

•Copyright, 1899, by Account, Audit & Assurance Co., Ltd., New York. All 
rights reserved. 

to the individual user the privilege of selection and adapta- 

All the accounts of a street railway company, as well as 
of any other business, are comprised in two general classes 
— namely, the accounts of the balance sheet and the ac- 
counts of the profit and loss statement. It is impossible to 
conceive of any account that will not properly fall under 
one or the other of these heads. 

Referring now to the chart, it will be seen that the ac- 
counts of the typical overhead electric railway company 
are presented in these two grand divisions — first the balance 
sheet, and second the profit and loss statement. The bal- 
ance sheet divides under the two heads commonly recog- 
nized in a document of its kind — namely, into assets and 
liabilities. The assets of the company, by their nature, 
may be divided into three classes — namely, active, fixed 
and passive. These terms, by the way, are optional, and 
others, perhaps still better in definition, might be substi- 
tuted. The point is not the special names that are em- 
ployed to designate classes, but the classes of the accounts 
in themselves. 

The active assets comprise cash, the term being inclusive 
and embracing the amounts in the office safe and in each of 
the several banks in which deposits are made; notes receiv- 
able, accounts receivable, sub-divided as required, and ma- 
terials and supplies, represented by such accounts in name 
and character as are appropriate for the purpose. 

The fixed assets, as presented by the chart, are largely 
those designated by street railway accountants as construc- 
tion and equipment accounts. This term, however, seems 
to be insufficient for the purpose, and therefore I have pre- 
ferred the term "fixed assets," dividing under that head 
into two classes, the first called necessary investments and 
the second other investments. 

The necessary investments, going back to the organiza- 
tion of the company, include the cost and expense of its 
charter and its franchise and the expenses of preliminary 
engineering, etc. Following this are the items properly 
falling under the head of way and structures, and also un- 
der the head of equipment. Way and structures subdivides 
into right of way, track and roadway, electric line, real 
estate used in the operation of the road, buildings and fix- 
tures, being the items B to G inclusive, of the construction 
and equipment accounts, as reported by the committee on 
standardization at Boston. 

Right here I desire to remark that throughout this 
classification of accounts I have held, so far as pjssible, to 
the terminology suggested by the committee on standard- 
ization, and have used their list almost complete. I have 
found it necessary, however, to make radical changes in 
location, so far as one or two accounts are concerned, the 
particulars of which will appear hereafter. In this connec- 
tion the reader's attention also should be directed to the 
fact that in the chart the accounts suggested by the com- 
mittee on standardization have been printed in different 
type from the balance of the chart (cap italics) and are fur- 
ther indicated by the letters and prefix numbers as reported 
by the committee. 

Equipment divides into power plant equipment, shop 
tools and machinery, cars, electric equipment of cars, and 
miscellaneous equipment, being items I to M inclusive, of 
the construction and equipment accounts, already re- 
ferred to. 

Two single accounts of this class have been omitted — 
namely, N and 0. These are "interest and discount" and 
"miscellaneous." The explanation of the former, as of- 
fered by the committee, is that "all interest paid or received 
in connection with funds for construction, and all discounts 
or premiums resulting from a negotiation of securities for 

January, 1899.] 



construction, should be charged or credited to this ac- 
count." With respect to the second, miscellaneous, the 
following explanation appears: "Charge to this account 
all expenditures for printing and stationery, office supplies, 
damage claims, wages of clerks, and all other expenses in- 
cident to construction not otherwise provided for." Evi- 
dently what is in mind with respect to these two accounts is 
that they shall include the expenses in connection with the 
construction and equipment of the road that are specified 
in the explanatory notes. The items named are parts oi 
the cost of the assets represented in the chart by the ac- 
counts A to M inclusive, although I cannot see that they 
are assets in themselves. The accounts A to M represent 
tangible assets, whereas N and 0, as above described, do 
not represent assets, but are parts of the cost of assets 
otherwise designated. Therefore, it would seem to me 
that the items included in N and 0, instead of existing in 
the balance sheet as separate accounts, should at the out- 
set be pro-rated among the accounts A to M inclusive. An 
expense item in the capacity of an asset is an absurdity in 
bookkeeping, although there are several illustrious preced- 
ents of such classification. 

Other investments include, in addition to item H, invest- 
ment real estate, of the list just alluded to, stocks of other 
companies, and bonds of other companies. Whether or 
not a given company at present owns securities of other 
companies, it is necessary in a scheme of analysis such as 
we are considering, to show where such accounts would 
fall, in case they were required to be opened. 

By the passive assets of a company I attempt to indicate 
those which are not permanent in character and which are 
to be written off sooner or later. Under this head fall some 
of those items which before now have been the distress of 
many an accountant — for example, the accounts which, 
must be opened to offset excessive capitalization. Good 
will, a convenient and elastic name of an account to which 
is usually charged whatever cannot be properly laid upon 
the tangible assets of the concern, is an excellent illustra- 
tion. By items in suspense are meant accounts carrying 
amounts of an expense character paid in advance of their 
consumption in the operations of the company. In a re- 
cent article in these columns I have discussed suspense 
items so thoroughly that further description is not neces- 
sary at this time. 

The second grand divisions in the balance sheet — 
namely, liabilities — divides into four classes. First come 
the funded debts of the company, such as first mortgage 
bonds, second mortgage bonds, debentures, etc. Next 
comes the floating indebtedness of the company, including 
such items as notes payable, accounts payable, subdivided 
as required, and dividends which have been declared, but 
which for the time remain unpaid. Accounts of this kind 
are occasionally required to be opened, but for the most 
part they are closed almost as soon as opened. This item 
in the chart is only to show the location of such accounts. 

Next in order come the reserve accounts, a class of lia- 
bilities occupying middle ground between what the com- 
pany owes the public under the heads of funded and float- 
ing indebtedness and what it holds in trust for its stock- 
holders, so to speak, for certain specified purposes. The 
reserves enumerated in the chart are quite as many as are 
likely to be required in any company, and yet possibly 
omissions will occur to the reader, and not a few will sug- 
gest substitutions. Many are likely, perhaps, to declare 
some of the accounts named entirely unnecessary. 

First, there is the reserve for taxes; following which is 
the reserve for interest on funded debt, and on the floating 
debt as well. Next there are the reserves for the several 
sinking funds necessary to retire the funded debt; following 

which are the reserve accounts for maintenance and depre- 
ciation, each divided into two classes — way and structures, 
and equipment — and, finally, the reserve to establish an 
emergency fund out of which to pay damages, accidents 
and losses from the destruction of the property. 

In a recent article in this journal I have described the 
theory of reserve accounts, introducing illustrated exam- 
ples, so that extended remarks on this subject are unneces- 
sary at this place. Suffice it to say that the theory upon 
which this chart proceeds is that monthly costs shall in- 
clude an allowance for each of these items. The books 
that this chart exemplifies are the books of the stockhold- 
ers exclusively, not of the bondholders, nor yet of the pub- 
lic. Interest, taxes, maintenance, depreciation and emer- 
gency costs must all be met before the stockholders are en- 
titled to a dividend. Costs on each of these items, properly 
pro-rated, are charged up month by month, as the profit 
and loss statements show, and the proper reserve accounts 
credited. When the time for payment of any of these costs 
arrive — for example, when taxes are due, or when interest 
is due — the reserve account is charged with the amount 
instead of the expense account, for the expense account 
has already borne the charge upon the monthly pro-rata 

Some of my readers may take exception to the provision 
that is indicated of reserves for sinking funds, and they may 
more particularly object to the charges forming the reserve 
being regarded as a part of the expenses of the road. It is 
to be remembered, as just mentioned above, that the point 
of view from which we are discussing an accounting system 
is that of the stockholder. The showing to be made by the 
balance sheet and profit and loss statement is that in which 
the stockholder alone is interested. The resultant profit 
that is shown is that which is available for dividends, all 
charges of whatsoever name and kind having been previ- 
ously provided for. 

There are several points of view from which a sinking- 
fund may be considered. Where an enterprise is "property 
rich" and "cash poor," a sinking fund to provide for the 
retirement of bonds may be created out of assets through 
the process of reserving from time to time a certain per- 
centage of the cash that is received as its property is sold. 
That, however, is not the position in which street railway 
companies are ordinarily placed. 

An individual, a business firm, or a corporation borrows 
money to use in business, primarily because the business 
requires more capital than the owner can supply. Theo- 
retically, at least, the loan is negotiated with the expecta- 
tion of paying it off at maturity. It can be paid when it 
falls due in only one of two ways, leaving out of the ac- 
count for the moment the special conditions occasionallv 
prevailing in certain classes of enterprises just referred to 
above. One of these ways is to take up the original loan 
by negotiating another loan — that is, retiring one set of 
bonds by the proceeds of another issue of bonds. The sec- 
ond plan is to reserve enough out of the profits of the en- 
terprise to meet the bonds when due. 

I venture to suppose that there are some who read this 
who will say that to pay off a loan, that is to retire mort- 
gage bonds, for example, out of profits, is an absurd idea 
of financing at the present day, particularly when money 
can be borrowed at the low rates of interest which prevail 
whenever good security is offered. Even so, yet the ac- 
countant, not acting in the capacity of a financier, must 
show, in any scheme of accounting that is intended to meet 
all possible requirements, how to proceed whenever the 
stockholders determine that the bonds shall be retired out 
of earnings, in order that their shares may correspondingly 
appreciate in value. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

Some who give consideration to this subject may be dis- 
posed to argue that the increasing value of the company's 
property by reason of the growth of population and general 
development of the community through which the road 
runs, is in itself a sinking fund adequate for all purposes. 
To this the accountant, in turn, is disposed to give a strictly 
professional answer, namely: Do not let one thing offset 
another, in the belief that thereby a balance is effected, but 
put a proper valuation on each item, both debit and credit. 
Let every tub stand on its own bottom, at all times. 

Whether or not a sinking fund shall be created and 
maintained is to be decided by the management — not by 
the accountant. The chart shows how to proceed where a 
sinking fund is decided upon, and is to be built up out of 
earnings at a fixed rate. 

Finally, we come to the capital division of the liability 
portion of the balance sheet. It is divided into three heads 
— profit and loss, impairment and surplus, and capital 
stock. Profit and loss, as here shown, may be defined as 
capital in process of accumulation. It is subdivided into 
weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly, semi-annual and 
annual accounts. Profit and loss account, as here placed, 
is the resultant and not the active account. Referring for 
the moment to the profit and loss statement, it will be seen 
that expenses and revenues are there contrasted. The dif- 
ference between expenses and revenues weekly, if the ac- 
counting is arranged on a weekly schedule, would make 
the weekly profit and loss account in the balance sheet 
statement. If the profit and loss statement be run upon a 
monthly basis, then its showing would make the monthly 
amount in the balance sheet, and so on. 

Assuming that weekly closings are being made in the 
balance sheet ledger (one of the special devices referred to 
at the early part of this article), then the weekly profit and 
loss account, as the weeks roll on, would be closed into the 
monthly profit and loss account, and the monthly, in turn, 
according to the preference of the management, would be 
summarized into the quarterly, or the semi-annual, or the 
annual. Each basket would be emptied as soon as filled, 
to be ready for the next use. 

If dividends are being earned and declared, profit and 
loss, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, as the case may 
be, would be charged with the amount of dividend declared. 
Any amount remaining in the semi-annual or annual profit 
and loss account would then be carried one step further to 
the credit of impairment and surplus account. 

If the business is running at a loss, then the closing of 
the semi-annual or annual profit and loss account, as the 
rule may be, would be to the debit of the next account in 
order — namely, impairment and surplus — in a way to show 
an impairment of capital. Capital stock account remains 
a fixed quantity, either in a single amount or subdivided 
into common shares and preference shares, as the organ- 
ization may be. 

In what has preceded I have anticipated much that might 
be said with respect to the second grand division of the ac- 
counts — namely, the profit and loss statement. The profit 
or loss of any business is determined by contrasting the 
revenues with the expenses. Since expenses must always 
be borne before revenues are secured, this division is given 
first place in the exhibit. The expenses of a street railway 
company are fairly classified under three heads — namelv, 
transportation, general and maintenance. Transportation 
divides into operation of power plant and car service. The 
subdivisions opposite each of these heads are those which 
have been established by the committee on standardization. 
General expenses have been classified under four heads — 
administrative, emergencies, taxes and fixed charges. The 
accounts opposite administrative are the same as those es- 

tablished by the committee on standardization. The ac- 
counts opposite emergencies are likewise the same as es- 
tablished by the committee, with the exception of one 
added at the bottom — namely, accidents and destruction of 
property. Fixed charges are divided into interest and 
sinking funds. If interest is paid, it would properly fall in 
this class. We have already discussed the question of sink- 
ing funds, which would belong here under certain condi- 
tions. Maintenance divides into two heads — repairs and 
depreciation. Each of these subdivide into way and struc- 
tures, and equipment. 

The theory upon which this accounting system is based 
is that expenses shall be charged to proper accounts as they 
occur, so far as possible; hence the presence in the expense 
schedule of accounts Nos. 10 to 39, inclusive, as formu- 
lated by the committee on standardization. Where an ex- 
pense is incurred which it is impossible to pay at the time, 
it is still charged in and the amount credited to the proper 
reserve account; hence the presence under the head of 
reserves in the balance sheet statement, of accounts 1 to 9, 
inclusive, of the committee's schedule. An allowance for 
both repairs and depreciation of way and structure and 
equipment should be charged into expenses week by week, 
or month by month, as time goes on. Since this expense 
cannot be paid always when it is charged in, the reserve ac- 
counts are brought into play for holding the amount until 
such time as the repairs can be made, or the depreciation 
offset by renewals. All this, however, as before mentioned, 
has been discussed in a previous article, and therefore does 
not require extended remarks at this time. 

The revenues of a street railway company proceed pri- 
marily from operation, and secondarily from various other 
sources. These are enumerated under appropriate heads 
in the lower part of the profit and loss statement. How 
revenues and expenses are contrasted by closing all the ac- 
counts shown in the profit and loss statement back into 
weekly or monthly profit and loss in the balance sheet, ac- 
cording to the time schedule upon which the accounting 
system proceeds, has already been mentioned. In the ar- 
rangement of the accounts in the balance sheet ledger pro- 
vision is made for this periodical closing, thus establishing 
the record of the results of the business at frequent inter- 

The accounting scheme here outlined dispenses with in- 
ventories, save only as inventories are taken to verify ac- 
counts. Material and supplies are charged out as used, 
taken at cost prices. The balance in the account of each 
kind of material and supplies, therefore, should show the 
amount remaining on hand. An inventory, therefore, 
would prove the accuracy of the account. 

There is no line of business which I have investigated, 
wherein the conditions are so entirely favorable to a per- 
petual balance sheet and a going profit and loss statement, 
as a street railway operation. 

Street Railway Blanks and Forms 

Late in November a circular letter was issued by W. P>. 
Brockway, secretary of the Street Railway Accountants' 
Association of America, referring to the new work — 
namely, collecting blanks and forms — which is to be under- 
taken by the organization named. This is described as a 
new departure, and one which is believed will add to the 
usefulness of the organization, and make it a source of 
practical value to every member. It will be recalled that 
resolutions were passed at the Boston convention request- 
ing every member to furnish the secretary with two copies 
of each and every blank and form in use upon his road, and 

JANUARY, 1899 
























sts and destruction of property 

Mortgage Bonds 
Mortgage Bonds 


^g Indebtedness 
Iortgage Bonds 
Mortgage Bonds 


and Roadway 
ic Line 

igs and Fixtures 


ic Plant 

ic Equipment op Cars 
.aneous Equipment 
ery and Tools 
and Roadway 
ic Line 

fGS and Fixtures 


ic Plant 

ic Equipment of Cars 
„aneous Equipment 
ery and Tools 

99 by Account Audit & Assurance Co. T Ltd., New York. 


An Ideal System oe Street Railway Accounts 


JANUARY, 1899 


Balance Sheet 

Profit and Loss Statement 

r In Office 

Cash J In Ninety-Ninth National Bank 

I In Exchange Bank, etc. 

Notes Receivable 

f Subdivided 
I as required {"ufred 

f Charter, Franchise and 

Accounts Receivable 

Necessary Investments * 

Way and Structures 

I Equipment. 












I Passive. 

Other Investments. 

Items in Suspense. . 
Good Will 


Stocks of Other Companies. 
Bonds of Other Companies 

/ An Acrount 
\ with each piece 
f An Account 
\ with each lot 

as required 


Funded- . . 

First Mortgage Bonds 
Second Mortgage Bonds 
Notes Payable 

Accounts Payable. { S ™Hd 
Dividends — (Declared and Unpaid) 

f First Mortgage Bonds 
' Second Mortgage Bonds 
1 Debentures 
[ Floating Indebtedness 
^ First Mortgage Bonds 

f Ways 



j Equipment 

Profit and Loss 


( Damages 

■j Accidents 

( Destroyed Property 

f Weekly * 

-j Quarterly 

I Annual 



SHOP EXPENSES (Machinery and Tools 
1 Track and Roadway 

Electric Line 
I Buildings and Fixtures 
I Steam Plant 

Electric Plant 
I Cars 

1 Electric Equipment of Cars 
I Miscellaneous Equipment 
I Machinery and Tools 

Designed by A- O. 

Impairment and Surplus 

f Common 

Capital Stock < First Preferred 


t Transport- 

Operation of Power Plant. , 

General . 

Emergencies. . . 

39- TAXES. 

Fixed Charges. 

Interest . 

Sinking Fund 

Way and Structures 

Maintenance . 



I Equipment. . 

Depreciation . 

( Way and Structures. 


Equipment. . 






























Accidents and destruction of property 

5 First Mortgage Bonds 
Second Mortgage Bonds 
Floating Indebtedness 
C First Mortgage Bonds 
i Second Mortgage Bonds 
I Debentures 
f Track and Roadway 
] Electric Line 

Buildings and Fixtures 
( Steam Plant 
■ Electric Plant 
I Cars 

> Electric Equipment of Cars 

J Miscellaneous Equipment 

I Machinery and Tools 

(■ Track and Roadway 

] Electric Line 

<• Buildings and Fixtures 

( Steam Plant 

{Electric Plant 
Electric Equipment of Cars 
■ Miscellaneous Equipment 
I Machinery and Tools 



From Other 

Passenger Receipts 

Chartered Cars 





Track Rentals 

Rent of Land and Buildings 

Interest and Dividends on Securities 

Interest on Deposits 

Sale of power 


Second Preferred 

eCc, Ltd., New York. 



January, 1899.] 


as rapidly as any new forms are issued, two copies of the 
same. Notice is given that the secretary is now ready to 
take charge of these forms, classify them and put them in 
shape for exhibition purposes and general use by the mem- 
bers of the organization. 

It is intended that these blanks and the annual exhibi- 
tion of them shall be held strit ty to the members of the 
organization. Each one contributing, therefore, is assured 
that whatever blanks are supplit I will be used solely for the 
benefit of the members of the association. It is pointed 
out in the circular that any member desiring to get up a 
form for any particular purpose, will be greatly assisted by 
having at his disposal hunu ds of blanks 
pertaining to the subject which he has un- 
der consideration. 

The following directions are embodied in 
the circular: Do not fold the blanks more 
than absolutely necessary; rolling is pre- 
ferred. Write in ink the name of the com- 
pany upon all blanks, where the name does 
not appear. In case the blanks do not 
indicate clearly their use, they are to be 

which Chief Engineer A. A. Semenoff is chairman, to con- 
sider the reconstruction of the existing horse car lines and 
their equipment with electric power and upon plans pre- 
pared by Technical Engineer A. A. Lineff. It is thought 
that the matter will be settled Jan. 1, 1899, and that soon 
after that preliminary work can be undertaken. 

The general conditions which the council will make for 
the construction of the electric tramways are briefly as fol- 
lows: On all existing lines electricity is to be introduced 
as motive power, and the system, which now has a length 
of 100 km., will be increased to 135 km. A very substan- 
tial construction will be insisted upon, and the gage will 


accompanied by a synopsis of what they are intended to 
accomplish. The term "blanks and forms," it is explained, 
is intended to cover everything used by a company, includ- 
ing specially ruled books and tickets. The packages are to 
be addressed to W. B. Brockway, secretary, 106 Summit 
Street, Toledo, Ohio. 


Proposed Electric Tramway System in Moscow, Russia 

The City Council of Moscow is proposing to grant fran- 
chises for an extended system of electric tramways in that 
city. The City Council has appointed a committee, of 


be i m., instead of the present 1.52 m. Double tracks will 
be made obligatory, and the speed of the cars will be lim- 
ited in the center of the city to from 10 to 12 versts (10.7 
km. to 12.8 km.) an hour, beyond Sadovaia Street to 15 
versts (16 km.) per hour, and beyond that 18 versts (19.3 
km.) per hour. The cars in the center of the city will run 
on the headway of three minutes. In most parts of Mos- 
cow the trolley system will be adopted, but where this is 
not permitted the cars will run either by storage batteries 
or on the surface contact system. The cars must be lighted 
and heated by electricity. 

The fares are limited to the present 5 copeks, for which 
passengers are entitled to transfers to the crosstown lines, 
and commutation tickets will be sold. The running of 
freight cars will be permitted at night, and in winter cars 
for the removal of snow and in summer for that of dirt and 
refuse will be operated. 

The time limit placed upon the reconstruction of the 
lines is four years. During the first year 28 versts must 
be reconstructed, and during the remaining three years 35 
versts each. The lines in the central part of the city will 
be the first to be equipped. The change must be made 
without interfering with the present system of transporta- 
tion. The entire cost is placed at from 15,000,000 to 18,- 
000,000 roubles. 

Current will be taken from a central power station, 
which will also distribute electricity for lighting. The city 
selected for this station is on the bank of the Moscow 
River, on the so-called Salt and Vinnoy yards. The build- 
ers must deposit satisfactory bonds to guarantee the com- 
pletion of the work. 

The Street Railway Journal is indebted for the fore- 
going particulars to the kindness of Mr. Linefr'. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

A New Feeder Map 


In some recent work in mapping 
the feeder system of the Nassau 
Electric Railroad in Brooklyn, the 
common method of laying down 
the wires on a map of the city was 
found so entirely unsatisfactory, 
owing to size and complexity of the 
system, that it was found necessary 
to adopt some new plan. To meet 
this requirement the writer devised 
a method which trial has proven to 
possess a number of advantageous 

A map of the Third Avenue 
Power House Division of the Nas- 
sau system, made by this method, is 
shown on this page. The portion 
represented contains 1,000,000 lbs. 
of copper, which deliver, at full 
load, 7000 amps, to one hundred 
odd miles of trolley wire. 

Each feeder in the system is rep- 
resented on the map by a straight 
line parallel to a common base, and 
each portion of a pole line, con- 
tained by a single street, by a group 
of such lines. On the base line is 
laid off the scale of lengths adopted 
for the feeders. Turns are indicated 
by offsetting consecutive groups by 
a convenient distance, and to the 
right or left, according to the direc- 
tion of the turn represented. Corre- 
sponding points of each wire are 
connected by suitable curves in 
such a way that each feeder be- 
comes continuous from the station 
to its end. Since the offsets are 
made in a direction perpendicular 
to the scale, the length of the 
curved connection is immaterial. 

In our system each wire has a 
distinguishing number taken from 
the pin it occupies on the First 
Street pole line where it leaves the 
station. With few exceptions it was 
found convenient to lay down the 
wires in the order in which they ap- 
pear on the pole line; where this 
was not the case the pin numbers 
are shown on the map. Jumpers, 
breakers, feeding points, etc., may 
be shown with facility. Various 
sizes of cables are given distin- 
guishing colors in the original map 
and by lines of different character, 
as dotted, dashed and solid in the 

Considering the complexity of 
the Nassau system, it seems un- 
likely that the special features of 
any other would present any seri- 

January, 1899.] 



ous difficulty in carrying out the general plan described 

By thus mapping as parallel all streets traversed by the 
feeders, and omitting all others, much is gained in the way 
of compactness, for it will be seen that, whereas the area of 
a common map is proportional to the square of the linear 
scale, that of the new form varies as the first power. Then 
too the convenience of being able to read at a glance the 
distance between points on the system is not to be regarded 
lightly. Information of this nature is constantly in de- 
mand for various purposes. The time saved, to say noth- 
ing of the accuracy gained, by reference to the linear scale 
compared with that required for reference to the tabulated 
data (which never contains the points concerned) or of 
stepping off with dividers for a string) on the city map, is 

Not less useful are the scales B and C. At every point 
on the line there exists a definite relation between the cur- 
rent flowing, the drop from the station to that point, and 
the size of the conductors. If P= the resistance of a mil 

Electric Tramway System of Cork, Ireland 

The tramways in Cork have been recently equipped with 
electric power, and a general map of the system is given on 
this page. As will be seen, the street railway connects the 
center of the city, which is on an island formed by two 
branches of the River Lee, through the principal streets, 
with suburbs. The longest branch is to Douglas, a village 
about 2 miles south of Cork. The tramway crosses the 
river twice, once over Parnell Bridge, a steel swing bridge, 
second over Patrick's Bridge, built of stone. 

The rails in the city are laid on a bed of concrete, and 
the roadway is pavCd between the rails and for a distance 
of 18 ins. on each side. Outside of the city boundaries the 
concrete is replaced by creosoted ties, 6 ft. x 4^ ins. x 9 ins. 
The rails are of girder type, weighing 83 lbs. per yard, with 
fish-plates 26 ins. long, weighing 56 lbs. per pair. The tie- 
bars are of wrought iron, 2 ins. x f in., weighing io§ lbs., 
and double screwed at ends. The rails are fixed to the ties 
by thirty dog spikes and fourteen fang bolts and chips to 



foot of copper we have, as the total resistance of the con- 

P V dist. in ft. volts drop 

R — = 

cm. in conductor amps, flowing 

drop X cm. 

7°X distance = = drop X cir. mils per amp. 


Values thus obtained are platted in scale B. If at any 
point two of the terms involved are known the third may 
be determined by substitution. 

If it be desired to find the current delivered with a speci- 
fied drop a special scale is more convenient than the general 
one, B. Scale C gives the number of amperes delivered 
with a drop of 50 volts by each 1,000,000 cm. As before, 

P x distance 

R = . ' 


or i\ 

drop 50 v 1,000,000 

Amps. = = 

R PX distance. 

To find the current delivered by M cm., the values of 
scale C are multiplied by 


1 ,000,000 

each rail length. The switches and frogs are cast steel, 
made by Millar & Co., and Dick, Kerr & Co., Ltd. 

The rails form the return circuit, and are electrically con- 
nected at each joint by two No. 000 B. & S. Chicago bonds, 
35 ins. long. At every switch or crossing there are two 
13-ft. bonds spanning the steel casting, and there are also 
for each point of this kind four 35-in. bonds, connecting 
the rail with the casting. At each crossing there are four 
No. 000 B. & S. 35-in. bonds. The rails are cross bonded 
every 240 ft., and where there is double track, the two 
tracks are also cross bonded every 240 ft. These track 
cross bonds are placed half way between the rail cross 

Where the double track is equipped with center poles the 
cross bonds between the two tracks are 7 ft. long, and 
where it is equipped with side poles they are 5 ft long. All 
the cross bonds on single track are 42 ins. in length. In 
all the loops on the single line there is a cross bond be- 
tween the two tracks. 

The return circuit is continued over the river at Parnell 
Bridge by four 0.5 in. cables, connected by bonds to the 
rails on either side of the water, this arrangement being 
necessary to avoid any interruption in the circuit v/hen the 
bridge is swung open. 

Center poles with double-bracket arms are used in prin- 
cipal streets, and side poles with single-bracket arms are 
employed on rest of line. Span wire construction has been 
installed in only a few places, The poles are 31 ft. long and 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

are composed of three sections. The joints are overlap- 
ping, and the sections are shrunk on while hot. 

In the principal streets an arc lamp is fixed on every 
alternate pole. These lamps are of the inclosed arc type, 
connected up five in series; but consecutive lamps are not 
put on the same circuits; thus every other of ten consecu- 
tive lamps are on one circuit, while the remaining five are 
on another. The switches and resistances for the lamps 
are contained in the bases of the poles, so that, if neces- 
sary, a resistance can be placed in the circuit instead of a 
lamp. Each circuit can also be controlled from any lamp 
in its circuit. 

The trolley wire is of hard-drawn copper and is double 
throughout. The portion of the trolley wire over the swing 
part of Parnell Bridge is supported on special poles and 
brackets fastened to the movable part of the bridge. The 
connections on the trolley wire are heavy spring clips, 
which allow the bridge to be moved in either direction. 

The power house is situated in Albert Street, 220 ft. from 
the river. The building is of brick, with pile foundation. 

The boiler room contains three Babcock & Wilcox boil- 
ears, each having 2531 sq. ft. heating surface and capable of 
evaporating 8000 lbs. of water per hour. The normal work- 
ing pressure is 150 lbs. The stack is of steel, self-support- 
ing, and 130 ft. high. It has a 7-ft. internal diameter, and 
it is lined with 4^-in. fire brick. The stack is erected on 
piled concrete foundations. The thickness of the steel 
plates at the base is 7-16 in. Each plate is 4 ft. x 6 ft. and 
there are three plates to the ring. 

The feed water heater employed was supplied by the 
Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Company. The feed 
water is heated by the exhaust from the feed pumps, and 
the condenser pumps. The feed pumps are of the Blake & 
Knowles type, 6 ins. x 4 ins. x 8 ins. The steam cylinders 
of these pumps are fitted with an improved outside valve 
gear, so that they can be adjusted to the full length of the 
stroke under all conditions of speed. The steam connec- 
tions of these pumps are so arranged that in case any re- 
pairs are required, either pump can be worked independ- 
ently of the other. 

The hot well is situated in boiler house and is fitted with 
baffle plates, the divisions in which can be filled with coke 
and straw, if desired, for the purpose of intercepting any oil 
that may be discharged into it. It is also fitted with suita- 
ble outlets, so arranged that, by opening a valve and filling 
the tank, the oil, which will be found floating on the sur- 
face, can be run off. The feed water, before entering the 
boiler, can be passed through two Edmiston filters, capable 
of filtering 16,000 lbs. of water per hour. These filters 
are arranged on a twin system, fitted with the necessary 
valves to enable the filters to be used on either range of 
feed pipes. 

The steam piping is of steel, with heavy screwed steel 
flanges, and is so arranged that any engine can be fed direct 
from the boiler immediately behind it, or, by means of the 
main, from any boiler. Valves are inserted to enable any 
faulty section in the piping to be cut out. This piping is 
also fitted with an automatic atmospheric valve, which, in 
the event of any back pressure, due to the failure of the 
condensing plant, will immediately allow the engines to 
exhaust direct into the atmosphere. The piping on the 
atmospheric side of this valve is of thin steel, riveted to- 
gether in spirals. 

The engine room contains three Mcintosh & Seymour 
tandem compound condensing engines, running at 135 
r.p.m., fitted with expansion governors and separate ex- 
haust valves on both high and low pressure cylinders. The 
high-pressure cylinder is steam jacketed, and exhausts into 
a receiver, in the interior of which are fixed three copper 

coils, which can be heated with live steam. These engines 
are direct coupled to 6-pole 200-k.w. compound-wound 
generators, giving 500 volts at 135 r.p.m. 

There are two condensers of the Wheeler Admiralty type 
with engines in the center, air-pump at one end and circu- 
lating water-pump at the other end. Each condenser is 
capable of dealing with 12,000 lbs. of steam per hour. The 
condensing water is taken direct from the river through 
from the water works, which can be employed to start the 
12-in. cast iron pipes. There is also an auxiliary supply 
pump in the event of the suction pipe being emptied 
through the retaining valve not being perfectly watertight. 

Adjoining the engine room is the accumulator room. 
This contains 236 Tudor cells mounted in three tiers. Each 
cell containing six positive and seven negative plates. 
The capacity of the battery is 770 amp. hours, the normal 

rate of discharge no amps, and 
the maximum rate 210 amps. 
The battery stands are of pitch 
pine with acid proof paint, and 
are mounted on large oil insulat- 
ors. This battery can be charged 
either from traction or lighting 
bus bars, as desired, the neces- 
sary volts for charging being 
supplied by a booster, which can 
also be driven from the traction 
or lighting bus bars. 

The switchboard is situated at 
the end of the engine-room, and 
contains three generator panels, 
fitted with automatic circuit 
breakeis, with magnetic blow- 
outs; also the necessary switches, 
so arranged that the generators 
can be connected direct to either 
the lighting or traction bus bars ; 
also two battery panels, fitted 
with the necessary regulating 
switches and magnetic . blow- 
outs, and so arranged that the 
battery can be either charged 
from, or discharged to, either 
the lighting or traction circuits, 
as desired; also two balancer 
panels, so arranged that, if desired, the balancer can 
be driven, in the day time, direct from the traction bars, or 
used as an ordinary balancer, the two motors being in 
series across the outers, the junction being connected to 
the neutral. In this case the set is run up to give its cor- 
rect voltage by means of the motor placed in the center, 
and the electrical connections are disconnected after the 
balancer sets are connected to the system. 

The switchboard is also fitted with a panel containing 
the necessary instruments required by the Board of Trade 
tor purposes of testing. 

There are eighteen top seat cars, capable of seating forty- 
four passengers, manufactured by the Brush Electrical En- 
gineering Company, Ltd., mounted on single Peckham 
trucks, manufactured by the Peckham Truck Company. 
The motor equipment consists of two G. E.-60 motors with 
series parallel controllers. The motors had to be specially 
designed for this work, on account of the very narrow 
gage, namely, 2 ft. 1 ii ins. In other respects the car equip- 
ment follows standard practice. 

The repair shop is 70 ft. x 18 ft., and contains the neces- 
sary machine and smiths' tools likely to be required for the 
maintenance of the cars and machinery. 

The Cork Electric Tramways & Lighting Company, 


January, 1899. J 



Ltd., which operates the system, supplies current for light- 
ing and miscellaneous power purposes, as well as for elec- 
tric tramway service. The lighting distribution is on the 
three-wire system, with 460 volts between the outers. The 
mains are all of Messrs. Callender's manufacture, and, in 
the majority of cases, consisting of jute-covered, lead- 
sheathed, tape-armored cables, laid direct in the streets. 
Altogether, over 20 miles of cable, including both lighting 
and traction systems, have been laid, the distance between 
the feeding points, of which there are two at present, and 
the station being just under half a mile. 

In their course from the power station to the feeding 
points, the cables cross the River Lee, and as there is only 
a swing bridge at this location, the cables had to be laid 
in a trench excavated in the bed of the river. Callender's 
vulcanized bitumen wire-armored cable was employed here, 
as being adapted as most suitable for the purpose. Four 
additional spare feeder cables, each of .7 in.-sectional area, 
have been laid across the river to cope with future exten- 
sions. The vulcanized bitumen cables are brought to- 
gether in a pit on each side of the water, where they are 
connected to the ordinary jute-covered, tape-armored 
cable laid in the streets. 

The greater proportion of the distributing cables in the 
center of the city are of the three-core type; the largest dis- 
tributor used has a sectional area of .15 in. In all the out- 
lying districts three single distributing cables are used, 
and, in addition to their armor, they are further protected 
by a covering layer of bricks. At the crossing and junc- 
tion points of the system Callender's disconnecting boxes 
are fixed, and, of these, nineteen are at present installed. 

The supply of current for light, etc., was started about 
the beginning of September, and since then about 130 cus- 
tomers have been connected to the mains. The service of 
the company now stands as follows: 

Number of customers applied for 217 

Lamps applied for 11,622 

Motors applied for 18 

Total horse power 113 

Total applied for in 8 c.p. equivalents 14.447 

The public arc lighting has not yet been permanently 
started. There will be altogether about 100 lamps. 

The tariff for lighting current is 5d. per unit for the first 
two hours, and id. afterward, on the Brighton system of 
charging. The present tariff for motive power is 4-jd. per 
unit, and id. afterward, also on the Brighton system. 


The British Thomson-Houston Company, Ltd., was the 
contractor to the Cork Electric Tramways & Lighting 
Company, Ltd., for the work as a whole — construction, 
building, machinery, etc. — in connection with the system, 
and supplied complete electrical equipments of the power 
station and cars. 

The following were the chief sub-contractors to the 
British Thomson-Houston Company, Ltd.: 

Permanent Way, Power House Buildings, Etc. — W. M. Mur- 
phy, Dublin. 

Engines. — R. W. Blackwell & Co., London. 

Boilers. — Babcock & Wilcox. Ltd., London. 

Auxiliary Apparatus, Pumps, Condensers, Etc. — Wheeler Con- 
denser & Engineering Company, and Blake & Knowles Steam 
Pump Works, Ltd., London. 

Battery. — Tudor Accumulator Company, Ltd., London. 

Traveler. — Jessop & Appleby, Leicester. 

Cars. — The Brush Electrical Engineering Company. Ltd., 

Peckham Trucks. — R. W. Blackwell & Co., London. 

Overhead Line Construction.- — R. W. Blackwell & Co., London. 

Feeders and Cables. — Callender's Cable & Construction Com- 
pany, Ltd., London. 

Arc Lamps and Hoods. — General Electric Company, Ltd.,- 

Alderman Fitzgerald, of Cork, was sub-contractor to 
W. M. Murphy for the buildings in connection with the 
power house. 


Recent Improvements in San Francisco 

The favor with which the many electric lines con- 
structed by the Market Street Railway Company during 
the past five years have been received by the traveling 
public, and their ability to cope with the requirements of 
grades and heavy travel having been fully demonstrated, 
the company decided to reconstruct other lines to the 
electric system, which work has been completed during 
the year just passed. 

The Park and Ocean Line, formerly operated by steam 
motors, from Stanyan and Haight Streets, along H Street 
(the southern boundary of Golden Gate Park), to the 
ocean beach, has been converted to the electric system. 
The double track, about 4 miles in length, has been re- 
built, using 62-lb. T rail, spiked to redwood ties 6 ins. x 
8 ins. x 8 ft., space 2^-ft. centers, with fish-plate joints 
resting upon joint plates. The tracks are cross bonded 
every 300 ft. Center-pole construction has been used for 
the electric conductors the greater portion of the way, 
though for a short distance, at the town end of the line, 
iron side poles of the Market Street Railway standard 
pattern have been used. The center poles, which are 
spaced about 109 ft. apart, are set in concrete, extending 
about 12 ins. above the surface of the ground. Fig. 8 
trolley wire has been used, of 330,000 cm. cross sectional 
area. All span, anchor and strain wires are of silicon 
bronze, on account of the salt atmosphere met with. 

The line, which has many grades of about 2-J per cent, 
one of which is over a mile in length, is operated mainly 
with single-truck cars of the combination open and closed 
pattern, which run direct to a central part of the city, 
though on Sundays a few cars of the double-truck pattern 
(also combination open and closed) are run between the 
ocean beach and Stanyan Street only, to accommodate the 
passengers transferring to and from the lines having their 
terminals at the latter point. Since the conversion of this 
line to the electric system the travel on it, which is almost 
entirely of a pleasure character, has greatly increased. 

The Eighth Street line, formerly operated as a horse 
line, between Market and Bryant Streets, a distance of 
about 3100 ft, has been rebuilt to an electric road. The 
double track has been relaid with 45 to 51 -lb. girder rail, 
on chairs spiked to redwood ties 8 ins. x 8 ins. x 8 ft., 
spaced 2-J-ft. centers, with the rail joints cast welded. Or- 
dinary side-pole construction has been used, the poles be- 
ing of the 5-in., 6-in. and 7-in. tubular iron, Market Street 
Railway standard pattern. To avoid an extra number of 
poles upon the street, at various places the iron side poles 
were omitted, and the suspension wires secured to 40-ft. 
and 5°-ft. wooden poles, already in place, for carrying the 
wires of other companies. 

San Bruno and Precita Avenue and Army Street: The 
unused horse-car tracks on Army Street, between San 
Bruno Avenue and Folsom Street, have been rebuilt to the 
electric system, as also a single electric track constructed 
on Precita Avenue, between the same streets, with the in- 
tention of extending the Folsom Street line out to the 
former street and San Bruno Avenue, a distance of about 
2.\ miles, returning to Folsom Street via Army Street. The 
single tracks constructed on Army Street and Precita Ave- 
nue are each about 2500 ft. in length, and built of 51 -lb. 
girder rail, spiked direct to ties spaced 2-J-ft. centers, with 
rail joints cast welded. Ordinary wooden side-pole con- 
struction was used on this portion of the route. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

The reconstruction of the San Bruno Avenue horse-car 
track is now under way, the T rails of the present track 
being relaid on new ties spaced 2-J-ft. centers, with rail 
joints cast welded and rails cross bonded every 150 ft. with 
No. o, B. & S. Chicago bonds. Wooden side bracket 
poles are to be used in the overhead construction. The 
reconstruction of the line has been treated as of a some- 
what temporary character on account of the unfinished 
condition of the street and the prospect of many future 
changes in its grade, etc. 

Taylor Street: The horse car, double tracks, on Taylor 
Street, between Market and Ellis Streets, a distance of 
about 1250 ft. have been reconstructed for electric service, 
using 70-lb. girder rail, laid on chairs spiked to 6-in. x 8- 
in. x 8-ft. ties, spaced 2-|-ft. centers, with fish-plate joints. 
The overhead work is of the standard Market Street Rail- 
way pattern, with iron tubular side poles. This track, 
which was constructed for the immediate use of the Park 
& Ocean through line, may possibly be used in connec- 
tion with other lines in the near future. 

During the year the company has put in several hun- 
dred cast-welded joints on its Ocean Avenue, Kearny and 
Sacramento Street lines, with excellent results. While a 
few of the joints put in last year on the Solano, Folsom 
and Twenty-second Street lines had to be renewed on ac- 
count of breakage, no such trouble has been experienced 
with those of this year's construction. 

Sixteen cable cars, no longer required on account of the 
conversion of certain cable to electric lines, have been re- 
constructed to single-truck electric cars of the standard 
combination open and closed pattern , with very satis- 
factory results. These cars have been equipped with mo- 
tors taken from larger cars, as noted below. 

The electrical equipment of twenty-five double-truck 
cars has been improved by substituting two G. E.-iooo 
motors for the two W. P.-50 motors formerly used, and 
which were found to be hardly adequate to the require- 
ments of grades, heavy loads and frequent stops. A por- 
tion of the W. P. -50 motors so removed have been used in 
equipping the smaller cars of the single-truck pattern, pre- 
viously referred to. 

The Kentucky Street car house has been enlarged 
during the year, and its capacity increased from forty to 
eighty cars, the company now having storage capacity at 
its three electric car houses for 300 cars. 

The pipe line, running from the bay to the main elec- 
tric power station at Bryant and Division Streets, for sup- 
plying salt water for condensing purposes, has been ex- 
tended to the cable power station at Market and Valencia 
Streets, and the non-condensing power plant at that house 
remodeled to one of a condensing type by the addition of 
a new low-pressure cylinder, condensers, pumps, etc. The 
electric light system of the company has been extended 
until, from its own power station, all of its sixteen car 
houses and power plants are now lighted. 

The introduction of electric motors to operate drill 
presses and grind-stones at the car houses has been at- 
tended with economical results. Tt has been found that a 
small motor, absorbing 10 cents' worth of current per day, 
will run a drill press faster and stronger than an able- 
bodied man can do it. Twice the work is now done with 
one man and a motor as was formerly done by two men. 

Home Mad * Armature Rest. 

The accompanying engravings illustrate a stand for 
holding armatures while repairs are being made, used at 
the Fifty-second Street shop of the Brooklyn Heights 
Railroad Company. The stand, with the exception of a 
few iron braces, is made entirely of wood, and so should be 

quite inexpensive to build. The idea seems to be a good 
one, as the device will apparently withstand extremely 
hard use for a long time before having to be consigned to 
the scrap pile. 

The method of making the stand is as follows: Two 
upright pieces on which the armature shaft rests are made 
from a board, either ash or oak, and i| ins. thick. 
Each side should be cut about 7 ins. wide and 36 ins. long. 
One end of each piece is securely fastened to a connecting 
base board, cut from the same plank but 12 ins. wide and 
38 ins. or 40 ins. long. The edge of this latter piece is cut 
out crescent shape to give a more finished appearance to 
the completed stand. When this has been done it should 
be fastened to two pieces of plank, each 3 ins. x 9 ins. x 
36 ins., which will support the frame from the floor. 

The two upright pieces are braced with \ in. round bar 
iron as explained by referring to the illustrations. It will 
be noticed that two braces hold these pieces from spread- 
ing out, and two fastened at the edge of each one near the 



top and at the ends of the pieces resting on the floor hold 
it from falling over. After these have been added the 
top edge of each upright piece must be hollowed out to fit 
the shaft, and the stand is complete ready for service. To 
increase the height or width two additional pieces may be 
fastened with two bolts to the uprights on each side as ex- 
plained in the engraving on the right. 

At the same shop two traveling cranes, operated by hand 
power, are employed to raise car bodies from their trucks, 
but these will be found in most all large shops having 
modern improvements for doing repair work. But the 
jack used for handling small car bodies appears to be very 
useful and a device which would be found very convenient 
in smaller shops. The following illustrations will explain 
how to make it. First cut two strips of hard wood \\ ins. 
x 8 ins. x 8 ft. long, and have two rows of holes i\ ins. in 
diameter bored in each piece. The distance between the 
holes is about 6 ins. The centers of the holes in one row 
should come opposite the center of the space be- 
tween the holes of the other row, and the holes in 
each strip should correspond with those in the other. 
The two strips are then bolted together at each end, 
leaving a space between of about 3 ins., or sufficient to al- 
low the lever, also illustrated, to pass easily in or out. 
When this has been completed the uprights should be fast- 
ened securely to a base, which can be made from a block of 
wood 4 ins. or ^ ins. thick and 18 ins. square, or made from 
two pieces nailed together, one about 4 ins. thick and 16 
ins. or 18 ins. square, the other 2 ins. thick and 14 ins. 
square, as shown in the cut. 

The lever is made from one piece of bar iron 2 ins. di- 
ameter and 6 ft. or 7 ft. long, one end being flattened for a 
distance of about 2 ft. to a thickness of 1 \ ins. This lever 


January, 1899.] 

rests on two iron pins passed through the holes made in 
the jack, and to keep it from slipping off these pins it 
is slotted sufficiently deep at these points to hold it in place. 
Two slots are made on the part of the lever which was 
made flat, as mentioned above; the first slot is about l| ins. 
or 2 ins. from the end and the other about 6| ins. from the 
first. At the center between these two slots is pivoted the 
hook for engaging with the car body; this is forged to the 
form shown. The two pins are made from round bar iron 
1-} ins. in diameter, one end of each being bent in a cir- 
cular form to facilitate handling, as well as to keep it in 
place in the jack. It should here be mentioned that the 
strips of wood of jack having the holes in them can be con- 
siderably strengthened by placing bands of iron on the 
edges; this tends to keep the wood from splitting at these 


To raise or lower a car with this jack is simply a matter 
of changing the position of the pins. Thus to raise the car 
two jacks are placed at one end with the hooks engaging 
underneath the platform, one on each corner. The lever is 
then pressed down on each jack and the pin on each thus 
released is placed in the next bole above. The lever is 
again raised and that pin placed in the next hole above. 
Continuing this operation raises the car body from the 
truck on one end until a sufficient height is reached where 
the car body can be held in that position in some con- 
venient way, perhaps by resting it across a timber placed 
on two barrels outside the track to allow the removal of the 
truck. The jacks are then taken to the opposite end of the 
car, which is raised and held in the same manner. Revers- 
ing these operations lowers the bar body. It only requires 
the services of two men to operate this jack. 

Special Report to The Glasgow Corporation on Latest 
Developments in Electric Traction 

The following is an abstract of a memorandum by General Man- 
ager John Young, on electric traction, in view of practical ex- 
perience gained in Glasgow and elsewhere during the last two 
years, and with special reference to the present proposal to equip 
electrically the lines from Glasgow Cross to Govanhill and Cop- 
lawhill Car Works. It was prepared at the request of the con- 
vener of the tramways committee: 

"Two years ago- — in 1896 — deputations from the tramways com- 
mittee reported strongly in favor of electric traction, and to-day 
it is further ahead of its rivals than ever. At that time the system 
of distributing the current by means of a slotted conduit in the 
center of the track was only being experimented with. Mechani- 
cally it seemed successful, but considerable doubt existed as to the 
commercial success of a system so costly to construct. On the 
other hand, the overhead, or trolley system, had for several years 
been abundantly proved a commercial success, and to have com- 
pletely revolutionized tramway traveling wherever it had been 

adopted. Your deputations, therefore, felt that the only choice 
left them was to recommend the corporation either to give a 
demonstration of the overhead system on one of the tramway, 
routes, or simply to wait further developments. The former was 
the recommendation which was subsequently given effect to, and 
the overhead construction on the Springburn route, especially in 
West Nile Street, where rosettes are used, instead of side poles, 
shows the system practically at its best, and I do not think any 
slight improvement it may admit of would alter any one's opinion 
of the system generally. 

"It is only within the last fortnight that the horse cars have 
been entirely displaced by electric cars on the Springburn route, 
and the power station plant has not yet been completed so as to 
be taken off the hands of the contractors. Our figures for ope- 
rating can, therefore, scarcely be said to have settled down to 
normal. The results, both as regards efficiency and economy, 
are, however, very satisfactory. For the week ending Saturday 
last, Nov. 12, the total operating expenses for the electric route 
were, as near as may be, 6^d. (13 cents) per car mile, while the 
receipts amounted to is. 4>4d. (34 cents) per car mile. I do not 
wish to attach too much importance to the increased traffic, 
although there can be no doubt electric traction does very ap- 
preciably increase the revenue. Apart from this consideration, 
important as it is, financial success is assured by the fact that, 
during the first full week of operating our small electric installa- 
tion working only at half its power, we can show a saving on 
working expenses, as compared with horse traction, of 2d. (4 
cents) per car mile. 

"The position we find ourselves in at present is this: We have 
with difficulty kept pace hitherto with the unprecedented increase 
in our tramway traffic, and still we find ourselves pressed to give 
traveling facilities to meet this increasing demand upon us. It 
would be unfortunate at this time of day to propose to build more 
stables or horse cars. The only little present relief we can other- 
wise have, until a general scheme for electric traction has been 
adopted, is to electrically equip the route in continuation of High 
Street from Glasgow Cross to Govanhill, and across Coplaw Street 
to Coplawhill Car Works. An electrical connection between the 
car works and the power station at Springburn is absolutely neces- 
sary, at any rate. It is calculated that the engines and dynamos 
now in the power station can operate this extension, and, of 
course, better results will be shown when full advantage is taken 
of the power plant. Some extra boiler power will be required. 

"The desirability of this extension is very apparent, but the 
question which, in view of the latest developments, has just arisen 
is: should this extension be on the overhead or underground sys- 
tem, or, rather, should we have a demonstration of the conduit 
system before finally discussing a complete scheme of electric 
traction for the city? 

"Perhaps one of the most important communications upon elec- 
tric traction which has yet been made public came into our hands 
a few days ago. It is the "Comparative costs and profits of 
cable, electric conduit, and horse tramway operation in New 
York city." This communication is published in this month's 
issue of the Street Railway Journal, New York, and for the 
information of members I would ask you, with the sanction of the 
editor, to have it reprinted in the minutes. The figures contained 
in this article as supplied to the edito: - by H. H. Vreeland, presi- 
dent of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York- 
city, seem to confirm the commercial success of the conduit system 
in that city of great traffic, and its great superiority to cable and 
horse traction. 

"The report states that, for the year ending June 30, 1898, the 
operating expenses of the cable lines were 8.2id. per car mile; ot 
the horse lines, 8.93d., and of the electric conduit lines, 5.1 id.; 
while for the three months ending Sept. 30, 1898, which is more 
favorable to the electric conduit system, on account of its opera- 
tion being more settled, the cable lines cost 8.77d. ; the horse lines, 
S.94d., and the electric lines, 5.03d. For comparison, I may in- 
terject here that last year it cost us in Glasgow 8.3d. to operate 
with horses. Upon examination of the detailed figures, it is evi- 
dent that some little addition will soon fall to be made to the cost 
of operating the conduit on account of increased maintenance of 
permanent way and equipment when these have been longer sub- 
jected to tear and wear. 

"Another very remarkable statement in the report is that 
'during the twelve-months' period the cable lines operated at 47.7 
per cent of their passenger receipts, the electric lines at 37.9 per 
cent, the horse lines at 65.3 per cent, and the entire system at 53.3 
per cent. During the three-months' period the cable operated at 
52.7 per cent of their passenger receipts, the electric lines at 38.6 
per cent, the horse lines at 62.1 per cent, and the entire system at 
50.9 per cent.' This very low percentage of 37.9 of the receipts 
has never before been reached, so far as I know. It, of course, 
points to very large traffic, as well as to economical working. 


On our system last year the percentage of cost of operation to 
receipts was 74.49. 

"I confess my surprise that the cable in New York, with its im- 
mense traffic, should have been so very far surpassed. With these 
figures before him, and also the significant fact that the cable sys- 
tem in Broadway, after a short history of five years, is now being 
superseded by the electric conduit, the writer of the article seems 
fully justified in saying — 'There is no place for the cable in modern 
street railroading.' 

"But it is the overhead and the conduit systems of electric trac- 
tion that you are more immediately interested in. 

"Your deputation, in their report of July, 1896, said: 'All other 
things being equal, a system which provides the power without 
any overhead construction is preferable.' No one will dispute 
this. I do not think it is possible, however, with the very much 
greater initial cost of the conduit, that the result can be economi- 
cally equal to the overhead, but it may very properly be asked, in 
view of the latest experience: How near does it approach eco- 
nomic equality? This I have tried to estimate. 

"The total length of the tramways owned by the Glasgow Cor- 
poration, including those recently constructed, although not yet 
opened for traffic, measures, in round figures, 37 miles of double 
track. This, of course, excludes the Govan Tramways, which are 
leased. Prior to 1894 the section of rail used weighed 79 lbs. per 
yard, and from 1894 to 1896, 89 lbs. per yard. Since 1896 a new 
section has been adopted, weighing 100 lbs. per yard. In both of 
the older sections (designed foi horse traction) the groove is so 
shallow that, when new. the rail admits of a wear of only one- 
quarter of an inch until the flanges of our electric car wheels touch 
the bottom of the groove. The new 100-lb. section gives a wear 
of three-quarters of an inch before the same thing occurs. Our 
experience in relaying and operating the Springburn route has 
practically dispelled any hopes that may have been entertained of 
the economy of bonding and wearing out any considerable portion 
of the old shallow-grooved rails. 

"Of the 37 miles of double line in question, 22 miles are laid with 
79-lb. rails, and 6 miles with 89-lb. rails, making altogether 28 
miles; and 9 miles with 100-lb. rails. From what I have said, we 
may take it that, in the event of conversion to electric traction, the 
former 28 miles will practically require new rails throughout, 
while the present rails on the latter 9 miles will be suitable for the 
new form of traction. 

"On this basis, I have made up the following relative estimates 
of the cost of conversion. These estimates do not include any- 
thing for feeders, rolling stock, equipments, buldings, power and 
transforming stations, etc., which are common to both the over- 
head and conduit systems, and which, for our present purpose, 
may be estimated at equal cost: 


Renewing 28 miles of double track, and electrically equipping same, 
including overhead construction, bonding, and ducts for feeders, 
at £11,000 per mile £308,000 

Converting 9 miles of double track now laid with 100-lb. rails, at 

£4,500 per mile 40,500 


"These figures for the overhead system are based upon the costs 
of converting the Springburn route. 


Renewing 28 miles double track, and electrically equipping same at 

£20,000 per mile £560,000 

Converting 9 miles of double track, using the present rails, at £18,000 

per mile 162,000 


"These figures for the conduit bear the same relative proportion 
to the overhead as do the figures in the very able report recently 
presented to the Liverpool Corporation by F. S. Pearson, engi- 
neer to the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, who designed 
and constructed the conduit system in New York now reported 
upon. Mr. Pearson's figures for conversion in Liverpool are, 
however, somewhat higher than those given here, both for over- 
head and conduit. 

"There is, of necessity, considerable uncertainty in any esti- 
mate for constructing a conduit in the streets of the city, arising 
from the unknown number and character of water, gas, and other 
pipes and sewers, which may require to be removed, and special 
work at bridges, etc. In fact, the real cost will be determined by 
the amount of this extra work. 

"According to the present estimates it would cost £373,500 (in 
round figures, £ 10,000 per mile of double track) more to convert 
the 37 miles of double track under consideration to the conduit 
than to the overhead system, or rather more than double. The 
greatest sacrifice for the conduit is, it will be observed, in lifting 
to the foundation the lines more recently laid with 100-lb. rails. 

"To construct the conduit on a road on which there are no 
tramways at present would probably cost about £6,000 per mile 
of double track more than the overhead. This would apply to 

"Taking an average running of 9,000,000 car miles per annum, 
or 122,000 per mile of single track, the interest and sinking fund 
on the extra cost indicated for conversion is practically equal to 
l4d. per car mile. There will probably be slight excesses on other 
points, such as maintenance, leakage, cleaning, etc., but, from all 
the evidence available, I think we may assume that the excess on 
all points would not, in any event, exceed id. per car mile. It 
should be observed, however, that, on the mileage in question, id. 
per car mile amounts to £37,500 per annum. 

' Where the traffic is not great, this excess would be serious, or 
even prohibitive, and it would tend to check extensions quite 
feasible with the trolley. 

"The interference with the streets would undoubtedly be very 
great during the reconstruction for conduit, but this would just 
require to be borne at its possible minimum. Where the street 
would require to be taken up for the overhead system, it would 
only be a question of degree. There is also the question of 
climate. Glasgow has more damp and slush than New York, but 
I have assumed that the maximum excess of id. per car mile over 
the trolley would cover all such points. 

"If we, for the moment, suppose the more expensive conduit 
system to be quite practicable from an engineering point of view, 
then its commercial success would depend upon the prospective 
traffic and leceipts. We are naturally most anxious to give the 
community the cheapest possible means of comfortable tramway 
traveling, and there is no doubt that, for cheapness and efficiency 
combined, the overhead electric system holds the field. It is, 
however, a question worthy of fair and full consideration, whether, 
if the conduit should prove equally efficient and reliable, and be 
considered safer, as well as less obtrusive (even if the preference 
be, to a large extent, sentimental), and if it could be operated at 
no greater extra cost over the trolley than id. per car mile, it 
should not have a trial at this stage. In other words: is the 
gain, which is almost entirely aesthetic, worth the difference? 
Were this the only question involved, I believe the available 
traffic on the thoroughfares of Glasgow would justify this extra 
cost over the trolley if by it one were sure of securing for the city 
the best all-round system. But we have not this assurance. 

"The extra cost can be better afforded now that the electric 
power can be produced at what a few years ago would have been 
looked upon as merely a nominal addition to the cost per car 
mile run. It is fully anticipated that the new 70,000-h.p. station 
in Ninety-sixth Street, New York, for the tramway service of the 
entire city, through high-tension primary lines and low-tension 
secondary circuits, will reduce the cost of power to somewhere 
between 60 cents (3od.) and 75 cents (37d.),or practically one-third 
of a penny per car mile run. I believe this is possible of realiza- 
tion. Experience in Brooklyn, Chicago and Montreal, as well as 
in New York, justifies the expectation. I am also convinced that, 
with the wages and prices in this country, if the Glasgow Tram- 
ways committee lay down their own power station on similar 
lines, they will be in a better position to attain this result than the 
Metropolitan Street Railway Company, in New York. I may 
mention here that, from tests made so far, our cars on the Spring- 
burn route, which is hilly, and requires considerable sanding, 
seem to use about ij^-kw. hours, or board of trade units, per car 
mile run, or about iY 2 units, including currents used for lighting 
and heating the cars. 

"Coming now to the question of the proposed extension from 
Glasgow Cross to Govanhill and Coplawhill, there is nothing, if 
it be not insufficient depth on the bridges, to prevent a portion of 
this extension being altered to the conduit system, and the work- 
ing of the same cars over both systems, if the committee wish it. 
The cars would be fitted with the trolley for the overhead por- 
tion, and the plow for the conduit portion. The one would be 
thrown off, and the other on, at the junction — which would be a 
stopping place — without much detention. The changing may not 
be -altogether desirable, but it is quite workable. One system, 
however, for the entire city would certainly be preferable. Other- 
wise there would be difficulty in determining where one system 
should end and another begin. 

"If the available depth makes it practicable, and a demonstra- 
tion of the conduit system is wanted, what I should suggest is 
this: proceed at once to equip the Govanhill route, as proposed, 
on the overhead system throughout, and arrange, at any time you 
think fit, to demonstrate the conduit system on the Dennistoun 
route from St. Vincent Place to the terminus. The current for 
this demonstration could easily be supplied from the present power 
station, via High Street, and the working costs kept quite sepa- 
rate. The Kelvinside cars could simply turn at St. Vincent Place, 
as in former times, and this would completely isolate the Dennis- 
toun route for this purpose. 

"The article referred to is reprinted from the Street Railway 
Journal, and is appended hereto. John Young." 

January, 1899.] 





Edited hy J. Aspinwall Hodge, Jr., and Robert 
Ernest, of the New York Bar. 


NEW YORK. — 1. Construction of Connections — Necessity of 

The construction of a connecting curve between two street rail- 
way tracks, being a necessary incident to the construction of the 
tracks themselves, is not within Const, art 3, sec. 18 (amendment 
of 1875), providing that the construction or operation of a street 
railroad shall not be authorized except upon the condition that 
the consents of one-half in value of the property bounded on, and 
the consent also of the local authorities having control of, that 
portion of a street or highway upon which it is proposed to con- 
struct or operate such railroad, be first obtained. 

2. Same — Traffic Contracts. 

Const, art. 3, sec. 18 (amendment of 1875), providing that the 
construction or operation of a street railroad shall not be author- 
ized except upon the condition that the consents of one-half in 
value of the property bounded on, and the consent also of the 
local authorities having control of, that portion of a street or high- 
way upon which it is proposed to construct or operate such rail- 
road, be first obtained, does not extend to traffic contracts under 
railroad law, sec. 78, permitting railroad companies to contract 
with other companies to operate cars over the former's tracks. — 
(Kunz vs. Brooklyn Heights R. Co., 54 N. Y. Suppl., 187.) 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Construction— Assessment of Dam- 

Pub. St. c. 109, sec. 4, as amended by St. 1884, c. 306, allowing an 
assessment by selectmen for damages to abutting property caused 
by the construction of lines of "companies for the transmission of 
intelligence by electricity," and "electric light and electric power 
lines," does not authorize the selectmen to assess damages for the 
construction of an electric street railroad. — (McDermott vs. War- 
ren B. & S. St. Ry. Co., 51 N. E. Rep., 972.) 

VERMONT. — Municipal Corporations — Control of Streets — 
Construction of Statutes- — Effect of Repeal — Proceedings Before 

1. V. S. 1894, c. 170, provides (sec. 3936) that, before a street 
railway corporation shall begin the construction of such railway 
in a street in any city, such corporation must first obtain the per- 
mission of the aldermen of the city, and (sec. 3937) that, if such 
corporation fails to agree with the aldermen as to the location, 
manner of construction, or use of such railway, either party may 
apply to the railroad commissioners, who, after due notice to the 
parties, shall examine the premises, hear the parties, and decide 
the questions presented to them, and whose decision shall be final. 
By acts 1896, No. 148, sec. 53, subd. 44, it is provided that the city 
council of Burlington shall have power to impose and enforce the 
terms on which any street railway or traction company may use 
or occupy any street in such city, and to prohibit such use thereof 
until such terms have been complied with; and that, if the com- 
pany and such city cannot agree on such terms, the company may 
petition the County Court, which shall thereupon hear the parties, 
fix such terms as shall be reasonable, and make all necessary 
orders for carrying its decision into effect. Held, that such later 
enactment by implication repeals the chapter referred to as to the 
city of Burlington, in so far as such chapter relates to the subject 
matter of the powers thus conferred on the city council. 

2. An application to the railroad commissioners by a street rail- 
way corporation for permission to construct and operate such 
railway in a certain city was not "pending" at the time of the re- 
peal of the statute under which such proceeding was brought, 
within the meaning of V. S. sees. 28, 29, saving from the effect of 
such repeal suits and proceedings in civil causes then pending, 
where such statute was repealed before notice of such application 
had been served. 

3. The words "suit" and "civil cause," as used in V. S. sees. 28 
and 29, relating to the effect of the repeal of a statute on actions 
then pending, do not include proceedings before a board of rail- 
road commissioners, whose functions are merely administrative or 
ministerial, and whose decision is final. — (City of Burlington vs. 
Burlington Traction Co., 41 Atl. Rep., 514.) 

* Communications relating to this department may be addre'ssed to the 
Editors, Johnston Building, 30 Broad Street, New York. 

INDIANA. — Street Railroads — Negligence Pleading. 
1. A street railway company is not liable for failure to stop a 
car running at a proper speed, on approaching a frightened horse, 
where it does not appear that thereby the horse could have been 
controlled, or that the motonnan had reason to apprehend the 
occurrence of an accident. 

2. Averments that a street car was run carelessly and negligent- 
ly, and run at a high rate of speed, making great noise, do not 
state facts showing negligence. — (Terre Haute Electric Ry. Co. 
vs. Yant, 51 N. E. Rep., 732.) 

NEW YORK. — 1. Carriers — Collisions — Questions for }ury. 

In an action against a street railway company and the owner of 
a wagon for negligence, there was evidence that plaintiff sat on the 
east side of a south-bound car, near the rear. A short distance 
south of a street intersection, the car met the wagon, coming north 
on the east track in front of a north-bound car. To get out of 
the way of the car behind it, the wagon crossed to the west, and 
collided with the rear of the south-bound car, striking and injur- 
ing plaintiff. The gripman of the south-bound car ran it across 
the intersecting street at full speed, and the wagon driver first 
started to cross the west track when the car was about 75 ft. 
away. The wagon was a heavy one, and could not be stopped at 
once. Held, the issue of negligence was for the jury. 

2. Same — Rule of Care Required. 

The rule requiring a carrier of passengers to exercise all the care 
that human skill and foresight may suggest to secure their safety 
applies to street cars propelled by a cable. — (Keegan vs. Third 
Ave. R. Co. et al, 54 N. Y. Suppl, 391.) 

NEW YORK.— 1. Damages— Fright. 

Injuries from fright accompanying a physical injury furnish 
basis for recovery of damages. 

2. Credibility of Witness — Interest. 

The testimony of employees whose duty it was to inspect elec- 
tric wires, one of which broke, that they were properly inspected, 
is that of interested persons; so that their credibility is for the 

3. Negligence — Electric Wires. 

Plaintiff having been shocked by electricity coming from the 
ground after it escaped thereto from one of defendant's electric 
wires after it fell, the jury were justified in holding that the auto- 
matic device used by defendant was not properly adjusted, or was 
not in proper working order; there being evidence that, if it was, 
it would throw the current oft* the wire the moment it came 
in contact with the ground. 

4. Opinion Evidence. 

The inquiry being, not whether plaintiff's existing conditions 
might have been produced by the injury, but would her present 
condition be permanent, a witness, after detailing all the condi- 
tions he found present, may give his opinion, without giving a 
history of the case. — (O'Flaherty vs. Nassau Elec. R. Co., 54 N. 
Y. Suppl., 96.) 

NEW YORK. — Excessive Damages — Personal Injuries. 

Three thousand, five hundred dollars' damages for the fracture 
of the acromion process and of the humerus of a seven-year-old 
child, where the child suffered, and was likely to continue to suf- 
fer, from his injuries, are not excessive. — (Hutchinson vs. Atlantic 
Ave. R. Co., S3 N. Y. Suppl., 1076.) 

NEW YORK. — 1. Negligence of Passengers — Standing on 
Running Board. 

A passenger who boards an open street car, where the seats 
are filled, but where there is standing room in the space between 
the seats, though uncomfortable and inconvenient, is not guilty 
of negligence per se in standing on the running board. 

2. Same — Sudden Jerks — Negligence of Company. 

The seats in an open car were filled, and passengers were stand- 
ing in the space between the seats. Plaintiff boarded the car, and 
remained on the running board, where other passengers were 
standing. The conductor collected his fare without any remarks. 
It was customary for passengers to stand on such board when the 
cars were crowded. While going at from 6 to 8 miles an hour, the 
car gave a sudden violent jerk, occasioned by the sudden applica- 
tion of excessive motor power, which caused plaintiff to break his 
hold with one hand, swinging his body outward so as to strike a 
trolley pole. Held, to show negligence making the company 
liable. — (Hassen vs. Nassau Elec. R. Co., 53 N. Y. Suppl., 1069.) 

NEW YORK. — Negligence — Personal Injuries — Damages — 
Excessive Recovery. 

In an action for damages for personal injuries received through 
negligence on the part of defendant, a verdict for $10,000 was ex- 
cessive, where plaintiff was not entitled to recover for loss of 
earnings or for medical attendance, but only damages for the pain 
and suffering she had endured, and for that which it was reason- 
ably certain she would endure in the future, and where such in- 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

juries were not permanent, and there was no satisfactory evidence 
as to how long plaintiff would continue to suffer therefrom. — 
(Becker vs. Albany Ry. Co., 54 N. Y. Suppl., 395.) 

NEW YORK. — Injury to Passenger's Clothes. 

A passenger tore her dress in the door latch of a street car, and 
sued the company. She and her sister testified the catch was a 
sort of hook, and sharp as a knife, and was worn smooth and 
bright at the edge. The company's employees testified that it was 
a new car; that the catch was the same as used on their other cars; 
and that there was nothing wrong with it, but it was in good 
order, and they knew of no better appliance for its purpose: also, 
that each car of the company carried 500 to 600 passengers per 
day, and no such accident had ever happened before. Held, that 
she could not recover. — (Atwood vs. Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., 54 
N. Y. Suppl., 138.) 

NEW YORK. — 1. Courts — Constitutional Law — Municipal 
Court of New York. 

Const, art. 6, sec. 18, provides that the Legislature shall not con- 
fer on an inferior local court of its creation any greater jurisdic- 
tion than is conferred on county courts by the article; section 14 
provides that county courts shall have the power possessed at the 
adoption of the constitution, and original jurisdiction for recov- 
ery of money, etc., where defendant resides in the county; Code 
Civ. Proc, sec. 341, provides that a domestic corporation actually 
located within a county is deemed a resident of the county; 
Greater New York Charter, sees. 1358, 1364, divide the boroughs 
composing the city into districts, and specify the district in which 
municipal courts shall be held; section 1370, subd. 2, provides 
that, if defendant be a corporation, action must be brought in a 
district in which plaintiff resides, or in which defendant transacts 
business, or has an office or agency; and subdivision 4 provides 
that, if action is not brought in the proper district, it may be tried 
where brought, unless transferred on motion of defendant. Held, 
the jurisdiction of a municipal court over a defendant corporation 
being expressly limited to a corporation resident in a borough, 
which, under the charter (section 2), consists of the whole or part 
of the county, that the provisions of the charter are not in excess 
of legislative authority, as extending the dominion of the munici- 
pal court over more than one county. — (Irwin vs. Metropolitan 
St. Ry. Co., 54 N. Y. Suppl., 195.) 

NEW YORK. — Defects in Tracks — Injury to Traveler. 

An injury to plaintiff was caused by a loose street railway rail. 
The track had been inspected that morning, and ten minutes be- 
fore the accident a car had passed safely over the rail, and the im- 
perfection was not observable; and, shortly after it, it was discov- 
ered and repaired. Traffic on the street was heavy at that hour. 
There was no showing that the road was improperly laid, or built 
of poor material, nor that the defect was caused by the company's 
acts, nor that its method of track inspection was not proper, nor 
of any previous defect causing the company to apprehend danger 
from loose rails or spikes. Held, that the company was not shown 
to be negligent. — (Kelly vs. Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., 54 N. Y. 
Suppl., 173.) 

INDIANA— Special Verdict — Evidence. 

The jury may not return the primary facts on evenly balanced 
evidence, where the burden of establishing the ultimate fact rests 
on the party in whose favor the primary facts are returned. — (Citi- 
zens' St. R. Co. vs. Reed, 51 N. E. Rep., 477.) 

ILLINOIS. — Collision — Damages — Trial — Directing Verdict — 
Questions for Jury — Appeal and Error — Waiver of Error. 

1. Where, at the close of plaintiff's evidence, defendant moves 
to take the case from the jury and direct a verdict for defendant, 
and the motion is renewed at the close of all the evidence, a writ- 
ten instruction directing the verdict must be presented with the 

2. A failure of defendant to present an instruction directing a 
verdict with his motion to direct is not supplied by his presenting 
such instruction with his series of general instructions. 

3. Where defendant did not present a written instruction direct- 
ing a verdict with his motion to direct, the error in refusing to 
direct was waived by his presenting such instruction with his series 
of general instructions. 

4. It was not error to instruct that if plaintiff's intestate was in- 
jured by collision with a street car while exercising due care, and 
defendant omitted to do certain things, plaintiff could recover, as 
plaintiff was entitled to have the jury instructed on his theory of 
the case. 

5. In determining the damages resulting from personal injuries 
to plaintiff's intestate, the jury should consider the nature of the 
injuries, his physical and mental suffering, and his loss of time. 

6. Plaintiff's intestate, two years after receiving personal injuries, 
died of abscesses which formed on the liver, the cause of which 
was unknown. In an action for the injuries, held, that the ques- 
tion of the cause of his death was properly withheld from the 
jury.— (West Chicago St. R. Co. vs. Foster, 51 N. E. Rep., 690.) 

MINNESOTA.— Injury to Pedestrian— Contributory Negli- 

Held, that the evidence conclusively shows that plaintiff, in at- 
tempting to cross two parallel street railway tracks (at a point not 
a street crossing), immediately behind a moving car on the track 
next to him, was guilty of negligence in not exercising reasonable 
care to ascertain whether a car was approaching from the opposite 
direction on the other track. — (Greengard vs. St. Paul City Ry. 
Co., 75 N.W. Rep., 221.) 

MINNESOTA. — Contributory Negligence — Personal Injuries 
— Actions — Evidence — Questions of Fact — Excessive Damages. 

1. A boy eight years and four months old got upon the rear 
platform of a street car, intending to ride thereon to his home, sev- 
eral blocks distant. While sitting upon this platform with his feet 
upon the car step, where there was no gate, the car started, and 
while it was running fast the boy became dizzy, fell off, and was 
injured. The motorman (who was also conductor) knew that the 
boy was on the car. Held, that merely getting upon the car and 
sitting down on the platform with his feet on the step was not 
prima facie evidence that the boy was a trespasser, and whether he 
was a passenger or trespasser it was not error for the trial court to 
submit to the jury the question whether it was negligence on the 
part of the acting conductor to permit him to ride, sitting in that 
position, while the car was running fast. 

2. It was within the province of the acting conductor to compel 
this boy to go inside the car, or stop it, and put him off; and, if 
he did not do so, the jury had a right to say that the conductor 
was guilty of negligence, which was imputable to the company. 

3. Held, also, that the rear platform of a street car running fast 
was a place of danger for this boy, riding thereon, and just what 
degree of intelligence and prudence could be expected of him was 
properly left to the jury to determine, as well as whether, upon 
all of the facts, he was thereby guilty of contributory negligence. 

4. Held, further, that the damages awarded were not excessive. — 
(Jackson vs. St. Paul City Ry. Co., 76 N.W. Rep., 956.) 

MINNESOTA.— Master's Liability to Employee. 

The plaintiff was engaged in replacing defective wooden poles 
with iron poles, and placed a ladder, which he climbed, against one 
of the wooden poles, when the pole, by reason of its rotten con- 
dition, broke off at the ground, and he was injured. Held, that 
the rule that a servant cannot recover damages for an injury 
caused by the defect which he was employed to repair applied, 
and plaintiff could not recover. — (Broderick vs. St. Paul City Ry. 
Co., 77 N.W. Rep., 28.) 

MASSACHUSETTS. — Crossings — Collision — Sufficiency of 

Evidence that defendant's car was going slowly; that plaintiff 
was nearly across defendant's track at the time of the collision; 
that plaintiff's view of the track in the direction of the approaching 
car was obstructed until he was within 15 ft. of the track; that 
plaintiff looked, but saw nothing, and heard no gong; that he had 
been going "a little faster than a walk," but "slowed up" before 
reaching the track, and that upon reaching the track he hurried 
his horse, is sufficient to warrant submitting to the jury the ques- 
tion of plaintiff's due care. — (Lahti vs. Fitchburg & L. St. Ry. 
Co., 51 N. E. Rep., 524.) 

NEW YORK. — Injury to Child — Contributory Negligence. 

A child between eight and nine years of age, who attempts to 
cross a city street in the middle of a block, either without looking 
for an approaching street car, or in blind and heedless disregard 
of its rapid approach, is guilty of contributory negligence. — (Weiss 
vs. Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., 53 N. Y. Suppl., 449.) 

NEW YORK. — Injury to Passenger — Negligence — Question 
for Jury. 

In an action to recover damages for personal injuries suffered 
by plaintiff in consequence of the defendant's alleged negligence, 
it appeared that while the plaintiff was riding as a passenger in an 
open trolley car of the defendant, in the evening a flashing or 
flaming shot out of the motor box or controller, from 2 to 6 ft. 
high, enveloping the motorman, and continuing while the car 
proceeded for some 100 ft. The plaintiff was so much alarmed 
that she leaped from the car, and received the injuries complained 
of. There was evidence on behalf of the defendant that the ap- 
paratus was a standard appliance, but the flaming on this occasion 
was of a very unusual character; and it appeared that dirt in the 
controller was likely to cause such results, that the car in question 
had not been inspected that day, and that after the accident the 
controller was found to be dirty. Held, that the facts required the 
submission to the jury of the question of defendant's negligence. — 

2. Same — Contributory Negligence. 

Held, further, that the fact that other passengers remained in 
the car could not operate to conclusively establish contributory 
negligence on plaintiff's part in jumping. — (Poulsen vs. Nassau 
Electric R. Co., 51 N. Y. Suppl., 933.) 

January, 1899.] 



The Paris Exposition of 1900 

Director of Machinery and Electricity, United States Commission. 

Though occupying only about one-half the area of the World's 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago, the Paris Exposition of 1900 
will have great opportunity for the satisfactory presentation of the 
arts of peace. The location of the grounds is practically in the 
heart of Paris on both sides of the river Seine, and affords an un- 
rivaled opportunity for providing comfortably for great crowds. 

The great main gate of the exposition will be at the historic 
Place de la Concorde, and will be capable of admitting 65,000 
people an hour. Scores of other entrances will be provided, so 
that each section of the city may be amply accommodated. 

On the south side of the river Seine the majority of the principal 
palaces and attractions will be installed. The Esplanade des In- 
valides, a rectangular tract lying immediately north ot the Hotel 
des Invalides, will contain palaces devoted to the exhibition of 
general manufactures. This tract will be connected with the 
grounds on the north side of the river and the Champs Elysees by 
the magnificent new bridge of Alexander III., now under con- 

and Arboriculture, the Hall of Social Economy and International 
Congresses, and the Palace of the Trocadero and Trocadero gar- 
dens, where the exhibits of the colonies will be located. 

At the park of Vincennes, 8 miles distant, will be located an 
annex to the exposition proper, where the railway exhibits will be 
placed, also the automobile, bicycle and similar displays. At 
this annex provision will be made for international athletic sports, 
and, owing to the attractive character of the park, thousands of 
people are expected to visit this annex daily. Ample means of 
transportation from the exposition grounds will be provided both 
by rail and boat. 


The part which machinery and electricity will play in the coming 
exposition is a more important one than ever assumed by these 
two great industries in former expositions. In a general way it 
may be said that but few important changes or improvements will 
be shown in the service of the Paris Exposition over the Colum- 
bian Exposition of 1893. The French classification, however, is a 
distinct advance over that of any previous exposition, inasmuch as 
il provides for the installation of the finished product together 
with the machinery and processes used in connection therewith. 
Under this classification collective exhibits will be most successful 

strucfion. From the Esplanades des Invalides to the Champs de 
Mars, along the left bank of the river, will be a row of official 
pavilions of the great nations, among which will be the building of 
the United States. Between the bridge of the Invalides and the 
Champs de Mars will be grouped the buildings devoted to the ex- 
hibits of the army and navy, and between the Champs de Mars and 
the river will be a building devoted to marine navigation and 
another containing the exhibits pertaining to forestry and fisheries. 

On the famed Champ de Mars will be found the several great 
palaces of the Exposition, in which will be housed practically 
three-fourths of the exhibits. They will be built around three 
sides of the rectangle and will be named as follows: Palace of 
Agriculture, Palace of Electricity, Palace of Machinery, Palace of 
Transportation and Civil Engineering, Palace of Textiles and 
Textile Fabrics, Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, Palace of Chem- 
ical Industries and Palace of Education and Liberal' Arts. 

The great Eiffel tower, which was such a conspicuous attraction 
at the Paris Exposition of 1889, will remain at the north end of 
the Champs de Mars, and no doubt will excite the same general 
interest among the visitors to this great fair. 

On the north or right side of the river will be found, beginning 
at the Place de la Concorde, in the order named, the two perma- 
nent art palaces, a section of Old Paris, Palace of Horticulture 

in_ presenting to the visitors a clear understanding of the state of 
the art in that particular industry. 


The great service power plant of the exposition will occupy a 
favorable position in the main group of buildings. It will be in- 
stalled immediately adjoining the space allotted for the exhibits of 
electrical and other machinery, and any benefit which might 
naturally accrue to the builder of machinery installed in the service 
plant will be accentuated by reason of its being located in close 
proximity to the exhibits not offered for regular service. The 
capacity of the boiler plants for the service of the exposition will 
be approximately 20,000 h.p. The two plants will feed into one 
general system of mains and distributors, and either, or both, may 
be utilized at the same time, as occasion requires. 

The engines and generators for this power plant will be placed in 
close proximity to the underground subways carrying the steam 
and other mains. Each power unit must be of the direct-con- 
nected type, the generator armature being mounted directly upon 
the extended shaft of the engine. The designation of these units, 
according to the exposition nomenclature, will be "electrogene 
groups." It is proposed by the administration to divide the total 
power comprised in the several electrogene groups required 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

equally among the French and foreign builders. From present in- 
dications, manufacturers will offer electrogene groups largely in 
excess of the requirements of the exposition. No actual contracts 
have as yet been made for them for either the French or foreign 
sections, except a nominal arrangement entered into some time 
ago with three German manufacturers, who desire to furnish 
equipment approximating 5000 h.p. 


The exhibit of automobiles or horseless carriages, trolley cars, 
railway trains, etc., will be made in the special pavilions provided 
at the annex in the park at Vincennes. A special track will be pro- 
vided there for trials and tests, and for the daily speeding of auto- 


mobiles, bicycles, tricycles, etc. The electric vehicle is at present 
very popular in Paris, and will no doubt come in for its full share 
of interest. 


In addition to the contemporary exposition, the official classifi- 
cation provides for the installation of a retrospective exhibit, 
which shall present an historical view of the progress in all 
branches of industry during this century. The department of elec- 
tricity has been specially favored in this regard by the construction 
of a special salon d'honneur within the Palace of Electricity, where 
the retrospective exhibit covering the great field of electricity may 
be properly undertaken, and where the personal exhibits of the 
great inventors of the century and the collective exhibits of asso- 
ciations or individuals may, in their several ways, illustrate the 
evolution and advance of science. 


For the information of those interested in the organization of 
the technical service under the director-general of exploitation it 
is desirable to state that the mechanical installations will be under 
the immediate direction of Monsieur Ch. Bourdon, professor of the 
Central School of Arts and Manufactures. The work of this de- 
partment falls under two distinct categories. The first relates to 
the execution of the necessary installations for motive power, and 
may be subdivided as follows: 
be subdivided as follows: 

(a) Production of steam. 
First — Installation of boilers. 

Second — Construction of flues and chimneys. 

(b) Distribution of water and steam. 
First — Construction of Subways. 
Second — Installation of steam mains, etc. 

(c) Production of power. 
Installation of electrogene groups. 

The distribution of motive power is practically assigned to the 
service of electric installations. 

The work under the second category is of an administrative or- 
der, and especially concerns the general conditions of exploitation 
of the boilers and electrogene groups and such other apparatus as 
is required for furnishing the steam for power service. 

The total mechanical power furnished will be in the neighbor- 
hood of 20,000 h.p., of which 15,000 h.p. will be for electric lighting 
and 5000 h.p. for motor service. These figures, while not abso- 
lutely correct, are those used by the administration as the basis of 
the installation. 

In the two power plants the boilers will be placed in two lines of 
batteries, with the boilers back to back. Ample space for general 
circulation of the public has been provided. 

The location of the electrogene groups operating as generating 
anits for the power plant will be within the regular exhibit space 

devoted to the department of machinery and electricity. Elec- 
tricity will furnish the motive power for the operation of an in- 
tramural elevated railway, which will encircle the Champs de Mars, 
pass in front of the main palace on the Esplanade des Invalides, 
and along the Quay d'Orsay from the bridge of Alexander III. to 
the Eiffel tower. 

There will be no regular compressed-air service established by 
the exposition administration, but arrangements will be made with 
the City Public Service Company whereby compressed air mains 
will be brought into the exposition buildings and air service of- 
fered to the exhibitors at the regular city rates, less 10 per cent. 


The controlling minds of this great undertaking have not lost 
sight of the artistic side of questions surrounding the service power 
plant, and in the construction of the chimneys for the two boiler 
plants ample provision has been made for the aesthetic treatment of 
the exterior of the towering stacks which will conduct the gases 
from the furnaces. 

Two monumental chimneys have been designed, each to be hand- 
somely ornamented. The height of each will be 230 ft. above the 
level of the Champs de Mars, the inside diameter at the base 28 ft., 
and at the summit 23 ft. These chimneys are to be illuminated at 
night, and will thus trace a striking outline upon the dark back- 
ground of the sky. 

In appropriating funds for the power plant the administration 
has, upon the advice of the technical committee, provided a mini- 
mum sum, which may -be said to be only about one-third of the 
allowance made for the use of power units at the Columbian Ex- 
position of 1893. The great commercial rivalry between the prin- 
cipal nations of Europe has been a factor in determining the course 
of the administration. Many large concerns would have granted 
the use of engines and dynamos during the period of the exposi- 
tion without charge, providing advantageous arrangement of 
space, etc., could have been assured them. It was after mature de- 


liberation, however, that the authorities settled upon a very nor- 
mal compensation, which should apply alike to French and foreign 

The details and conditions surrounding the tenders of electro- 
gene groups are recited in the official specifications appended: 


Art. I. General Requirements. — The electrical energy required for the 
Paris Exposition of 1900 will be produced by engine-dynamo groups, the 
steam engine of which will operate condensing; the generator armature to be 
mounted direct on the engine shaft, thus excluding all cables and belts. 

The administration will contract either with one builder only for the com- 
bined group, or simply with the builder of the steam engine and with the 
builder of the generator. 

Art. II. Technical Requirements. — The steam in the main pipes will have 
a mean effective pressure of 142 lbs. per square inch; this pressure may vary 
10 per cent either above or below normal. 

The electric current generated will be delivered to a switchboard furnished 
by the contractor. The following voltages will be permitted: 

Continuous current 125. 250 or 500 volts. 

Alternating current 2,200 volts with a frequency of 50. 

Three-phase current 2,200 volts with a frequency of 50. 

Art. III. Special Requirements. — As the apparatus installed under these 
articles will also be considered as exhibits, the conditions of the general reg- 
ulations of the exposition will apply to these groups. 

The apparatus will be submitted to the examination of the international jury 
and admitted to compete for awards. In consequence of this particular stipula- 
tion the furnishing of these apparatus will be made under the same conditions 
as govern other exhibited apparatus, that is, nothing will be granted to the 
exhibitor as allowance for expenses except for the installation and exploitation 
of the apparatus, which remuneration is specified in Art. IX., below. 

Art. IV. Conditions of Installation. — The installation of the apparatus 
will be made according to plans established by the builder and accepted by 
the director general of exploitation on a favorable report of the technical com- 
mittee and annexed to each copy of the contract. The builders will conform 
to the regulations enjoined by the administration concerning public safety. 

January, 1899.] 



Foundations —The administration will furnish the necessary floor space to 
the exhibitors, who will provide all foundations and accessory works at their 

"Thlma^rlals employed for the construction of the foundations will remain, 
after the exposition is over, the property of the builders, who may remove or 

ab p? P tn^^he a ye; e m "n y g inl eC builder will establish at his expense fecial 

of his piping with the exposition 'mains. The engine builder -will la sc .furnish 
and erect the feed-water pipes and evacuation pipes for the hot water Ot 
condensaion, as well as all necessary valves, traps, etc to be placed at the 
junction with the main piping. The pipes conveying live steam and cold 
water as well as for the outlet of the hot water from condensation will be 
placed in underground conduits connecting the engines to the underground 
galleries in which are installed the main distributing pipes. Ihese mam gal- 
feries and pipes will be established by the administration and the pr vate 
piping will be installed by the exhibitors at their expense. Special regulations 
will fix the details to be observed concerning valves and joints. 

Switchboards.-Each generator will be provided with a switchboard having 
the necessary means of interruption and protection such as are usually em- 
ployed, also current-measuring apparatus to be approved by the administra- 
tion. The administration also reserves the right to require the use of current- 

re For e "he g afternating-current generators the contractors will be obliged to 
furnish and install the necessary transformers for the distributing stations, so 
that the current of these alternators may be rendered available. 

Art. V. Duration of Service.— The duration of service is that of the 
exposition itself, that is, from April Nov 15, 1900, 205 days . he ^admin- 
istration reserves the right to vary this period not exceeding thirty days, in 
which case no modification concerning the remuneration allowed will be made. 

Art VI Daily Service.— The duration of each day s service and the dura- 
tion of working hours will be determined by the director-general of the ex- 
position according to service requirements. The builders agree to furnish at 
anv time the maximum amount of power they have undertaken to supply. 

The director-general of the exposition will establish between the several 
builders an equalization of work so as to permit proper working and resting 
periods for facilitating the visiting, cleaning and repairing of apparatus with- 
out causing any inconvenience to, or disruption of, the regular service. 

Art VII Measurement of Energy.— The administration, with the assist- 
ance of the contractor's employees and at his expense, will make such experi- 
ments and tests as are necessary to ascertain if the engines and generators are 
capable of furnishing the power stipulated in the private contracts. An offi- 
cial report will be made concerning these tests. At any time during the ex- 
position period these tests may be renewed to verify the previous reports. 

Art VIII Financial Conditions.— The live steam required by the engines 
and water for condensing will be furnished by the administration free ot 
charge. The builders will receive: (1) A fixed sum to remunerate them for a 
portion of the prime installation expense; (2) a sum proportionate to the 
number of hours of work at the normal rating of the group as accepted by the 
administration. These sums will be fixed according to the power of the units 
as determined in the private contracts and in accordance with the following 
tables (the amount to be contributed by the administration toward the first 
cost of installation is presented in Tables No. 1 and No. 2) : 
table no. 1. 

Total allowance: . Engine. Dynamo. Together 

Total maximum contribution $46,330 $19,300 $b5,M0 

Amount allotted to the French section (Plant 

La Bourdonnais) 23,165 9,650 32,81o 

Amount Allotted to foreign section (Plant Suf- 

f ern ) 23,165 9,650 si,slo 

table no. 2. 

Allowance per indicated Amount allowed per horse power. 

horse Dower- Engine. Dynamo, logether. 

Fortne P firrti000 h. P $1.92 $.78 $2.70 

For 1000 to 1500 h.p 1.37 .24 1.61 

For all above 1500 h.p 1.00 .18 . . 1.18 

In the event of the maximum horse power accepted by the administration 
from foreign builders being such as to make the total remuneration based on 
Table No. 2 greater than the total sum for this service as established m Table 
No. 1, a proportionate reduction will be made on the horse power allowance 
for each builder which shall be commensurate with the increase in total horse 
power over the limit established by the appropriation. 

The capacity of the groups admitted for service will be so proportioned that 
this reduction will not exceed 50 per cent. 

table no. 3. 

((Sums representing the administration's contribution toward the expense 
of exploiting and operating the electric groups). 

Per Horse Power. 

Allowance per i.h.p. per hour. Engine. Dynamo. Together. 

For the first 1000 h.p Cents 0.162 0.138 0.300 

From 1000 to 1500 h.p Cents 0.067 0.057 0.124 

Above 1500 h.p Cents 0.056 0.046 0.102 

The administration guarantees to the builders a minimum duration of work 
fixed at 500 hours. . 

Art. IX. Terms of Payment. — The remuneration above stipulated will be 
paid to contractors as follows: On July 10, 1900, payment of the number of 
working hours furnished from the beginning of the exposition up to and in- 
cluding June 15; on Sept. 10 for the number of working hours furnished from 
June 15 to Aug. 15; one month after the close of the exposition the balance 
covering the number of working hours furnished after Aug. 15. That portion 
of the remuneration allowed toward first cost of installation will be paid in 
thirds on the same dates. 

Art. X. Date of Delivery. — The contractors agree to begin the founda- 
tions for the engines and dynamos not later than October 15, 1890. If at that 
time they have not taken possession of the space granted to them and are 
unable to show satisfactory progress in the construction of the apparatus and 
in arrangements for prompt delivery, thus assuring the administration of the 
fulfilment of their obligations, the right to cancel without indemnity the con- 
tract between the administration and the contractor is reserved to the exposi- 
tion officials. 

The contractors must complete the installation of their groups on or before 
March 15, 1900; on this date will begin the trials mentioned in Art. VII. 

Art. XI. Penalties Exacted for Delays. — In event of delay beyond the 
time fixed in Art. X. for the installation of the units, the administration will 
exact the following penalties and will deduct them from any sums which may 
ultimately be due to contractors from the exposition. (1) A penalty equal to 
the allowance corresponding, for the apparatus referred to, to the normal 
service of the group during a working day of seven hours; (2) a penalty on 
the allowance made for installation expenses, which will be calculated by 
multiplying the amount of this remuneration by a coefficient of reduction 
equal to the ratio of the number of days delayed to the total duration of 
the exposition. 

Art. XII. Cancellation of Contract for Excessive Delays.— If the 
apparatus is not in condition to furnish a regular service beginning with May 
15, 1900, the administration reserves to itself the right to cancel the contract 
made by the builder without indemnity being due to either party, and without 
remuneration for installation expenses to be paid by the administration. 

Art. XIII. Penalty in Event of Interruption of Service. — In case of 
interruption to the regular service, aside from the resting hours fixed by the 
director-general of exploitation, the contractor will have imposed by the ad- 
ministration for each day of said interruption a penalty equal to the allowance 
corresponding, for the apparatus referred to, to the normal service of a day of 
seven working hours. 

If this interruption exceeds a period of ten days, a second penalty will be 

exacted and deducted from the remuneration provided by the administration 
toward the installation expenses, which penalty will be calculated by multi- 
plying the amount of such remuneration by a coefficient equal to the ratio of. 
number of days of delay to the total duration of exposition. 

\rt XIV Employees.— The director-general of the exposition will retain 
the right to require the discharge of any agents or employees in the service of 
contractors for insubordination, incapacity, intemperance or want of probity. 

Art XV Medical Service— The builders, being considered as exhibitors, 
as stipulated in Art. III., will not be classed as contractors for the masonry 
work required; therefore, the amount of their contracts will not be submitted 
to the customary deduction of 1 per cent for medical service required in Art. 

XVI. of general conditions. . 

On the other hand the employees of the builders, in case of injury or acci- 
dent will receive only the "first help to the injured," the regulations of Art. 
Ill 'and IV. of the "Arre6 Minist6riel" not applying to them. 

Art. XVI. General Regulations— The contractors agree to conform to all 
the regulations promulgated by the director-general of the exposition. They 
will be held responsible for accidents caused by their apparatus or employees. 

Disagreements between the administration and contractors must be, pre- 
vious to any definite action, examined by three competent members of the 
technical committee. One of these members will be chosen by the commis- 
sioner-general of the exposition, the second by the contractor, and the third 
will be chosen by the two first-named members. 

The contractors agree to withhold any procedure or action at law until after 
having submitted the disagreement to the council of arbitration as above pro- 
vided for. 

In the main the general conditions of installation and exploita- 
tion of steam boilers are similar to those governing the engine- 
dynamo plant, but there are some special features which are pre- 
sented in the following abstract: 


Art. I. General Requirements. — The steam required for the production of 
motive power for the Universal Exposition of 1900 will be produced by two 
distinct plants; one called "Usine La Bourdonnais," being reserved for 
French builders, will be placed in the court of 117 by 40 meters situated be- 
tween the Palace of Electricity, Palace of Agriculture, Palace of Machinery 
and the passage along the Avenue de la Bourdonnais; the second, reserved 
for foreign builders, will be placed in a court situated next to the Avenue 
Suffren and called "Usine Suffren." 

These boiler plants will be formed by groups of boilers, each group being 
able to produce under normal conditions a minimum of 22,000 pounds and a 
maximum of 44,000 pounds of steam per hour. 

The administration of the exposition will not contract for more than one 
group with the same builder. 

Art. II. Special Requirements. — Same as Art. III., engine-dynamo 

Art. III. Conditions of Installations. — (Same as Art. IV., engine-dy- 
namo groups, with the following additions:) 

Chimney Flues. — The main flues for smoke from both boiler plants will be 
established at the expense of the administration. Junction pieces will be 
prepared to receive the ends of the flues from the different groups of boilers. 
The private flues connecting the boilers to the main flues will be made by tfie 
contractors at their expense after the approval of the plans by the director- 
general of exploitation. 

Smoke Stacks. — A large smoke stack will be established by the administra- 
tion for each boiler house. 

Steam Pipes. — The administration will furnish the main piping connecting 
the boiler houses with the engine rooms and the different parts of the exposi- 
tion where steam is required, but each builder must furnish at his expense 
the connection from his boilers to said main pipes. 

Feed Water. — The administration will furnish main feed-water pipes through 
which will be conducted the water required for the boilers, but contractors 
must connect their feed tanks or pumps to these mains. 

Sewerage. General Sewer pipes will be established by the administration. 
The contractors will be required to make at their expense the connections to 
the sewers from the boilers, blow-offs, drains, etc. 

Condensers. — To avoid the escape into the atmosphere of the steam used 
in the different auxiliary apparatus, the administration will erect independent 
condensers into which this steam will be evacuated. 

Main overflow pipes for these condensers will also be established by the 
administration, but the contractors must connect their apparatus thereto at 
their own expense. They must also establish a security escape into the open 

Art. IV. — Technical Conditions. — The steam apparatus must comply with 
the conditions of French laws and the regulations concerning public security 
unless exceptions have been granted by the Minister of Public Works, that is, 
apparatus built according to legal requirements and subjected to official se- 
curity tests established by law in the originating country may be accepted 
upon the proper recognition of such requirements and tests being in con- 
sonance with French law. The administration, on the advice of the technical 
committee, reserves the right to require such other safeguards or safety appli- 
ances as it may deem necessary for apparatus working near the public aisles 
and passageways. 

The boilers and their accessories must be established and the conditions of 
regulation carefully observed for a normal working pressure of 156 lbs. per 
square inch. 

Plans of Installation. — General and detailed drawings must also be sub- 
mitted to the technical committee, this committee prescribing the conditions 
to which the builders must conform in the installation they undertake. 

The committee may particularly require satisfactory arrangement concerning 
the installation of the boilers from the chimney flues, water pipes, steam 
pipes, etc. All feed pipes, etc., must be installed and maintained in perfect 

The furnaces shall be constructed so as to avoid the production of opaque 
smoke, the fuel adopted by the builder being carefully selected with this end 
in view. 

Art. V. Measuring and Controlling Apparatus. — The builders agree to 
mount on their boilers such indicators, gages or verification apparatus as the 
director-general of exploitation may deem necssary, and to have such experi- 
ments made as the technical committee or jury of awards may demand. 

The builders will furnish, mount and keep in repair at their own expense 
during all the time of the exposition a suitable water meter of one of the 
patterns accepted by the administration, to be installed on the pipe supplying 
the feed water to their boilers, readings of the meter to be taken every day by 
the inspector of mechanical service, who shall keep the key to such water 
gage; two seals will be placed by said inspector on the feed and outlet pipes 
of the meter. 

The builders agree not to blow off the boilers except in the presence of said 
inspector, and will make sure that the evacuation and overflow cocks are 
closed in due time, so as not to show erroneous results concerning the 

A special steam outlet will be located between the boiler and the main 
throttle valve, according to the conditions to be prescribed by the director- 
general of exploitation, which shall permit the measurements of the water 
carried away by steam. 

Arrangements will also be made for the reading of the temperature of the 
gases escaping from the furnaces and for analyzing them. 
Art. VT. Duration of Service. — (Same as Art. V., engine-dynamo groups.) 
Art. VIT. Date of Delivery.— (Same as Art. X., engine-dynamo groups.) 
Art. VIII. Daily Service. — (Same as Art. VI., engine-dvnamo groups.) 
Art. IX. Financial Conditions.— The feed water will be furnished free of 
charge, according to the conditions of Art. III. As explained in that article, 
the chimney flues as well as the general steam feed, sewerage and overflow 

4 6 


Vol. XV., No. i. 

pipes will be furnished by the contractors at their expense, as well as 
dampers, cocks, gutters, and in a general way, all other accessories required. 

The administration will furnish the boiler house. The fuel, necessary em- 
ployees and all other expenses concerning the installation as well as for the 
exploitation and trials will be at the expense of the builders. The exploitation 
will therefore entirely be at the expense of the builders, particularly that which 
concerns fuel, employees, etc., and these expenses wiil be settled directly by 
them without any interference by or responsibility resting on the administra- 
tion, which will in no case assume any expenses incurred inside of the grounds 
of the exposition by the builders engaged to furnish the steam. 

Within the grounds no fuel, ashes, etc., shall be allowed to be stored, except 
in sacks. 

The remuneration allowed to builders includes: (1) A fixed sum represent- 
ing the administration's contribution toward the expense of installation of 
boilers and their accessories. This sum is fixed at $289.50 per 2200 pounds of 
productive capacity of steam per hour, as contracted for by the administration 
and appearing on the private contract of each builder. This productive ca- 
pacity will be determined by the technical committee and will, in any case, 
not exceed 122 pounds per square ft. of grate surface. 

(2) A sum representing the administration's contribution to the expense of 
exploitation, which sum is fixed at 85 cents per 2200 pounds of steam effect- 
ively produced from the opening to the close of the exposition and during the 
working hours fixed by the director-general of exploitation. 

Art. X. Terms of Payment. — (Same as Art. IX., engine-dynamo groups.) 

Art. XI. Penalties Exacted for Delays. — (Same as Art. XL, engine- 
dynamo groups.) 

Art. XII. Cancellation of Contracts for Excessive Delays. — (Same as 
Art. XII. engine-dynamo groups.) 

Art. XIII. Penalty in Event of Interruption to Service. — (Same as 
Ait. XIII., engine-dynamo groups.) 

Art. XIV. Accounts. — The administration reserves the right to take for 
the regulation of the accounts any steps necessary, or to make tests and trials 
so as to be informed as exactly as possible concerning the power produced by 
the boilers and accessories. 

Art. XV. Regulations. — (Covered in Art. XVI., engine-dynamo groups.) 

Art. XVI. Employees. — (Same as Art. XIV., engine-dynamo groups.) 

Art. XVII. Responsibility. — (Covered in Art. XVI., engine-dynamo 

Art. XVIII. Medical Service. — Same as Art. XV., engine-dynamo 


Art. XIX. Disagreement. — (Covered in Art. XVI., engine-dynamo groups.) 

A new feature of the exposition service is the "escalader," an in- 
clined elevating way, constructed in the form of an endless carpet 
or belt, propelled by a drum at one end. No former exposition 
has made such generous provisions for means of carrying the 
public to the galleries, and as the typical "escalader" has been so 
recently brought into public use, nearly everyone in the commer - 
cial world will be anxious to see the results obtained with it. The 
extent to which the elevating stairway may be successfully used 
can scarcely be estimated at this time. They are said to be safe, 
easily installed, simple to operate, and their capacity is far in ex- 
cess of vertical elevators so far as transportation from floor to 
floor of large crowds is concerned. Such devices have long been 
sought for large stores, elevated railway stations, etc. Privilege 
has been granted the commissioner-general for the United States 
to install a working exhibit of one or more of these "inclines" in 
or near some United States section. 

The terms under which the inclined electric elevators are to be 
installed are essentially the same as those of other exhibits that 
find a place in the service plant of the exposition. There are 
special conditions, of course, and details of construction that may 
prove interesting to those considering this class of apparatus. The 
competition will be divided into two lots, one comprising thirteen 
elevators in the palaces fronting on Avenue Suffern, and the other 
fourteen in the palaces fronting on the Avenue de la Bourdonnais 
and Constantine. 

The following abstracts from the official specifications cover the 
principal points of interest: 

The inclined elevators, their electric motors, means of transmission and 
other accessories, will be established in conformity with the general regula- 
tions to the general design accompanying these articles. 

The beams supporting the inclined elevators will be supported on the upper 
floor by one or two pillars resting on a solid mass of masonry level with the 
ground floor. They may also be supported at some point of their lines by one 
or two additional pillars, in line with the pillars of the palace proper. 

The bay to be cut through the upper floor will be established by the admin- 
istration at its expense. The contractors shall provide for a platform of a 
particular type acceptable to the aministration. The bay will be 6 ft 6% in 
in width and 32 ft. 9% in. long. 

The apparatus will be constructed for one file of passengers, and the pro- 
portions will be as follows: 

Width of carpet or elevating surface 23% in. 

Distance between railings 35 7-16 in. 

Grade of incline per foot (approximately) 4 in. 

Capacity of the elevators in passengers 20 passengers 

(Normally one person per yard.) 

Capacity of elevator in passengers 40 passengers 

(At maximum of two persons per yard.) 
Distance between the surface of ground floor and the surface of 

the gallery floor 23 ft. 

The apparatus will be installed for a minimum speed per second of 19 11-1G 
in. and a maximum speed per second of 23% in. 

The conveyor, properly speaking, will consist of an endless belt or platform 
constructed of pliable and yet resisting material, which will roll continuously 
and uniformly, and must possess both softness and necessary rigidity for the 
service to be performed. 

When in operation the rolling surface must so move over the supports or 
rollers as to cause no perceptible or disagreeable effect beneath the feet of the 

The devices for stretching this moving surface, or scheme for "taking up 
the slack," must allow for all the elongation which may be produced during 
the entire period of the exposition, so that it will not be necessary to dis- 
mantle any portion of the elevator during such time. 

The entire inclined elevator must work absolutely without noise. All me- 
chanical apparatus connected with the elevator which may need oiling or 
greasing must be so arranged as to avoid all possibility of contact with pas- 
sengers or their garments. 

The electric motor and the apparatus for driving the elevator must be placed 
as near as possible to the elevators, 

All parts must be accessible, either from the ground floor or the platform on 
the gallery floor, for the maintenance in operation. 

Proper arrangements must be made so that, in event of damage or accidents 
to the motor or mechanism, the rolling surface loaded with passengers cannot 
receive a descending movement. 

The side rails will be also formed by endless cables, so constructed thai 
they will present under the hands of the passengers a soft and clean support. 

The upper part of this endless cable or moving side rail at the height of the 
hand will only be seen; the lower part will be inclosed by framework which 
will have a perfectly plain and smooth surface offering no possibility of acci- 
dent to the garments of the passengers. These moving side rails must have 
precisely the same speed as the elevating surface proper. 

The tests of capacity of the elevators will be made under a load of 7780 lbs., 
representing the weight of fifty passengers, uniformly spread over the lines 
of the elevator. This load will be retained as long as deemed necessary by the 

As it is impracticable to make the tests of capacity under a load equal to 
fifty passengers, which should be ienewed in a continuous fashion, the device 
for stretching the endless belt or moving elevator will be arranged in such a 
manner as to give to it a tension corresponding to that which it would re- 
ceive under the weight of fifty passengers or the equivalent of 7780 pounds. 

Under this tension the maximum speed must be maintained continuously 
as may be required by the administration. 

The electric current necessary for the electric motors will be supplied by the 
exposition without expense to the contractor. 

The remuneration of the contractor will consist of a fee to be exacted of 
each passenger using the elevators; this fee shall be ten centimes per pas- 

A percentage of each fee for the right of the concession will be allowed the 
exposition, and the amount of such percentage is to be indicated in the 
proposition of the bidders; the liberality of this percentage will largely influ- 
ence the choice of the successful contractors selected by the exposition. 

The contractor will be authorized to collect from the public direct the fee of 
ten centimes for each passenger. 


Among the special features of interest to electrical men will be 
the illumination of the grand entrance, and the big wheel. The 
latter is larger than the Ferris wheel at Chicago, and differs in 
many important details of construction. 

Not all of the main palaces will be lighted at night. The Palace 
of Manufactures, Palace of Electricity, Palace of Transportation 
and Civil Engineering, Palace of Textiles, and perhaps one or two 
other palaces, will be well illuminated every evening. The great 
Hall of Fetes, which occupies a central position in the Palace of 
Agriculture, will be illuminated brilliantly whenever in use for 
evening gatherings. The Palace of Education and Liberal Arts, 
Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, Palace of Chemical Industries, 
and Palace of Agriculture will not be equipped for evening illumi- 

It is the Palace of Electricity, to which all eyes will naturally 
turn at night, and, as its main facade reaches across the entire 
width of the open plaza in the center of the Champs de Mars, 
splendid opportunity will be afforded for the attractive treatment of 
the architectural features of the exterior of this palace. Immedi- 
ately in front of the Palace of Electricity is the grand Chateau 
d'Eau, which, as planned, will assume the character of an immense 
fountain with a series of cascades, to be effectively illuminated by 
vari-colored lights, thus making a most brilliant and striking at- 
traction for the evening. A very ingenious scheme has been un- 
dertaken in connection with this Chateau d'Eau. All of the water 
used in the power plant for condensing purposes is to be dis- 
charged through the Chateau d'Eau and the cascades surrounding 
it, thus making use of this water in artistic effects, and obviating 
the necessity of pumping from the river another great volume of 
water simply for fountain use. 

The administration has considered well the necessity for making 
the gallery space in the various palaces as accessible to the public 
as possible, and provision has been made not only for numerous 
vertical elevators of steam, electric and hydraulic type, but for a 
large number of inclined elevating ways, or "rolling carpets," to 
carry the passengers easily and speedily from the crowded ground 
floor to the galleries, where many interesting and instructive ex- 
hibits will be installed. The limited ground area at this exposition 
makes necessary the husbanding of all available gallery space. On 
the Champs de Mars there will be installed fourteen of these ele- 
vators, or "escaladers," which will have a capacity each of not less 
than 3000 passengers per hour. A fee not exceeding two cents for 
each passenger will be charged for the use of these "escaladers." 

Decision in the Series Parallel Controller Case 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals (Judge Shipman 
writing the opinion) on Dec. 17, 1898, decided in favor of the plain- 
tiffs in the case of the Electric Car Company, of America, and the 
Thomson-Houston Electric Company vs. the Nassau Electric 
Railroad Company, for alleged infringement of the patent issued to 
George Herbert Condict. The exclusive right under this patent 
for trolley roads is owned by the Thomson-Houston Electric Com- 
pany. The patent covers broadly the modern form of series paral- 
lel controllers, in which both series-parallel changes and resistance 
changes are combined, so that by the movement of the same con- 
troller handle, both modes of regulation are utilized, and the re- 
sistance changes supplement and assist the series-parallel changes. 

The Court, in its opinion, said in part: "It cannot be denied that 

January, 1899.] 



Condict's combination of two existing systems for regulating the 
supply of the current to an electric car motor was previously un- 
known and that the invention was one of much importance. 
* * * It is also obvious that the mixed controller system is in 
use whether the insertion is preparatory to or accompanies the 
shifting of the motor switch, and that in all the forms used either 
by the defendant in this case or by the defendant in the Hartford 
case auxiliary resistance was brought in at the time of making the 
change to parallel. * * * There is and there must be a sub- 
stantial use and an enjoyment, more or less partial, of the benefits 
of the Condict idea and system, although the insertion of the dead 
resistance takes place during the transitional positions which result 
in a change from series to multiple." Since the original decision, 
a petition for a rehearing was presented and denied by the Court. 


Railway Men in the Late War 

Caryl D. Haskins, late commander of the volunteer electrical 
corps of the Boston Battalion during the late war, has written 
the Street Railway Journal in regard to a statement in the 
last issue in connection with the part taken by the Boston office of 
the General Electric Company in the coast defense. Mr. Has- 
kins states that while quite a large portion of the staff of that 
office did take part in the harbor defense work, they did so not as 
General Electric men, but as individuals and members or officers 
of the Volunteer Electrical Corps, Boston Battalion. Fully two- 
thirds of the squad officers and a large proportion of the privates 
of the battalion were associated with electric lighting companies, 
construction companies, or other companies foreign to the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, so that it is not the desire of the latter 
that the mistake of giving it all the credit should be made. 

There was another unintentional injustice in the same article, 
to which Mr. Haskins calls attention. This was in the omission 
of the name of E. H. Hoyt. Mr. Hoyt, who is well known in 
street railway circles throughout the state, and is chairman of the 
street railway committee of the State of Massachusetts, served 
as a special staff officer in connection with the Boston Battalion of 
the Volunteer Electrical Corps through almost its entire period 
of service. He dropped all of his important interests, abandoning 
his duties as representative of the Massachusetts House, and de- 
voted himself exclusively to harbor defense work in connection 
with the corps, entirely without recompense and to his own per- 
sonal loss. 

Insulating Paint Abroad 

The insulating compounds of the Standard Paint Company, pop- 
ularly known under the name of P. & B., are so extensively em- 
ployed in this country that American readers will be interested to 
know that the company is enjoying a very large export trade. In- 
deed, so large has this trade become during the last few years that 
after a number of visits abroad Mr. Shainwald, president of the 
company, decided some time ago to build a branch factory at 
Hamburg, Germany. The erection of this factory was begun in 
July, 1897, and completed in 1898, since which time all the com- 
pounds and apparatus manufactured by the Standard Paint Com- 
pany in this country have been supplied by the branch factory at 
Hamburg. These include not only the P. & B. paint, tape, var- 
nish and other goods which pertain directly to the electrical trade, 
but also P. & B. rubberoid roofing, P. & B. building sheathing and 
insulating papers and P. & B. preservative roof and structural 

It is a good indication of the standing of this company's pro- 
ducts that material which has proved so popular in this country is 
regarded as equally indispensable in the countries of Europe. 

An Advertising; Bureau 

With the closing of this year, the Manufacturers' Advertising 
Bureau, of New York city, complets the second decade of its 
existence — a fact which demonstrates beyond question the value 
of a concern of its unique character to the progressive manu- 
facturer. Established in 1879 by the present proprietor, Benj. R. 
Western, the bureau has grown steadily in public favor and com- 
mercial importance. Its clientage is a large one, and compre- 
hends representative concerns in nearly every industry in the 

The Manufacturers' Advertising Bureau makes a specialty of 
the trade journals, and Mr. Western is, perhaps, one of the best- 
informed gentlemen in the advertising business regarding this 
class of publications and their conditions and possibilities as busi- 
ness bringers. A booklet, having the attractive title, "Advertis- 
ing for Profit," is issued by the Manufacturers' Advertising 
Bureau, and will be sent on application. 

Prospects for 1899 

The results of an investigation recently conducted by the Street 
Railway Journal shows that a large number of street railway 
companies are planning to make extensions and improvements 
during the coming year. Details of some of the new work pro- 
posed are given below: 


The Hot Springs Street Railway Company will probably extend 
its line about 2 miles. 


The Birmingham Traction Company will probably add to its 
power station equipment two 300-kw. direct connected generators. 

The Mobile Light & Railroad Company expects to add a direct 
connected generator and engine to its power station and build new 
car shed and repair shops. 

The People's Street Railway and Improvement Company, of 
Decatur, is planning to reorganize the company and build 4 miles 
of new track. 


The Oakland Railroad Company will reconstruct about 7 miles 
of cable and horse lines, equipping them with electricity, and will 
replace twelve grip cars with motor cars. The care are in process 
of construction. 

The Market Street Railway Company, of San Francisco, has not 
yet fully decided upon further construction and reconstruction for 
next year, but is planning to do considerable new work. The 
company has a franchise for an electric line about 1 mile in length, 
which may possibly be built. There is also a possibility that all the 
remaining horse lines and steam lines will be equipped with elec- 

The Sacramento Electric, Gas & Railway Company will not 
build any new mileage during the year, but may make an extension 
of existing electric transmission lines for power and lighting. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Gerry Street, Park & Ocean Railroad Company. San Fran- 
cisco; San Jose & Santa Clara Railroad Company, Santa Rosa; 
Central Street Railway Company, Santa Rosa; Santa Rosa Street 
Railroad Company, Santa Rosa; Union Street Railway Company, 
Santa Rosa. 


The Hartford Street Railway Company will build a %-mile ex- 

The Norwich Street Railway Company will build a J/2-mile ex- 

The Norwalk Tramway Company will probably build a line from 
Norwalk to New Canaan. 

The Putnam & Thompson Street Railway Company, in connec- 
tion with the People's Tramway Company, of Danielson, Conn., 
will construct, early in 1899, 16 miles of single track, together with 
power station and building equipment. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Norwalk Street Railway Company, Norwalk; Middletown 
Street Railway Company, Middletown; Bristol & Plainville Tram- 
way Company, Bristol. 


The Columbia Railway Company will build 10 miles of new 
suburban line, equipped with the overhead electric system. It will 
also change the existing cable road to underground electric, will 
add two 750-h.p. Allis engines and two 525-kw. G. E. generators to 
its power station, and will increase its rolling stock by sixty motor 
cars, twenty of which will have double trucks. 

The Capital Traction Company will reconstruct about 1 54 miles 
of double track to conform with the electric conduit system now 
used on the city lines. 

The Washington, Arlington & Falls Church Railway Company 
will extend its present line for a distance of 3 miles. 


The Pensacola Electric Terminal Railway Company will prob- 
ably equip 4 miles of steam dummy line with electricity, and will 
extend present lines about 2*4 miles. 

The Palatka Heights Street Railway Company has no new work 
in contemplation. 


The Augusta Railway & Electric Company has recently com- 
pleted a new ij^-mile extension, and has installed a 4-kw. 2-phase 
generator for electric lighting purposes. During 1899 a 400-kw. 
railway generator will also be added. 

The Atlanta Railway Company expects to build 11 miles of new 
track and add about twelve more motor cars. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 

4 8 


Vol. XV., No. i. 

tion: Columbus Street Railway Company, Columbus; City Elec- 
tric Railway Company, Rome. 


The Alton Railway & Illuminating Company will build 5 miles 
of new line and will add five new 28-ft. motor cars. It will also 
build a new car house, and will install a hot water heating plant 
for the heating of its buildings. This company is now engaged in 
relaying 2J/2 miles of old track and making a J^-mile extension. 

The Chicago City Railway Company is planning to make many 
additions and extensions early in 1899. 

The Galesburg Electric Motor & Power Company will add two 
dcuble-truck motor cars, new motors and new boilers to its pres- 
ent equipment. 

The Streator Railway was sold, Oct. 8, and bought by C. C. 
Barr, who expects to place the property in first-class condition 
early in the spring. 

The Springfield Consolidated Railway Company has not fully 
determined on improvements for the next year. 

The Belleville Electric Railway Company will rebuild about 
3 miles of track. 

The Rockford Railway, Light & Power Company will build sev- 
eial extensions to present lines. 

The City Electric Railway Company, of LaSalle, will make ex- 
tensions in the spring and add one more generator to the power 
station. The present rolling stock will be repainted and thor- 
oughly repaired. 

The City Electric Railway Company, of Decatur, will probably 
extend to Fair Haven Park, a distance of mile, next spring. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Aurora & Geneva Railway Company, Aurora; Calumet 
Electric Street Railway Company, Chicago; North Kankakee 
Electric Light & Railway Company, Kankakee; Kankakee Elec- 
tric Railway Company, Kankakee. 


The Union Traction Company, of Anderson, has recently com- 
pleted its line from Alexandria west to Arestes, 3 miles, and is ex- 
tending the same to Elwood, a distance of 7 miles further. The 
company will erect at Alexandria a power station completely new, 
with 600-kw. generators, with necessary engines and boilers. 

The John S. Crumps Street Railway Company, of Columbus, 
has not decided on new extensions for the coming season. 

The Kokomo Street Railway Company will add 1 mile of new 
track and four new motor cars. 

The South Bend Street Railway Company will build a new line 
to Notre Dame College, a distance of i]/2 miles, and will also 
make other extensions amounting to about 2 miles. A new power 
station will be erected. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: North Vernon & Vernon Street Railroad Company, Ver- 
non; Logansport Street Railway Company, Logansport; Terre 
Haute Electric Railway Company, Terre Haute. 


The Waterloo & Cedar Falls Rapid Transit Company will build 
i l / 2 miles in Cedar Falls, and will add to the power station equip- 
ment one 300-h.p. engine and one 250-kw. generator. 

The Boone Electric Street Railway & Light Company will build 
2 l A miles of new track. 

The Marshalltown Light, Power & Railway Company intends 
to equip some of its open trail cars with motors. 

The Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge Company has 
recently built a new power station, and has no further work in 

The Sioux City Elevated Railway Company is lowering its ele- 
vated structure and extending it on the surface a distance of eight 
blocks into the city, giving this company a surface line all 
through the business district. 


The Atchison Railway, Light & Power Company has not fully 
decided what new work will be undertaken, but will probably 
make some extensions of track. 

The Leavenworth Electric Railroad Company expects to build 
a new car barn, to be modern in every respect and to accommo- 
date forty cars. New shops will also be added. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Citizens' Railway Company, Fort Scott; Topeka Railway 
Company, Topeka. 


The Ashland & Catlettsburg Street Railway Company will in- 
crease the capacity of its power station. 
The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 

tion: Paducah Street Railway Company, Paducah; Frankfort & 
Suburban Railway Company, Frankfort. 


The New Orleans City & Lake Railroad Company will equip 
with electricity two miles of horse lines and will add six new 
double-truck motor cars, and will rebuild twenty others. 


The Sanford & Cape Porpoise Railway Company will build a 
new line from Sanford to Cape Porpoise, a distance of 22 miles. 

The Bangor, Hampden & Winterport Railway Company will 
extend its line about 8 or 10 miles. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Bangor Street Railway Company; Biddeford & Saco Rail- 
road Company, Biddeford; Fryeburg Horse Railroad Company; 
Mousam River Railroad, Sanford. 


The Baltimore, Middle River & Sparrow's Point Electric Rail- 
road Company intends to double its present steam power plant, 
add ten more cars, and extend its tracks possibly 6 miles. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Baltimore & Northern Electric Railway Company, Balti- 
more; Cumberland Electric Railway Company. 


The Palmer & Monson Street Railway Company will make sev- 
eral extensions to its lines. 

The Braintree & Weymouth Street Railway Company expects 
to build from 4 to 8 miles of new line. 

The Shelburne Falls & Colrain Street Railway Company will 
extend its line for a short distance. 

The Boston Elevated Railway Company will build its new ele- 
vated structure during 1899. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Greenfield & Turner's Falls Street Railway Company, 
Greenfield; Athol & Orange Street Railway Company, Athol; 
Fitchburg & Leominster Street Railway Company, Fitchburg, 
Lowell & Suburban Street Railway Company, Lowell; Newion & 
Boston Street Railway Company, Newton; Newtonville & Water- 
town Street Railway Company, Newtonville; Wellesley & Boston 
Street Railway Company, Newtonville; Northampton Street Rail- 
way Company; Springfield Street Railway Company; Worcester 
& Marlborough, Worcester; Taunton Street Railway Company. 


The Long Lake, Durand & Corunna Electric Railroad Com- 
pany has recently been formed to build a line from Fenton and 
Durand to Corunna. 

The Adrian Electric Street Railway Company will build j4-mile 

The Escanaba Electric Street Railway Company will build 3^ 
miles of new track laid with 60 lb. steel T rails; 200-h.p. engines 
and generators will be added to the power station, and new car- 
house and shops will be built. Two large interurban cars will be 
added to the rolling stock. 

The Michigan Traction Company proposes to connect Kalama- 
zoo and Battle Creek with an electric railway 23 miles long, with 
a spur 3 z /2 miles from Augusta to Gall Lake. The road has 
been surveyed and part of the material is on the ground. It is 
thought operation will be commenced in June, 1899. 

The Manistee, Filer City & Eastlake Railway Company will 
build about 3 miles of new track. This company has recently en- 
larged its power house and increased its power house equipment. 
The company is also opening a large park on the shore of Lake 

The following companies report that no new work is in contem- 
plation: City Electric Railway Company, Port Huron; Mus- 
kegon Railway Company; Menominee Electric Light, Railway & 
Power Company; Detroit, Fort Wayne & Belle Isle Railway, De- 
troit; Detroit & Pontiac Railway Company, Detroit. 


The St. Cloud City Street Car Company will extend its line 1^2 
miles to the Great Northern Passenger Depot. 

The following companies report that no new work is in contem- 
plation: Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis; Lake- 
side Railway Company, Duluth. 


The Meridan Street Railway & Power Company is adding new 
boilers to its station equipment. 

The Greenville Street Railway Company has abandoned its old 
property and the track has been taken up. but it is the purpose of 

January, 1899.] 



the company to establish a new road some time in the near future. 

The following road reports that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Bluff City Railway Company, Natchez. 


The Hannibal Railway Company proposes to build at least 2 
miles of new road to Oakwood, and possibly 10 miles more to 
Palmyra. The present line will also be extended about 3 miles. 
A new power house will be built and equipped, and new rolling 
stock and equipment will be added. 

The Brooklyn Avenue Railway, of Kansas City, now operated 
by cable, will be converted to the overhead electric system and 15 
miles of extensions (also electric) will be built during the spring. 
Work will be commenced as soon as the weather permits. A new 
bridge will be built over the Belt Railway tracks, a new power 
house erected, and new rolling stock and equipment will be pur- 

The Northwest Electric Railway Company, of Kansas City, is 
preparing to rebuild its entire line. 

The Clinton Street Railway Company is endeavoring to secure 
capital to equip the road with electricity. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Electric Railway, Light & Power Company, Sedalia; St. 
Louis & East St. Louis Electric Railway Company, St. Louis; 
People's Railroad Company, St. Louis; Citizens' Street Railway 
Company, Cape Girardeau. 


The following road reports that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Bozeman Street Railway Company, Bozeman. 


The Nebraska City Street Railway Company expects to change 
from horse traction to electric traction in the latter part of 1899. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Benson Railway Company, Benson; Lincoln Traction 
Company, Lincoln. 


The Atlantic City Electric Railway Company expects to make 
some additions to power station equipment. 

The Bridgeton & Millville Traction Company is planning an 
extension to Cedarville, a distance of 4 miles. 

The Union Traction Company, of Rutherford, has the construc- 
tion of 7 miles of new line under consideration, but it is not de- 
cided definitely when the same will be built. 

The Bergen County Traction Company, of Undercliff, expects 
to complete its extension to Hackensack, a distance of about 4 

The Trenton Passenger Railway Company will build 2 miles of 
new line. 

The Ocean City Electric Railroad Company recently completed 

5 miles of new line and installed new equipment in its power 
station. No new work is contempleted for 1899. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Brigantine Transportation Company; Camden, Gloucester 

6 Woodbury Railway Company, Camden; North Hudson County 
Railway Company, Hoboken. 


The Laconia Street Railway Company will extend its line about 
S miles along the lake shore. 

The Exeter Street Railway Company will build from Exeter to 
Epping, a distance of 6 miles, and from Hampton to North Hamp- 
ton, a distance of 3 miles, in the spring, and will add about 400- 
h.p. engines and generators to the power station. 

The following road reports that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Nashua Street Railway. 


The Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company has contracted for 
150 thirteen-bench open cars and 5000 tons of 9-in. steel girder 
rails. This rail, when laid, will complete the change of the entire 
Brooklyn Heights system from horse traction with various kinds 
of rails to electric traction with standard 9-in. construction. 

The Elmira & Horseheads Railway Company will complete a 
short extension to a new park which it will open to the public in 
June, 1899, and will also rebuild 3 miles of the present line with 
60-lb. T-rails. 

The New Paltz & Wallkill Valley Railroad Company will prob- 
ably add some small motor cars. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, of New York City, 
is now equipping existing horse lines with the underground elec- 
tric system, and this work will probably be completed during 1899. 

The Kingston City Railroad Company may possibly add six or 
eight new cars to its equipment. 

The Hornellsville Electric Railway Company is planning to 
erect a new power station, and equip some with gas engines. 

The Dunkirk & Fredonia Railway Company is endeavoring to 
secure franchises for building 1 1-3 miles of new track. 

The Auburn Street Railway Company will make an extension ot 
its lines about 9 miles in length. 

The Syracuse, Skaneateles & Moravia Railroad Company is a 
new company recently incorporated, and expects to build several 
miles of track in the spring. 

The Green County Traction Company, of Coxsackie, has re- 
cently been incorporated, and intends to build a new line in the 

The Buffalo, Hamburg & Aurora Railway Company intends to 
build a new line 21 miles in length in the early spring. 

The Saratoga Traction Company will extend its present line to 
Ballston Spa. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Bennington & Hoosick Valley Railway Company, Hoosick 
Falls; Rochester Railway Company, Rochester; Ossining Electric 
Railway Company, Sing Sing; Oneida Railway Company, Oneida; 
Niagara Falls, Whirlpool & Northern Railway, Niagara Falls; 
The Niagara Falls & Suspension Bridge Railway Company, 
Niagara Falls; Herkimer, Mohawk, Ilion & Frankfort Electric 
Railway Company, Mohawk; Middletown-Goshen Traction Com- 
pany, Middletown; Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad 
Company, Gloversville; Citizens' Street Railway Company, Fish- 
kill-on-Hudson ; Cortland & Homer Traction Company, Cort- 
land; Buffalo & Niagara Falls Electric Railway Company, North 


The Intermontaine Railroad Company, of Asheville, will put in 
a new plant to be operated by water power. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Wilmington Street Railway Company, Wilmington; Win- 
ston-Salem Railway & Electric Company, Winston; Charlotte 
Electric Light & Power Company, Charlotte. 


The Ashtabula Rapid Transit Company has recently completed 
a number of improvements, including a number of new turnouts, 
a signal block system and additional shops and car barns. The 
car barn is heated by steam. 

The Oakland Street Railway Company, of Dayton, will make a 
number of improvements in its property. 

The Lima Railway Company will build a l / 2 -m\\t extension. 

The Citizens' Electric Railway, Light & Power Company, Mans- 
field, is remodeling its power station equipment. 

The Tuscarawas Electric Company, of New Philadelphia, is 
considering the advisability of building a line from Uhrichsville to 

The Springfield Railway Company will rebuild 1 or 2 miles of 
present track and will extend its line about ij4 miles. It also in- 
tends to build a new car barn with capacity for thirty-five cars and 
to add six new cars to the present rolling stock. 

The Tiffin, Fostoria & Eastern Electric Railway Company is 
engaged in finishing its line. All power station equipment has 
been ordered, but the company may wish to purchase a few more 

The Toledo Traction Company will probably lay some addi- 
tional double track and add one or two railway generators. It 
may possibly also purchase a few more open cars. 

The Cleveland & Eastern Railroad Company is constructing a 
new line, but new cars, motors or electrical equipment have not 
yet been ordered. 

The Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Railroad Company will double 
track a considerable portion of its line. 

The Worthington, Clintonville & Columbus Street Railway 
Company is considering the advisability of operating trail cars on 
its lines. 

The Pennsylvania & Ohio Railway Company, of Ashtabula, is a 
new company which intends to build 45 miles of electric railway. 
It is also intended later on to continue the line to Erie, Pa., a dis- 
tance of 26 miles. Part of this road has already been constructed, 
and as soon as the spring opens the work will be pushed through 
as rapidly as possible. 

The Cleveland, Medina Southern Electric Railway Company 
will build a new line from Cleveland to Wooster. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Sandusky, Milan & Norwalk Electric Railway Company, 
Sandusky; Salem Electric Railway Company, Salem; Tuscarawas 
Railroad Company, New Philadelphia; Lorain Street Railway 
Company, Lorain; the Price Hill Inclined Plane Railroad Com- 
pany, Cincinnati; Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Railway 
Company, Cincinnati; Chillicothe Electric Railroad Company, 



Vol. XV., No. i. 


The City & West Portland Park & Motor Company, of Port- 
land, intends to extend the present line 12 miles and equip its 
existing steam line with electricity. 


The Beaver & Vanpool Electric Street Railway Company will 
make a short extension of its line. 

The Schuylkill Valley Traction Company, of Norristown, will 
probably make a number of improvements and extensions. 


The Newport Street Railway Company is asking permission 
from the city to build a small extension. 


The following road reports that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Charleston Street Railway Company, Charleston. 


The Electric Street Railway Company, of Clarksville, has com- 
pleted surveys for a new line to New Providence, 2J/2 miles in 

The Memphis Street Railway Company expects to build about 
2 miles of new track and to construct a car barn and office build- 
ing, with paint, carpenter and machine shops, etc. The buildings 
will be 320 ft. x 300 ft. and 105 ft. x 150 ft. 

The Nashville Street Railway Company will probably buy some 
new motor cars and rails for 4 or 5 miles of track. 


The Dallas Rapid Transit & Terminal Railway Company is now 
in process of reorganization. The road will be completed in Janu- 
ary, 1899, and several changes and considerable improvement are 

The Dallas & Oakcliff Electric Railway Company contemplates 
making some changes, but has not fully decided upon them as yet. 

The Austin Rapid Transit Railway Company contemplates a 
short extension of its line. This company is replacing the old 
pine ties with mountain cedar ties. 

The Uniontown Electric Railway Company expects to make an 
extension of two miles in the spring. 

The Titusville Electric Traction Company will add one new 325- 
kw. G E. generator and one new Atlas Corliss engine and boiler. 

The Connellsville, New Haven & Leisenring Street Railway 
Company will build 3 miles additional track from Leisenring to 
Vanderbilt, and also renew 4 miles of old roadbed with new track, 

The Pennsylvania Traction Company, of Lancaster, is planning 
to build about 17 miles of extensions. 

The Quakertown Traction Company is planning to build a line 
from Quakertown to Perkasie and Doylestown, a distance of about 
twenty miles. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Paris Railway Company, Paris; Citizens Railway Company, 
Waco; San Antonio & Magoffin Street Railway Company, San 
Antonio; El Paso & Juarez Avenue Street Railway Company, El 


The following roads. report_that no new work is in,contempla- 
tion: Ogden Electric' Railway Company, Ogden; Salt Lake Rapid 
Transit Company, Salt Lake City; Salt Lake City Railroad Com- 
pany, Salt Lake City. 


The following road reports that no new work is in contem- 
plation: Rutland Street Railway Company, Rutland. 


The Portsmouth Street Railway Company has under considera- 
tion an extension of its line. 

The Lynchburg & Richmond Street Railway Company will 
construct an extension 1V2 miles long; 90-lb. girder rail in paved 
streets, and 55-lb. T rail in unpaved streets will be used. This 
company intends to greatly improve and beautify its park cover- 
ing about thirty acres, and will put in attractions of various kinds. 

The Staunton Street Car Company may extend its line about 
one mile in the spring. This company is now remodeling its 
open cars, making combination cars of them, with removable vesti- 

The following road reports that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Richmond Traction Company, Richmond. 


The West Street & North End Electric Railway Company, of 
Seattle, expects to extend its line to Army Post, a distance of two 

The Seattle & Rainier Beach Railway Company is remodeling 
its rolling stock and roadbed. 


The Charleston Street Railway Company expects to build a 
mile extension to Ruffner, purchase a rock crusher and rock-bal- 
last all its track outside of paved streets; also to relay about Ij4 
miles of old 50-lb. T rail, and lay new 62-lb. T rail on new ties. 

The following road reports that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Consolidated Light & Power Company, Huntington. 


The Fox River Electric Railway Company, of Green Bay, ex- 
pects to extend its De Pere line about two miles into the city of 
De Pere, and cross the river to the West Side. This company has 
ordered one new double-truck car, and will probably order two 
mere during the year. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Company, Sheboygan; 
La Crosse Street Railway Company, La Crosse; Ashland Light, 
Power & Street Railway Company, Ashland. 


The Montreal Island Belt Railway Company will make extensive 
extensions during 1899. 

The St. Thomas Street Railroad Company will make a J^-mile 
extension and purchase new cars. 

The Halifax Electric Tramway Company will build three miles 
of new track, and add a 300-kw. rotary transformer to the power- 
station equipment. 

The Belleville Traction Company has six miles of extension 
under consideration. 

The Quebec, Montmorency & Charlevoir Railway proposes to 
build a double track-line from Quebec to Montmorency Falls, a 
distance of 6.27 miles, and change a 30-mile steam road to elec- 
tric traction. 

The British Columbia Electric Railway Company, of Vancouver, 
will make several extensions during the coming year. 

The following roads report that no new work is in contempla- 
tion: Niagara Falls Park River Railway Company, Niagara 
Falls; Oshawa Railway Company, Ontario; London Street Rail- 
way Company, London. 


New Law Requiring the Licensing of Private Detectives 

A law of considerable interest to street railway companies hiring 
private detectives or "spotters" has recently been passed by the 
New York Legislature, through the efforts of A. L. Drummond, 
general manager of Drummond's Detective Agency, of New 
York city. This statute requires all private detectives and private 
detective agencies to take out a license before they can do de- 
tective work of any kind. A penalty of a fine of $500, or im- 
prisonment for a year, or both fine and imprisonment, will be 
imposed upon all offenders of this regulation. The principal 
reason for the law was the number of unexperienced and irre- 
sponsible peoplewho were going into the detective business. Under 
the new statute, the license fee is $20 a year, and every applicant 
must have five reputable freeholders of his county to sign his 
application, and in addition to this he must give a bond of $2,000. 

The strong points urged for the new regulation are as follows: 
At a small cost a man becomes a licensed detective, and he must 
be a very poor sort of a man and detective who cannot get five re- 
liable indorsers as to his qualifications. It is thought that the 
requirement of a bond will also be a very valuable feature, as it 
gives clients something to fall back upon should a detective com- 
mit any fraud. This bond, of course, can be sued upon. 

The law covers all special policemen, special peace-officers, 
special watchmen, and other private detectives of any character. 


The Boston Elevated Railway Company has decided to adopt 
the service stripe system for all uniformed employees. One stripe 
will be worn for each five years of service; motormen will wear 
silver braid; conductors, inspectors, starters, etc., gold; emergency 
lin emen, scarlet, and switchmen and subway watchmen, green. A 
number of the large street railway systems throughout the country 
are introducing service stripes for employees. 

January, 1899.] 



The Traction Company Centennial Band, which is a social or- 
ganization of employees of the Toledo (Ohio) Traction Company, 
gave a very successful and enjoyable entertainment recently. The 
band, which consists of twenty-five good musicians, rendered a 
musical programme, after which a dance was given. Thomas H. 
McLean, general manager of the Toledo Traction Company, was 
present, and with Mrs. McLean led the grand march. Refresh- 
ments were provided at the expense of Mr. McLean. 

The new electric line from Elkhart to Goshen, Ind., which is 
owned by the Indiana Electric Railroad Company, was opened on 
Dec. 19. There now remains only a ten-mile stretch between Elk- 
hart and Mishawaka to give a continuous line of 40 miles from 
Goshen to South Bend, Ind. 

The Cicero & Proviso Street Railway, of Chicago, 111., was 
granted a fifty-year franchise by the Cicero Town Council on Dec. 
20. The companies to be benefited by this ordinance are the 
Cicero & Harlem Street Railway Company, Cicero & Proviso 
Street Railway Company, Ogden Street Railway Company, Subur- 
ban Railway Company, and the Chicago Telephone Company. 

The Third Avenue Railroad Company, of New York, for the 
quarter ending Sept. 30, 1898, reports gross earnings of $594,807, 
as against $699,052 for the corresponding quarter of 1897, and 
$726,980 in 1896. This is a diminution in gross earnings of $104,- 
245 during the past year, and of $132,173 during the last two years. 
The net earnings, after paying operating expenses, were $243,221 
in 1898, as against $338,790 in 1897, and $377,040 in 1896, and the 
surplus for stock, after paying charges, is $150,827 in 1898, as 
against $246,970 in 1897, and $290,261 in 1896. 

The annual report of the Railroad Commissioners for the State 
of Maine for the year ending June 30, 1898, shows an increase in 
gross earnings in 1898 over 1897 of $49,342. The Portland Rail- 
road Company earned the largest sum per mile of road, $9,762, 
and the Augusta, Hallowell & Gardiner Railroad Company ope- 
rated its line at the lowest percentage of operating expenses to 
earnings, 54 per cent. Only one person was killed and but thir- 
teen injured by the street railways of the State during the year, 
seven of the latter being in a single collision, and the other six 
from their own carelessness, nearly all in getting on or off cars 
while in motion. 

The just issued report of the Railroad Commissioners of Con- 
necticut for the year ending June 30, 1898, shows that the capital 
stock and funded and floating indebtedness of the street railways 
of the State amount to $51,610 per mile of road. The largest capi- 
talization per mile is that of the Meriden Electric Railroad Com- 
pany, $92,507. The average gross earnings per mile of road ope- 
rated were $5,254, and per mile run were $.1945. The largest earn- 
ings per mile of road were made by the Fair Haven & Westville 
Railroad, $12,460, and the largest earnings per car mile were made 
by the Waterbury Traction Company, $.2698. The largest operat- 
ing expenses per car mile were $.171, those of the Norwich Street 
Railway Company, and the smallest were $.0856, those of the 
Bridgeport Traction Company, the average for the State being 
$.1271. But ten people were killed by the railways of the State 
during the year, and 128 injured. The capital stock was increased 
by $680,600, and the bonds by $930,000 over the totals of the pre- 
vious year. The gross earnings were reduced by $607,242, and the 
net earnings by $242,328. The dividends were reduced by $85,350, 
and the interest paid, by $143,852. 

A syndicate has acquired, for $1,472,000, the entire street railway 
system and street railway concessions in Havana, Cuba. It is 
officially stated that the owners of the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way Company, of New York City, are largely interested in this 
deal, and that the work of giving Havana one of the finest street 
railway systems in the world will certainly be commenced in the 
spring, or as soon as certain minor legal details are settled. 

The Union Elevated Railroad, of Chicago, which operates the 
loop terminal, held its annual stockholders' meeting on Dec. 5, 
and re-elected directors. No financial statement was given out, 

but the result of operation for the year ending Nov. 30 is locally 
estimated as follows: 

Revenue from 23,556,000 passengers on the Metropolitan 

road at one-half cent $117,780 

Revenue from 18,702,000 passengers on the South Side 

road, at one-half cent _ 93.5!0 

Minimum charge, Lake Street line 62,500 

Minimum charge, Northwestern line 62,500 

Total earnings $336,290 

Interest on bonds $210,000 

Surplus on stock $126,290 

This surplus is equivalent to about 2.5 per cent upon the stock. 
The ordinance extending the franchises of the Chicago City 
Railway Company for fifty years has been defeated in the Council. 

S. Dana Greene, who is head of the sales department of the 
General Electric Company, and who served on board the 
" Yankee " in the Spanish-American War as lieutenant (junior 
grade), has been detailed for duty as aide to Governor-elect 
Roosevelt, at the latter's request. Lieut. Greene now occupies 
the position of lieutenant commander in the naval militia and 
chief of staff to its captain. He comes from an ancestry, direct 
and collateral, distinguished in the army and navy of the United 
States. He is the son of Captain S. Dana Greene, who was first 
lieutenant of the " Monitor " when she fought the " Merrimac," 
and who was in charge of her during almost the entire engage- 
ment, owing to the accident to Commander Worden. His 
grandfather, General George S. Greene, is the oldest living grad- 
uate of West Point, and his uncle, Major-General Francis Vinton 
Greene, U. S. V., is in command of the Seventy-first Regiment 
New York Volunteers. 

The officers of the First Regiment of United States Volunteer 
Engineers gave a dinner on Dec. 8, at Sherry's, New York, in 
honor of their colonel, Eugene Griffin. Most of the officers of 
the volunteer regiment were present. Lieut. -Col. Hodges acted 
as toastmaster, and with a few well-chosen words presented Col. 
Griffin with a handsome silver loving cup from the officers of the 
regiment. In acknowledging the souvenir, Col. Griffin reviewed 
the work of organizing and equipping the regiment, and men- 
tioned the efficient services performed by the engineers in Porto 
Rico. The latter work included a detailed topographical survey 
of the main highway of the sea through Ponce to Aibonito; a 
survey of the Aibonito Pass, showing the locations of the Spanish 
batteries and entrenchments; a detailed hydrographical survey of 
the harbors of Ponce and Guanica; a rebuilding of several fine 
masonry bridges, and the building of a dock and commissary 
storehouses. An ice and refrigerating plant, a reservoir and a 
fort were also erected by the regiment. Following Col. Griffin's 
speech, a number of other addresses were made, and steps were 
taken looking to a permanent organization of the officers of the 
engineer regiment. 

Important Changes in the General Electric Company 

W. J. Clark, of the General Electric Company, has accepted the 
position of general manager of the company's foreign depart- 
ment, with headquarters in New York. 

In the reorganization of the foreign department, D. Mazanet, 
v/ho, for five years, has held the general managership, and who 
has piloted it from its small beginning to its present position as 
one of the foremost departments of the company, becomes man- 
aging director of the Mexican General Electric Company, with 
headquarters in the City of Mexico. 

In view of the importance which our recent foreign acquisi- 
tions and our improved relations with foreign countries, will 
give to our commerce, especially in the field of electrical de- 
velopment, the scope of the foreign department will necessarily 
be greatly widened, and this department will undoubtedly become 
the foremost in the company. It will have charge of commercial 
relations between the General Electric Company and all coun- 
tries outside the United States. 

Mr. Clark's wide experience in foreign commercial matters 
peculiarly fits him for his new position. He has traveled through 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

Europe, as well as in the countries south of us, and his familiarity 
with foreign methods and manners will stand him in good stead. 
His book, "Commercial Cuba," recently published, is already 
generally acknowledged to be the standard authority on Cuban 
commercial affairs. He will be greatly missed from the railway 
department, in the management of which he made a unique record, 
and his hosts of friends in the American street railway field will 
regret to hear that he is no longer to be in active charge of the 
home business. 

Americanizing; a Railway in Porto Rico 

The incorporation in Albany on Dec. 27 of. the San Juan & Rio 
Piedras Railroad Company, with a capital of $300,000, brings to a 
focus an interesting enterprise which has been carried out by a 
syndicate organized by the well-known engineering firm of J. G. 
White & Company, to obtain a foothold in the transportation in- 
dustry of Porto Rico. Some months ago Mr. Young, an engi- 
neer connected with this firm, was sent to Porto Rico on a tour of 
investigation, and found a valuable railroad property, seven miles 
ill length, connecting San Juan with a rich residential district, 
practically the only one in the city. An option was secured by 
Mr. Young, and the property was shortly after purchased by the 
White syndicate. 

This road was formerly owned by Mr. Pablo Ubarri, a Span- 
iard, resident in San Juan, and was originally built as a steam 
road in 1880. The line extends from a point near the center of 
San Juan, to a distance of seven miles through the suburban ter- 
ritory of Puerte de Tierra and the residential suburbs of San 
Tource, Martin Pena, and Rio Piedras. The entire Rio Piedras 
district has about 12,000 inhabitants, but the town proper has 
about 3000, and contains the Governor's summer palace. The 
railroad, as constructed, runs along the side of the main military 
road, extending from San Juan to Ponce, but is separated from 
it by well-defined embankments, and is upon its own right-of way, 
so that practically any desired speed can be made without diffi- 
culty. The present gage is about 30 ins., and many of the ties that 
have been down for eighteen years are still in good preservation, 
being of the native hard woods of the country. 

The new company proposes to widen the gage of the road, to 
electrify the same in the best possible manner, and also to ex- 
tend the road by a loop around the principal plaza in San Juan, 
and when the new work is completed and modern cars are ope- 
rated at frequent intervals it is expected that the line will be largely 
patronized. The company also has in view still further exten- 
sions and improvements, which make this railroad a most im- 
portant one for San Juan and the island of Porto Rico. It like- 
wise contemplates furnishing electric lights along the line of the 

This steam road was purchased and taken over on Nov. 26, 1898, 
and has been operated by Messrs. J. G. White & Company, who 
are, as before stated, managers of the syndicate which secured and 
are promoting the enterprise. The incorporators of the new com- 
pany are George H. Walbridge, Fernando G. Echeverria, H. H. 
Harrison, Edward Schmidt, Lathrop R. Bacon, F. Kingsbury Cur- 
tis, Philip H. McMillan, Augustus N. Hand and William B. Par- 
sons, of New York City. 

Consolidation Negotiations in Several Cities 

Early in December a syndicate, headed by Alexander Brown & 
Sons, prominent bankers of Baltimore, and said to include the 
powerful New York and Philadelphia capital interested in the 
street railways of those two cities, made an offer to purchase the 
$3,500,000 capital stock of the Baltimore City Passenger Railway 
Company at a price of $90 per share, the shares being $25 par 
value. Acceptance of this offer was recommended to the stock- 
holders by the president and directors of the Baltimore City Pas- 
senger Railway Company, and there is no doubt of the stock- 
holders' decision. As a result of this purchase there are now two 
large competitive street railway systems in Baltimore — the Balti- 
more & Northern and the Baltimore Consolidated. The former 
owns about 135 miles of track and the latter 207 miles. There are 
now outstanding $9,172,000 of the capital stock of the Baltimore 
Consolidated Railway and $10,550,000 of its bonds, while of the 
Baltimore & Northern system there aie $4,700,000 in outstanding 
bonds and $1,400,000 in outstanding stock, exclusive of the 
$3,500,000 of Baltimore City Passenger stock now purchased for 
the sum of $12,600,000. 

About ten days after the above purchase was made it was 
officially announced that an agreement had been reached between 

the Baltimore Consolidated and the Baltimore & Northern com- 
panies for a general consolidation of the entire street railway sys- 
tem of Baltimore, but shortly after this a disagreement taking 
place before the final merger of interests, the consolidation was 
not effected. 

The Brown Syndicate is known to include Harry Parr and G. 
R. Webb, of Baltimore, and Sidney Wright, of Philadelphia, while 
the Elkins-Widener-Dolan interests are believed to be also asso- 
ciated with Mr. Brown. 

Another important street railway purchase, amounting probably 
to eventual consolidation, has taken place in St. Louis during the 
past month. It will be remembered that last summer a new com- 
pany, the Central Traction Company, obtained a franchise to 
build about eighty miles of track in St. Louis. This franchise was 
passed by the Municipal Assembly, was vetoed by the Mayor, and 
was passed over his veto. It was extremely valuable, as it gave 
the new company the right to lease the tracks of any other street 
railway, and, in effect, to bring about a consolidation. It soon 
developed that the parties behind this new company were the 
Elkins-Widener syndicate, of Philadelphia, and Sellers McKee, of 

On Dec. 7, the National Railway Company, of Chicago, which 
owns seven street railway properties in St. Louis, sold and trans- 
feired those properties to local capitalists, Messrs. Spencer & 
Orthwein, who had previously, about two years pefore, purchased 
the Southern Electric Railway property. Up to the present time 
it is not known whether these two gentlemen bought the stock for 
themselves or bought it on account of Eastern capitalists, but it 
is significant that at almost the same time, Messrs. Brown Broth- 
ers, of New York, who are closely associated with the Elkins- 
Widener syndicate, purchased or secured an option on the stock of 
the Lindell Railway Company, the general understanding in St. 
Louis being that the road has been sold. It is believed that the 
Eastern syndicate now controls every street railway in St. Louis 
except the Union Depot line, and that there is simply a question of 
price in negotiations for the latter. 

In connection with these attempts at street railway consolidation 
there appear to be movements on foot in New York City, Brook- 
lyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, St. Louis and Chicago, 
to effect general consolidations of electric lighting, gas and street 
railway properties with a view to introducing economies in man- 
agement, to utilize the waste products to better advantage, and to 
operate power stations with more economical load factors. It is 
now known, for example, that the New York Light, Heat & 
Power Company, recently organized, with a capitalization of $25,- 
000,000, has been, and will be, closely associated in interest with the 
Metropolitan Street Railway Co. It has purchased the Empire 
Conduit Company, which has the monopoly of high-tension under- 
ground conduit system in the northern part of Manhattan Island, 
and the Mt. Morris Electric Light Company, and the surplus 
power of the new 70,000-h.p. station which the Metropolitan Com- 
pany is building will be used for lighting purposes, together with 
many of the ducts now being laid in such quantities on the com- 
pany's north and south railway lines. 

Electric Equipment in Silesia, Germany 

The Electricitats Gesellschaft Felix Singer & Co., Aktiengesell- 
schaft, of Berlin, has recently received a contract from the Ober 
Schlesischedampf Strassenbahn-Gesellschaft for twenty electric 
motor cars with eighty motors for a gage of 785 mm. These will 
be used on some future extensions of this railway. This order 
makes a total of 208 motors which the Ober Schlesischedampf 
Strassenbahn-Gesellschaft has purchased from Felix Singer & Co. 

Calendars for J 899 

The coming of the new year has brought the usual number of 
calendars, but of a greater variety and more attractive than ever 
before. The number issued is extremely numerous, but some 
which have been already received deserve special notice. The 
most elaborate calendar this year is, without doubt, that issued by 
the Falk Manufacturing Company. This is a collection of six beau- 
tiful reproductions of well-known paintings, each accompanied by 
a calendar for two months. With this is a short story of each of 
the pictures by Prof. H. Ward Rhodes, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Washington University. The pictures are printed with a tint on 
heavy cardboard, and are extremely tasteful. The Okonite Com- 
pany has also recently published an attractive calendar bearing 
handsome colored pictures. A beautiful calendar has also been is- 
sued by the American Electrical Works, of Providence, R. I., and 
others are being received with each mail. 

January, 1899.] 



Trolley Wheel for High Speed Roads 

A trolley wheel especially designed for high speed roads, but 
also adapted for any kind of trolley road, has been put on the 
market by the Star Brass Works, of Kalamazoo, Mich., and is 
known as the Kalamazoo wheel. The peculiar feature of the wheel 
is that it will lubricate itself and is soft enough not to injure the 
overhead work. The hub is cast hollow and is filled with oil, 
which lubricates the bushings. All the long distance lines running 
out of Detroit are using this wheel. This service is a severe one, 
as a car is run from 30 to 40 miles an hour for long distances. The 
metal in the wheel is treated for electrical purposes by a method 
owned and controlled by the Star Brass Works, and gives, it is 
claimed, excellent results and entire proof against sleet. The 
wheel is supplied in a harp of special design, so made that the harp 
will not catch on anything in case the trolley leaves the wire. 


parent in the new track construction of the Third Avenue (New 
York) Railway Company. The new construction, which was 
illustrated and described in the December issue of the Street 
Railway Journal, has been completed from 124th Street as far 
south as Seventy-fourth Stret, and the striking contrast in the 
effect upon the car and rail is instantly noticed by the most un- 
observing passenger as the car passes from the old to the new 
section. The rumbling and bumping sound is eliminated and the 
cars ride with a most agreeable motion, as if one were floating in 
a boat on the surface of placid water. The result in the life of the 
rail will be watched with a great deal of interest, as the old rail, 
which was a 7-in. grooved girder, has been so hammered out as to 
be unfit for legitimate service, and this after a life of less than five 

Railway Building: Near Detroit 

Contracts Awarded by the Third Ave. Railroad Co. 

A description was published in the last issue of the Street 
Railway Journal as to the plans of the Third Avenue Railroad 
Company, of New York, for electrical equipment, and mention 
was made of a number of contracts. During December a number 
of other contracts were awarded by the company, including that 
for the steam plant and electrical apparatus. Bids were submitted 
by the different electric companies on specifications drawn up by 
Dr. Louis Duncan, consulting engineer of the company, and the 
contract was given to the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, who will furnish all the electrical apparatus from its 
own shops; the Westinghouse Machine Company will furnish the 
engines, while the Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. will exe- 
cute contract for the construction of the entire steam plant. The 
total contract amounts to about $5,000,000, more than half of which 
is for the steam plant, and this does not include the building or the 
substructure on which it stands. Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & 
Co. are the engineers and architects for the building and furnished 
complete plans and specifications by which the contract will be let. 

The power station for supplying current to all the lines of the 
Third Avenue Company, which comprise over 100 miles of track, 
will be on the Harlem River, between 216th Street, Ninth Avenue 
and 218th Street, and the distribution will be made at high tension 
to substations located in different parts of the city. The power 
house will be approximately 320 ft. long and 250 ft. 
wide, and will contain sixteen 3000 kw. alternating 
current generators, which will be driven by engines 
having a mechanical rating of about 4000 h.p., but a 
maximum capacity of at least 50 per cent over this. 
Thus the station will have a nominal rating of 64,- 
000 h.p. and a maximum capacity of about 100,000 

Of the many roads which go to make up the chain of interurban 
systems around Detroit a considerable number were constructed 
by the International Construction Company of that city, who cer- 
tainly can feel a just pride in their record in Detroit. During the 
year 1898 this company contracted for the complete construction 
and equipment of the Detroit, Lake Shore & Mt. Clemens Rail- 
way, Detroit & River St. Clair Railway, Detroit, Plymouth & 
Northville Railway and the Mt. Clemens & Lake Side Traction 
Company. All these lines are in actual operation, or soon will be, 
and their aggregate length is over 80 miles. The companies-were 
also largely financed by the International Construction Company. 

The International Construction Company was also contractor 
for the Mill Creek Valley Street Railroad from Cincinnati to Ham- 
ilton, Ohio, and for the year 1899 has a large amount of work on 
hand, not only in the city of Detroit, but over the entire country. 
The company's offices occupy five large rooms in the Chamber 
of Commerce, and its drafting and engineering departments oc- 
cupy three more rooms. 

Trolley Wire Emergency Clamp 

The accompanying engraving shows an emergency clamp or 
pickup manufactured by the Western Electrical Supply Company, 

h.p., and is undoubtedly the largest station ever §yjfpE?g^J 
projected. The engines will stand in double rows S r 
in the engine room, 320 ft. long. 

The boiler house will stand parallel to the engine 
house and will contain a double row of Babcock & 
Wilcox boilers in two decks. These boilers, if set 
in continuous battery, would be about 1000 ft. long. 
Coal will be received from an enormous coalbin 
overhead, from which the fuel will chute to the 
Roney stokers, with which the boilers will be 
equipped, and the ashes will be drawn from the hoppers 
under the boilers. The boiler plant will be generously sup- 
plied with economizers and the draft will be handled by a com- 
bination of natural and mechanical draft on a system more com- 
plete than has ever yet been installed, and involving the use of four 
tall stacks. The condensing apparatus will be so arranged that the 
engines will be served in sections, with special provisions for 
handling this part of the service with greater economy and relia- 
bility. The method of piping is most complete, and with numer- 
ous provisions for all contingencies. 

Aside from the sixteen large generators, there will be much 
other electrical apparatus in the power station, including an enor- 
mous switchboard about 200 ft. long, exciting apparatus with sepa- 
rate switchboards, rotary transformers, not including the various 
substations throughout the city, all the apparatus for which will be 
furnished by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany. In addition to the power station and substation apparatus, 
all the car equipment will also be supplied by the Westinghouse 


of St. Louis, and used to handle broken trolley or other live wires. 
The handles are made of hard wood, which gives perfect insula- 
tion. Attached to the handle of this device is a piece of rope about 
20 ft. long, which enables the conductor of the car to replace 
broken wire where it will be harmless until the linemen can place 
it in its proper position. For this purpose one of these clamps 
should be carried on each car. 

Line Material 

L. A. Chase & Co., of Boston, will hereafter control the sale 
of "Pawtucket" line material. This material has a high repu- 
tation and is the standard on many roads. Notwithstanding the 
high grade of this material, Chase & Co. claim to be able to mar- 
ket it at prices generally obtained for the cheapest grades. This 
is due to the unsurpassed facilities for manufacturing this material. 


Spring- Liner for Track Rails 

The wisdom of employing a spring liner for track rails to relieve 
the anvil effect noted in rigid roadbed construction is already ap- 

The Electrical Exhibition Company has, at a meeting held 
Dec. 7, decided to conduct another electrical exhibition at Mad- 
ison Square Garden during the month of May, under the auspices 
of and in connection with the twenty-second annual convention 
of the National Electric Light Association, 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

Switchboard Instruments for Street Railway 
Generator Panels 

The selection of indicating instruments for, the generator panels 
of a street railway switchboard is a matter of as great, if not 
greater, importance than the selection of the instruments for the 
feeder panels. The latter subject was discussed in the November 


issue, and much that was said in connection with feeder ammeters 
applies equally well to generator or summation ammeters. The 
principle employed in both cases is the same, the major difference 
being that of range, since one generator frequently supplies many 

On the generator panel, however, it is the voltmeter, rather than 
the ammeter, which occupies the position of prime importance. 
The voltmeter indicates the potential of the generator, and, by 
proper deductions for line drop, the potential at the terminals of 
the car motors. Since street railway systems are invariably oper- 
ated on the constant potential system and any abnormal variation 
of potential is followed by more or less serious trouble, it is im- 
portant that the generator voltmeter should be accurate, durable 
and dead-beat, and if it lack any of these attributes it is not adapted 
for railway use. 

To meet these requirements the Keystone Electrical Instrument 

50 100 150 800 230 COO 350 400 450 500 550 _ 000 050 



Company, of Philadelphia, placed on the market, some years ago, a 
line of instruments designated by them as its Type "K." The en- 
gravings presented herewith show the external appearance of this 
type of instrument and, diagrammatically, its dimensions. As may 
be noted, the case is of graceful design and the scale long, with 
clearly marked and open divisions around the normal working 
point. The scale shown is that of an instrument reading to 150 
volts, but if each scale division is multiplied by 4 it will represent 
its appearance when calibrated for a maximum potential of 600 
volts. The finish of the case is brass, grained and lacquered by 

The system employed in the voltmeter is electro-magnetic, a sys- 
tem concerning which much has been written pro and con, but 
which has survived all attacks made upon it, and to-day is recog- 
nized as the one which, if scientifically designed and properly con- 
structed, meets the exacting requirements of modern engineering 
practice. The general principle of the voltmeter and the methods 
employed in its construction and calibration, follow the lines laid 
down previously for feeder ammeters. Careful provision is made 
to protect the instrument from the influence of external fields, and 

the design is such that variations of temperature produce no varia- 
tions in indications. This latter point is accomplished by employ- 
ing a special alloy wire in the instrument, the temperature coeffi- 
cient of which is negligible, and, in addition, providing a generous 
area of cross section, so that there can be no perceptible heating 
in the windings of the instrument due to the flow of the very small 
actuating current. 

Calibration is effected by comparison with a standard voltmeter 



which never leaves the laboratory, and this standard is kept in abso- 
lute check by the galvanometer, bridge and standard cell method, 
now so well known in laboratory practice. In alternating current 
work comparison is made with a standard voltmeter employing the 
dynamometer system, and the windings of the switchboard instru- 
ment under calibration is so carefully proportioned between induc- 
tive and non-inductive resistance that errors due to self-induction 
and capacity, under normal variations of frequency, are quite negli- 
gible. Absolute compensation for any variation of frequency may 
be obtained by the employment of an inductive shunt across the 
terminals of the actuating solenoid. This method is described in 
a patent recently issued to the Keystone Electrical Instrument 


Company, and provides for compensation between direct current 
and alternating current of any frequency. 

One of the most important features in any indicating instrument 
is the curve of calibration, and attention is called to the curve 
shown herewith which was taken from a voltmeter now in use, 
calibrated for a total potential of 650 volts. From this curve, it 
will be noted that the lower portion of the scale is suppressed, and 
the calibrated portion, or working range, is from 100 to 650 volts. 
Values below 100 volts are never used in practice, and the suppres- 
sion of this portion of the scale permits wider divisions around 
the normal working point. The curve is fair and follows accu- 
rately known laws with a total absence of irregularities. This last 
point is of prime importance, for an irregular calibration curve in- 
dicates arbitrary calibration and a system improperly designed or 
proportioned. Such a system is sure to give inaccurate results and 
to possess inherently objectionable features. 

The calibration curve of any instrument can be found by remov- 
ing the scale plate and finding the center, from which the arc of the 
circle forming the base of the division lines is described. Then 
by plotting the angular distance between the division lines, ex- 

January, 1899.] 



tended to the center, as ordinates with their coresponding values 
in volts as abscissae, the curve may be laid down. 

Generator ammeters and summation, or total output, ammeters 
may be constructed on either the series or shunt principle, depend- 
ing on the current to be measured and the local conditions gov- 
erning the construction of the switchboard. For alternating cur- 
rent of large volumes the series transformer presents many advan- 
tages. This series transformer consists of a primary of one turn, 
cut in on the bus-bar and clamped or bolted to it, and a secondary 
of a number of turns of finer wire. The ammeter is connected 
across the terminals of the secondary and receives a current of 
from 10 to 25 amps, with a drop of a small fraction of a volt. The 
total current in the secondary circuit of the transformer is so pro- 
portioned to the current in the primary circuit that the effects of 
self-induction and capacity balance one another, there being suffi- 
cient current in all cases to provide ample force to properly actuate 
the ammeter system. The ratio of the current in the primary to 
that of the secondary in this series transformer must, however, be 
carefully determined under variations of load and variations of fre- 
quency, and these adjustments are always made by the instrument 
rnaker, then the ammeter can be calibrated in terms of the primary, 
or bus-bar, current. 

Voltmeters for high tension alternating current should be placed 
in the secondary of a regular step-down trasformer, which accu- 
rately transforms the bus-bar potential to a working potential of 

located from a few to several feet below the surface, appearing to 
have been thrown up from a lower level by some internal up- 
heaval. The deposit is in streaks of red and white, the red pre- 
dominating, and in process of mining nuggets of iron ore are fre- 
quently found, ranging from a few ounces in weight to several 
hundred pounds. The method of mining is simple, as it is only 
necessary to remove the layer of gravel and sand, which covers 
the clay, which is very hard and dry, so that it is readily broken 
from the face of the vein by means of heavy iron wedges. The 
material, which is in lumps of various sizes, is transported a short 
distance to the mill in tram-cars or carts, and is dumped directly 
into a hopper at the side of the building, which is located against 
a bank, so that the road is slightly above the basement floor. 
From the hopper the material falls directly into a grinding mill, 
which consists of an open trough, about 10 ft. long, in which re- 
volves a horizontal shaft. The latter is provided with heavy 
radial knives placed spirally, which cut or pulverize the lumps into 
smaller grains, and discharge the material at one end after the 
manner of a spiral conveyor. From this the material falls upon a 
belt conveyor, by which it is elevated to the grinding mill, and as 
it passes along the conveyor an 
attendant picks out from the mass 
all lumps of iron or stone. 

The grinding mill consists of a 
rapidly revolving cylinder with 



from 100 to 120 volts. All voltmeter transformers should be care- 
fully tested by the instrument maker to determine their exact ratio 
and their variation, if any, under varying frequency and varying 
primary potential. 

It is now considered good practice in high potential alternating 
circuits, using two or three phase transmissions, to place an inde- 
pendent voltmeter in each leg in order to obviate the dangers and 
annoyances incident to switching such high potentials on one in- 
strument by means of a voltmeter switch when reading the voltage 
of each leg. 

Modern practice in electrical engineering demands of each piece 
of apparatus employed in an installation accuracy, efficiency and 
durability, and if these are of importance in the generating, trans- 
mitting and translating devices, they are of far greater importance 
in the measuring instruments employed to determine them. Great 
care should be exercised in the design and construction of measur- 
ing instruments, and an equal amount of care and thought should 
be given by the designer of the plant to the proper selection of this 
important part of his installation. 

The Manufacture of Terra Cotta Conduits for 
Electric Wires 

Terra cotta, or baked clay, is one of the most er during sub- 
stances known, as the clay tiles and tablets from the ruins of 
ancient temples testify, being found by recent explorations in a 
perfect state of preservation. It is interesting to note in this con- 
nection how the potter's art, the most ancient of all arts, is now 
contributing to the safe and successful use of electricity, the most 
recently developed of nature's forces. 

It is not the province of this article to tell how all conduits of 
this character are produced, but only as found in the works of the 
Potomac Terra Cotta Company, which are located at Terra 
Cotta, four miles out from Washington, D. C, on the line of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railway. The plant includes clay beds, whence 
the material is mined, an extensive building for housing the ma- 
chinery, and drying floors and kilns for the burning and vitrifying. 
The surface of the region is abruptly rolling, and the clay deposits, 
which are seemingly inexhaustible, are found in irregular veins 

grooves cut lengthways in the surface, and reduces the material 
still finer. From this mill the material drops directly into a pair 
of chilled crushing rolls, which are spaced less than 1/16 in. apart, 
and serve to crush the material into a fine powder. From this 
machine a belt conveyor distributes the clay along the floor of the 
basement of the building, when it is moistened by means of a 
hose, and piled up against the side walls, where it is left from five 
to seven days, or until thoroughly soaked or "tempered," which is 
the term employed. The amount of moisture depends upon the 
character and size of the product to be moulded. For instance, 
the material for large sewer pipe sections is necessarily more 
plastic than for smaller pieces. When sufficiently tempered the 
clay is delivered to the pug mill, which consists of a steel cylin- 
der 8 ft. in length and about 18 ins. in diameter, in which is a re- 
volving shaft carrying, over most of its length, spiral knives, and 
near the end a beater, which is similar to the flukes of a propeller. 
This serves to force the clay through the cylinder, and as the ma- 
terial emerges, the mass is sliced up by means of revolving knives, 
which run parallel to the end of the cylinder; from this the clay is 
immediately taken up by a bucket conveyor, and lifted to the top 
or third floor of the building, where, by means of short belt con- 
veyors, it is conveyed to the cylinders of the forcing presses. 

There are two vertical presses in which the steam cylinder is 
placed directly above the cylinder which receives the plastic mass. 
Three piston rods convey the power from the steam cylinder to 
the head of the press; the steam cylinders in each press are about 
3 ft. in diameter, and have a stroke of about 4 ft., and operate 
under a pressure of 120 lbs. The diameter of the forcing press 
is from 20 ins. to 30 ins., and the material is fed in at the side after 
the follower is lifted. Suitable dies are attached to the base of the 
forcing cylinder, depending upon the character of the product. 
For making the four-way ducts the four dies are attached to a 
suitable interior frame-work, and are each about 12 ins. in length, 
cone shaped to within 3 ins. of the lower end, for which distance 
they are uniform in diameter, either 3 ins. or 3^ ins., depending 
upon the size of the duct required. There are also rods placed in 
the dies, which serve to form the cavities designed for the dowel 
pins, and also for the small central duct. The conduits are made 
in one, two and four-duct sections, and are usually about 30 ins. 
in length. The four-duct sections when burned weigh about 80 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

Sewer pipe, of sizes, up to 30 ins., is forced in the same manner, 
the dies being rounded off on the inner surface, so that the ma- 
terial spreads out and emerges in a perfect ring, which is cut into 
any desired length. In the process of forcing the sewer sections 
or conduits, a balanced platform, carrying a square board, known 
as a "shod," is placed directly under the die, which descends by 
the weight of the section as fast as it emerges from the die. When 
of sufficient length it is cut off by means of a wire, when the sec- 
tion still standing on end is transported to the drying floor. The 
sewer sections are readily shifted about the floors by means of 
long-handled trucks with small wheels. These trucks have, at 
their outer extremity, in line with the handles, iron bars bent in 
such shape as to be readily slid under the base or shod on which 
the section rests. Cleats on the under side of the shod raise it 
sufficiently above the floor to allow the bars of the truck to be 
inserted, when, the handles being slightly pressed down, the sec- 
tion is lifted, and can be safely shifted about. Flat two-wheel 
trucks with handles are employed for handling the conduit sec- 
tions. The two upper floors of the building, which is T shape, 
one wing being 200 ft. in length, and the other 100 ft., are em- 
ployed for drying the sections. This piocess requires from four to 
six days, steam pipes being attached to the ceiling of both floors 
to provide a suitable drying temperature. 

For turning the sewer sections in the process of drying a semi- 
circular frame of slats is provided with curved runners on one 
side, and iron bar extensions on the other. This is called a 
cradle, and by inserting the bars under the shods on which the 
section rests the whole is gently lifted and turned on the rockers, 
end for end. Just before it is placed in position an attendant re- 
moves the shod, and puts it at the other end 
when the section is slid against it, and is brought 
to an upright position. The operation is per- 
formed very rapidly. 

As soon as the sections are ready for the kilns 
they are lowered to the ground floor by means of 
balanced elevators, with which each floor is 
served, and the weight of the material as it de- 
scends serves to raise the alternate platform, so 
no power is required for the operation. Three 
boilers, two of 50 h.p. and one of 125 h.p., pro- 
vide the steam for the drying processes, also for 
driving a 100-h.p. Atlas engine, by means of 
which the grinding machines are operated. 

We are now ready to follow the sections of 
material to the kilns, of which there are twelve, 
and which are circular, some being 22 ft. in. 
diameter, and others 26 ft., with two 30 ft. All 
are dome shaped, and bound about by hoops of 
steel plate 5 ins. in width. One of the newest, a 
30-ft. kiln, has the dome finished in steps, and 
four hoops at the crown. It is built extra 
strong to support the expansive pressure of the 
dome, and, it is believed, will last for many 
years. In the process of setting the kilns the 
sections are transported from the dry house by 
means of trucks, or on the shoulders of the 
laborers, and are placed on end, with one section 
above another, until the whole interior is filled. 
The furnaces are placed at intervals in the outer rim of the kilns, 
and soft coal is burned in them. A double interior flame wall 
is provided about 6 ft. in height, between which and the outer 
wall the heat from the furnaces is delivered and passes to the 
dome, thence downward through the floor into the flues beneath, 
through which the smoke is conveyed to large chimneys, one of 
which answers for two kilns. The fire is started gradually and in- 
creased until the contents of the kilns are brought to a white heat, 
and continues from five to seven days, when the fires are re- 
moved. The furnace is then sealed up and the material is left 
for about the same length of time for gradual cooling. Just 
before the firing process is completed a cheap grade of salt is 
sprinkled into the furnaces, about a wheel-barrow load being re- 
quired for a kiln. The fumes of the salt, uniting with the heated 
clay, serves to glaze the surface of the material inside and out, 
with the hard, impervious coating which is characteristic of this 
class of product. 

_ The business of the Potomac Terra Cotta Company was estab- 
lished about twenty-five years ago, and until ten years ago the 
company was_ engaged in the manufacture of sewer pipe ex- 
clusively. This concern claims the distinction of having been the 
first terra cotta factory in this country to begin the manufacture 
of material for electric conduits, and filled its first conduit con- 
tract in 1887, the order being from the United States Electric 
Lighting Company, of Washington. One claim of superiority 
made by the manufacturers for their conduit which is known as 
the "Mason" is that of perfect vitrifaction, due to the use of a clay 

that vitrifies at a high temperature, rendering it non-absorbent, 
while it is indestructible by the elements when properly made. 
Another feature, and for which the company owns letters patent, 
is the provision of minor openings, designed for the reception of 
iron dowels in the ends, which secure perfect registration of the 
ducts in the process of laying. The dowels are about }4 in. 
diameter, and are provided on one side with a barb, which pre- 
vents a settling too far into the chambers designed for them. As 
the conduits are glazed inside, as well as out, little or no friction 
resistance is offered to the drawing in of the cables, and there is 
no chafing of the sheath. The conduits are thoroughly burned, 
have a dark chocolate color, and are unusually strong for this 
class of material. Being manufactured in standard lengths of 30 
ins., they are easily handled, and not liable to breakage in handling 
or shipping. The affairs of the company are under the direction 
of George Mason, after whom the conduits are named. 

A Handsome Vestibuled Car 

The car shown in the accompanying illustration is, perhaps, 
on-6 of the handsomest electric cars for regular service now in use 
•on any road in New England. It is one of three which have just 
been built for the Newton Street Railway Company, of Newton, 
Mass., by the Laconia Car Company Works, of Boston. 

The car is 25 ft. over end sills, and 35 ft. over bumpers. It is 
fitted with vestibules at each end, has reversible seats, and the 
windows are heavy plate glass, with double sash, similar to those 
on the finest steam cars. The interior of the car, including the 


vestibules, is finished in the choicest of mahogany panel work, 
with mahogany doors. There are eighteen reversible plush seats 
32 ins. wide. The car is wired for twelve incandescent lights, 
and at each window post is a push-button for signaling the con- 
ductor. The car is mounted on Brill No. 27 trucks. 


A New Type of Surface Contact System 

The Campbell Electric Traction Company, of Towanda, Pa., has 
recently put on the market a new type of surface contact system. 
In this system the conduit, which is about 6 ins. x 9 ins. in cross 
section, and air and water tight, rests on the top of the ties, and 
its upper surface is flush with that of the paving. The bottom and 
sides of the conduit may be of either wood or iron, as preferred. 
The top consists of 8 ft. metal sections, thoroughly insulated from 
the rest of the conduit and from each other. The interior of the 
conduit is hollow, and at the bottom on the inside lies a con- 
tinuous rail, carrying the 550-volt current. Contact between this 
rail and the insulated sections on the surface of the street can only 
be made by a specially designed trolley or traveler that runs in 
the conduit, and is controlled in its movement by a pair of strong 
electro-magnets on the car. As the car moves along, the trolley 
on the inside of the conduit travels at the same rate, being always 
in position under the magnets at the center of the car. Con- 
sequently there can be no live section, except that over which the 
car is situated. 

January, 1899.] 



New Horizontal Engine, with Direct-Connected Generator 

The Thompson- Walker Surface Contact System 

One of the latest designs of direct-connected units has been 
brought out by the B. F. Sturtevant Company, of Boston, Mass. 
This unit is unusually compact and neat, and has been built with 
special attention to the requirements of all conditions of service. 
The frame of the engine with the attached oil guard and remov- 
able side plates practically inclose the running parts, prevent the 
throwing of oil and decrease the annoyance from dust. The 
valve is of the balanced piston type, with snap rings, and ope- 


rates in a removable bushing. The 
regulator, which is of the most delicate 
construction, secures the closest pos- 
sible regulation through a range 
from zero to three-quarters cut-off. 
Continuous sight feeding arrange- 
ments are provided for all bearings. 
The engine is of the automatic hori- 
zontal center-crank type. 

The magnet frame of the gene- 
rator is of cast steel, and the 

This system has been worked out by Prof. S. P. Thompson, the 
well-known writer on electrical subjects, in connection with Mr. 
Miles Walker, and upon invitation, an experimental line at Willes- 
den was recently inspected by F. H. Fernie, representative of the 
Street Railway Journal for Great Britain. The line is about 
200 yards in length, and contains a sharp grade and curve. The 
electro-magnetic system is employed, as shown diagrammatically 
in Fig. 1, the magnets being excited by a piece of iron carried on 
the car. To understand the principle employed, some preliminary 
explanation is necessary. 

If an iron plungeboard with extended ends like No. 2, in Fig. 
2, is surrounded by a solenoid of wire carrying the current, it is 
possible to choose the size of the heads so that the tendency of 
the plunger to assume a central position is balanced by the attrac- 
tion of the solenoid on the iron heads. With properly chosen 
heads the solenoid exerts no force whatever on the plunger. 
Gravity being the only force upon it, it will, of course, take up the 
position shown. If now a piece of iron is placed over it, as shown 
in No. 3, the plunger may be raised by the attraction between the 
two. In case a very heavy plunger is used it is possible to sup- 
port part of its weight by merely increasing the size of the lower 
head by a small amount. It is thus possible to construct a simple 
piece of mechanism whose movement is entirely dependent upon 
the presence of a mass of iron in its neighborhood, and which 
cannot be moved by the solenoid itself, even though the magnet- 
izing current carries the iron up to the saturation limit. This has 
been converted into the operating part of the switch. 

Though the force of attraction is sufficient to lift a fairly heavy 


shaping of the pole pieces and proportioning of magnetic field 
and armature is such as to insure absolutely sparkless operation 
under all changes of load, from no load to 25 per cent overload. 
The temperature rise after a full load run of ten hours is guaranteed 
not to exceed go deg. Fahr. The bearings, which are ring oiling, 
are built upon the ball and socket principle. 

In Fig. 1 is shown the Sturtevant horizontal center-crank en- 
gine direct-connected to a four-pole generator. This unit is built 
with the engine cylinder of various sizes, ranging from 6 ins. x 8 
ins. to 13 ins. x 12 ins. These are standard combinations, but any 
special combinations can be made to meet any requirements. 
Fig. 2 shows a plan view of a 11-in. x 10-in. horizontal engine 
connected to a 30-kw. generator. Fig. 3 shows the side elevation 
of the Sturtevant M P-4 generator. This unit is provided with a 
substantial bed, which serves to render the entire foundation ex- 
tremely rigid. 


plunger and operate a switch, it is desirable to have something 
more than this, i. e., a switch which will, notwithstanding its 
massive moving parts, close in an exceedingly short space of 
time, as well as a very great acceleration upon the moving parts 
during the first part of their motion. This is obtained by the in- 
ventors by merely separating the upper head from the plunger by 
a short air-gap, and arranging matters so that the mass of iron 
comes over the switch before current is put through the magnetiz- 
ing coil. As soon as current passes, the attraction upon the head 
is so great that the plunger gets up a high velocity before the two 
come together, with the result that the switch operates as though 
it had been hit with a hammer. A very simple device, a mere film 
of oil acting as a cushion, can be employed to prevent the switch 
from being injured by the concussion. 

The connection of this operating part to the contact points of 
the switch has been the subject of some very varied experiments. 
If the safety of the street passengers could be made dependent 
upon nothing else than the falling of the plunger when the mass of 
iron is removed, it was thought by the inventors that as great per- 
fection would be attained as could be hoped for from any moving 
mechanism. The attachment of any gear at once introduces the 
risk of friction and the simplicity of the issue is destroyed. For 
that reason, as well as for cheapness and convenience, the method 
shown in Fig. 3 was decided upon, though there are some simpler 
modifications of it still under experiment. The diagram, which is 
intended to illustrate the principle only, shows, in the first place, 
the cast-iron box which is laid in the street. This is surrounded 
by a gunmetal stud S, faced with a phosphor-bronze wearing cap. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

This stud is insulated from the iron box by a sheet of micanite. 
A non-porous road material is placed around the stud to make up 
the level. 

The box is filled with oil, which besides performing the function 
presently to be considered, maintains very high insulation 
throughout. The switch is attached to the stud and comes away 
with it in one piece. Being only about 4 ins. in diameter no diffi- 
culty is found in making a perfectly watertight joint. 

The next point to consider is the method of making electrical 
contact. The requirements of switchpoints for disconnecting sur- 

that event the fuse would be blown, effectually protecting the pub- 
lic from the possibility of a stud being left alive in the roadway. 

It will be seen from Fig. 3 that three cups are employed; the 
two outer being connected to the main and the stud respectively. 
The main cup is inclosed in a metal sheath (not shown) perma- 
nently connected to earth, so that it is impossible for current to 
reach the stud except when the yoke is down. It will be seen 
from Fig. 3 that when the plunger is down it earths the center 
cup, so that if from any accident whatever the yoke piece fails to 
open the switch alter a car has gone past, the plunger puts the 
stud to earth and blows the fuse between it and the main. Either 
shunt or series coils may be used to connect up the switch boxes. 
In practice a shunt coil is preferred because the slightly increased 
expense is more than compensated for by the smallness of the 
bulk. Only one skate is employed, and this is in the center of the 
car. This gives much greater facility in going round curves than 
where two skates and two rows of studs are necessary. 


face-studs are given by the inventors as follows: When closed the 
contacts should be of low' resistance and capable of carrying 100 
amperes easily. They should be incapable of fusing or sticking in 
any way, and should require only a small force to operate them. 
They should retain their shape and efficiency unimpaired for a 
long time without requiring attention. It will be observed that 
the current through the stud ceases as soon as the skate parts 
company with the stud as the car moves forward. Hence in the 
operation of the car as the switch-plunger falls it does not have to 
break the main current, that having already ceased. Yet although 
the switches are not required in the ordinary course to break a 
large current, it is desirable that they should be able in case of 
accident to do so without injury. After experimenting with differ- 
ent forms of contact it was found that nothing fulfils these require- 
ments so completely as a properly designed mercury contact. 
Mercury contacts are, therefore, used throughout these switches. 

The yoke of copper which dips into the mercury is supported by 
a brass tube which floats in the oil and fits loosely into a fixed 
brass tube which acts as a guide. When the plunger rises it takes 

New Electric Railway in Virginia 

Contracts for the construction of the Norfolk & Atlantic Ter- 
minal Railroad, which is to run from Norfolk to Sewell's Point. 
Va., have recently been let to the Tennis Construction Company, 
Stephen Gerard Building, Philadelphia. The road will be operated 
by the overhead electric system and contracts for the material 
required have been awarded as follows: Hamilton Corliss Engine 
Company, Hamilton, Ohio, engines; E. Keeler, Williamsport, Pa., 
boilers; Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., generators, motors, etc.: H. W. Johns Manufacturing 
Company, New York City, overhead equipment; Maryland Steel 
Company, Sparrows' Point, Md., steel rails. 


Telephones for Street Railway Service 

The advantages of a private telephone exchange for connecting 
the different departments or offices of large corporations are so 
obvious that the demand for these exchanges has greatly in- 
creased within the past few months. To meet this call the Via- 
duct Manufacturing Company, of Baltimore, Md., is manufactur- 
ing a full line of telephones and accessories for private exchanges, 
and special care has been given to the designing of telephone in- 
struments for the use of street railway companies. These instru- 
ments operate independently of a central exchange. They are 
made in two patterns; one, which is shown in Fig. 1, is a desk tele- 
phone with a switch located in the base, and the other, Fig. 2, is 
a wall telephone, with a switch in the face of the case. By means 







the oil from under the float, which accordingly falls and connec- 
tion is made. When the plunger falls the float rises. As the 
plunger moves quickly the oil has not time to leak past the sides, 
notwithstanding the very loose fit of the parts and the force upon 
the yoke piece is very great. At the same time a long movement 
is obtained. 

To operate the switch contacts requires a fraction of an ounce. 
The forces which operate on the moving plunger (which slides 
freely in a brass tube in oil) are over 80 lbs. at the commencement 
of the stroke, and are several pounds at the end. The sliding 
plunger itself weighs 3 pounds. Tb»™ is, therefore, a margin of 
safety of many hundred per cent. As the car passes on, there is a 
breaking of the magnetic and also of the electric circuit, adding to 
the security. There is yet a third line of defense to the public in 
that the switch is actually earthed, if when the car passes on the 
switch fails to open: for then the plunger earths the switch. In 

of the switches calls are made to any of the other instruments on 
the system. The calls may be received with the switch on any 
point, but in order to talk with the new call it is necessary to place 
the switch upon the home stud. The use of these instruments 
avoids the necessity of a switchboard and attendant. 

This company also makes a portable telephone outfit designed 
for the use of the street railway conductors, who are required to 
report to the starter at the station from any point on the road. 
For using these instruments when no special provision has been 
made, contact is made by throwing the wire over the telephone 
line wire and making a ground connection, but where a metallic 
circuit is employed, contact is made with both limbs of the service. 
Where there is much telephoning to be done it is better to provide 
cut-outs at intervals on the trolley poles along the line, so that the 
plugs of the telephone instrument can be attached directly to the 
circuit. The portable outfit consists of a generator ringer, a re- 

January, 1899.] 



ceiver of hard rubber, the transmitter and two-cell dry battery. 
This is all inclosed in a neat case and provided with a strap for 
carrying. The outfit weighs only about 9 lbs. 

Another specialty manufactured by the Viaduct Manufacturing 
Company for the use of electric railways is an alarm or signal for 
use in outlying districts. This instrument is fitted with a large 
vibrating gong, and is intended to be attached to a trolley pole. 
In this way the starter can signal the conductor of a passing car 
should he wish to communicate with him while on his trip. This 
signal can be used in connection with either a stationary telephone 
at the same pole to which the gong is attached, or else the con- 
ductors can be supplied with a portable outfit. 

Storage Air Brake System 

A new type of air brake has been in use for some time on the 
Detroit & Pontiac Railway, as mentioned elsewhere in this issue, 
and is giving excellent satisfaction there. It is placed on the market 
by the G. P. Magann Air Brake Company, of Detroit, Mich., and 
is illustrated in detail in the accompanying engravings. The sys- 

As in use on the Pontiac line, the air is first compressed at the 
power station to 225 lbs. per square inch by means of a Laidlaw- 
Dunn-Gordon reciprocating air pump located near the boilers and 
driven directly by steam pressure, and is stored in a large reser- 
voir, from which it is piped to an adjustable coupling near the 
track. Each car carries two storage cylinders made of riveted 
sheet steel and tested under hydraulic pressure to double their 
working pressure. These cylinders have a capacity aggregating 
about 36 cu. ft. and are stored to 225 lbs. The time required for 
making connections, charging and breaking connections, is less 
than half a minute, and is done while the conductor is obliged to 
enter the office of the company at that point and make his usual 
report. The storage tanks on the car are piped through a reduc- 
ing valve to a small reservoir which carries 40-lb. pressure, which 
is the working pressure. The usual connections are then made 
from this small reservoir to the jam cylinder through a 3-way 
controlling valve on the platform. The jam cylinder is of the differ- 
ential type, air being admitted on both sides of the piston, which 
moves in two cylinders of different sizes. To stop the car the 
large-sized cylinder is exhausted, allowing the air pressure in the 






tern contains a number of novel features, one of which is that no 
compressing devices, either axle or motor driven, are carried on 
the car, but the air is compressed to the requisite pressure by 
means of a stationary steam driven compressor in the power sta- 
tion, and is then stored in reservoirs on the car for use. This, of 
course, reduces enormously the amount of apparatus required, and 
removes entirely the most complicated part of the air brake sys- 
tem to the station, where it can be directly under the supervision 
of the power house engineer. The chief claims made for this 
radical step are that it eliminates: first, any noise from the air- 
pump when the car is at rest; second, attention required to the 
pump and its motor, either on the road or in the car house; third, 
possibility of breakdown; fourth, greater amount of apparatus, 
and, fifth, the loss of valuable space in the car. 

smaller cylinder to force the brake on. To release the brakes air 
is admitted to the large side forcing the brake off, making a posi- 
tive release. This also allows the motorman to put on only the 
requisite braking pressure, any undue pressure being immediately 
relieved by air cushioning in the large cylinder. With 36 cu. ft. 
stored to an original pressure, 200 lbs., a large double truck inter- 
urban car on the Pontiac line ran six hours and twenty minutes, or 
a total of 96 miles, in a hilly region, and made 228 stops. When 
the car was run into the car house there was still enough air 
pressure to handle the brakes with ease, the gage showing 40 lbs. 

The average reduction in pressure in the large cylinder for each 
stop is 0.8 lbs. 

The equipment has been in constant use on the line mentioned 
for over nine months without requiring any repairs, 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

Hot Water Heaters for Electric Railways 

Sectional Gears 

The increasing use of long double-truck cars has brought the 
method of car heating by hot water for electric railway cars into 
considerable prominence. As mentioned elsewhere in this issue, 
/(he principal interurban railways in the vicinity of Detroit are 
employing for car heating an improved type of the Baker hot 
water heater, which has been so extensively employed in steam 
railroads for the last thirty years. The heater is made in a variety 
of sizes, that employed on the Detroit suburban cars being known 
as the "Mighty Midget." This type embodies all the features 
which have given these heaters their high reputation. 

The generator coil forms a complete water cage for the fire, as 
the latter is entirely within it. This coil is seamless and is tested 
by high hydraulic pressure before installing. The pipe is i 1 /^ ins. 
in diameter and has a spiral length equivalent to 22 ft. 4 ins. 

The water employed is saturated with salt to prevent freezing, 
and its course is first through the generating coil, thence upward 
into the water reservoir and expansion drum 
above the heater. It is thence downward through 
the radiating pipes which are run along the sides 
or under the seats of the car, then back to the gen- 

A new sectional gear, embodying a number of novel features, is 
shown in the accompanying illustrations. The invention consists 
of a cast-iron hub, or center-piece, to which are attached remov- 
able sections of any metal specified. These sections are inter- 
changeable. When the hub, or center-piece, has been once keyed 
in place on the shaft it does not require any further attention, and 
when the teeth of the rim sections have become worn, these sec- 
tions can be taken off and replaced by new ones in a few moments, 
thus making practically a new gear. 

The hub piece and rim sections are beveled where they come in 
contact with each other in such a way as to make a perfect fit and 
prevent all lateral motion To do away with the possibility of the 
rim revolving on the center-piece, a steel safety key is slipped in 
place between the rim and the hub, absolutely locking them. The 
advantages of an interchangeable construction of this kind will be 
evident to any one using gears, as it removes the necessity of tak- 
ing off the entire gear as soon as a few of the teeth are worn out 





erating coil. Salt is employed to keep the water from freezing, 
but it is found this does not exercise any deleterious effect on the 
inside of the pipes. 

Usually these heaters are placed in the front vestibule, and what 
little care is required by them is given by the motorman. The 
position of the heater on the car at this point does not take up any 
valuable space and serves to keep the vestibule warm. The diam- 
eter of this sized heater is i% l / 2 ins., its height is 3}4 ft., and its 
weight, boxed ready for shipping, is 520 lbs. 

These heaters are giving splendid satisfaction in Detroit, Minne- 
apolis, St. Paul, Milwaukee and other large cities where large cars 
are used, and seem adapted for electric car heating purposes, espe- 
cially for long cars on interurban and suburban roads, such as 
exist in these cities and are becoming common in all sections of 
the country. These heaters are manufactured by William C. Baker, 
successor to the Baker Heating Company, New York. 

The Electrical Installation Company, of Chicago, has been doing 
a large amount of construction work recently, notably in Kansas 
City, where it is changing the Broadway Cable line to electricity. 

or broken. This construction also makes an extremely light wheel 
without, it is claimed, reducing the strength. One cut shows a 
complete gear with a solid hub, and the other, the hub and one 
section of the rim before being placed in position on the hub. 
These gears can be made of any shape and pitch with coiled discs 
for small sizes and with arms for larger sizes, if desired. They are 
manufactured by the Peerless Section Gear Company, of New 
York City. 

The Worthington Water Tube Boiler 

The Worthington boiler, which is illustrated herewith, has been 
used to considerable extent in electric light and other work, and 
has established a high reputation for compactness, accessibility and 
economy of fuel. The furnace extends under the entire boiler and 
is of proper height to permit the use of any kind of fuel. The tubes 
are lap-welded and each is straight. The circulation of the water, 
as will be seen, is upward in every tube with the exception of the 
two downtakes at each end of the boiler, which are not exposed to 
the gases. The course of the water is then, from the steam and 
water drum located above the tubes into which it is fed, through 

January, 1899.] 



the downtakes placed outside of the furnace to the mud drums at 
the base, thence by the tube connections into the lower series of 
headers, thence through the tubes over the fire through the upper 
series of headers, thence by the tube connections into the water 
and steam drum from whence it started. 

As the tubes are short, their linear expansion and contraction 
are not perceptible and they can easily be cleaned. The headers 
are of steel or iron, according to the service required, and are ar- 
ranged in the boiler close together, forming complete side walls 
The furnace is lined with fire brick. The only other brick re- 
quired, excepting in boilers of large units, consists of two founda- 
tion walls of proper depth, rising above the floor level about 12 ins. 

From the fire the gases rise, percolating through the tubes, 
which are thus exposed directly to the action of the fire, and finally 
make their exit at the top on either side, as is most convenient. 

The vertical space between the tubes is only about V% in. No 
baffle plates are used, and, as the gases rise perpendicularly and 
without any sharp turn, the draft is good. It is estimated by the 
manufacturers that the boiler will run to its full capacity with 
about J^-in. draft, or about one-half that required by other boilers. 

Another important feature of the boiler is the quality of the 
steam. As will be noticed from the design of the boiler, the circu- 
lation is excellent, and when the steam from the pipes is discharged 
into the steam drum the distribution is along the whole length of 
the drum and at the surface, and not underneath the water. The 
delivery is therefore quiet and the steam does not take up any of 
the water from the drum. As it impinges against a small baffle 
plate in the drum on entering the latter, the water held mechan- 
ically in the steam' is separated from it. 

The water enters the mud drum from the ends and leaves it from 
near the center. At the latter point, therefore, is a dead place 
where the mud accumulates and where the blow-off is located. 

Owing to the fact that the heat is so directly utilized, the boiler 
requires a less grate surface than most other makes. Economy 
of floor space is an important feature of this boiler. This will be 
seen from the statement that the 25-h.p. boiler is o ft. 4 ins. in 
length, 8 ft. 9 ins. in width and has a total height of 10 ft. The 

Wood used in starting fire, in lbs 159 159.5 

Coal equivalent in wood at 0.4 x weight of coal, 

in lbs 10,728 6,620 

Ashes, in lbs 1,051 1,140 

Net combustible, in lbs 9,077 5,471 

Water evaporated during test, in lbs 69,785 50,484 

Water evaporated during test, in lbs, per hour... 0,786.4 4,138.1 
Average Quantities — 

Pressure oi steam, in lbs per sq. in above atmos- 
phere 94.55 92.72 

Temperature of feed water, in degrees F 05.14 64.45 

Temperature of boiler room in deg. F., dry bulb. 79.17 87.18 

Temperature of boiler room in deg. F., wet bulb. 68.91 78.50 

Draught, in inches of water, in flue leading to 

chimney 1.057 0.814 

Draught, in inches of water, in connection at top 

of boiler leading to flue 0.548 0.212 

Percentage of ash in coal 15.39 17.36 

Percentage of moisture in coal 2.06 1.80 

Temperature of flue gases, in degrees F 504.4 440.4 

Calculated Quantities — 

Factor of evaporation 1.191 1.191 

Pounds of water evaporated per lb. of coal, not de- 
ducting moisture in coal (actual) 6.50 7.63 

Pounds of water evaporated per lb. of coal, not de- 
ducting moisture in coal (from and at 212 F).. 7.75 9.08 

Fvaporation in lbs. per lb. of combustible, not de- 
ducting moisture in coal (actual) 7.69 9.23 

Fvaporation in lbs. per lb. of combustible, not de- 
ducting moisture in coal (from and at 212 F).. 9.16 10.99 

Evaporation in lbs. per lb. of combustible from 
and at 212 F., deducting the moisture con- 
tained in the coal 9.38 11.23 

Coal burned per sq. foot of grate surface per hour, 

in lbs 28.7 14.9 

Water evaporated per sq. ft heating surface per 

hour, in lbs 5.32 3.25 

Horse-power of boiler. — One h.p. 34% lbs. of water 

evaporated from and at 212 F., per hour 234.3 142.9 


Lubricating Compounds and Cups 












A lubricating compound, which is claimed to give absolute satis- 
faction under all conditions of temperature, wear, etc., is made by 
the Albany Lubricating Compound & Cup Company, of which 
Adam Cook's Sons, of New York, are the proprietors. This com- 
pound is known as Albany grease, and when it is used the manu- 
facturers guarantee that it will absolutely prevent the burning out 
of armatures and overheating of bearings. 




amount of saving in floor space is figured at about 50 per cent. 
The boiler can be fired either at the ends or on the sides. The 
normal condition is the end method of firing and is the one shown 
in the engraving. Where desired, however, the end can be closed 
up and the boilers fired at the side. This is usually done on large 
boil ers, because the boiler is made of sections, and beyond a cer- 
tain depth it would be impossible to reach the end of the grate 
surface easily. 

Where the boiler is fired on the side two or three of the headers 
are removed and the end is closed up. 

The following are some figures secured from a test of boilers 
made in June, 1897, by Prof. D. S. Jacobus, of Stevens Institute 
of Technology, on boilers in the plant of the American Surety 
Building, New York: 

Builder's rating of h.p 142 

Heating surface, in square feet 1275 

Orate surface, in square feet , ,, , 36.35 

Ratio of heating to grate surface 35.1 

Number of test 1 2 3 

Date of test June 1. June 4. June 7. 

Length of test in hours and minutes 10-17 12-12 11-11 

Total Quantities — 
Coal consumed, not deducting moisture in same, 

in lbs 10,664 6,556 10.881 

The Albany compound is usually made in four different degrees 
of hardness, figures being used to denote the different grades; 
No. o is very soft, being for use in extreme cold weather and on 
exposed journals; No. 1 is harder than No. o, and is to be used on 
ordinary journals in cold weather, or on very cool or slow running 
journals; No. 2 is still harder and is a grade ordinarily used in 
moderate arid warm weather; No. 3 is adapted to the use of all 
stationary, marine and tugboat engines, also shafting in warm 
weather. An extra grade, known as No. X, is also made. This is 
very hard, and it is stated will lubricate journals when no oil or 
other lubricant will work. 

A special lubricating cup has been designed by Adam Cook's 
Sons, and they advise its use with their Albany grease, to secure 
the best results. The cup is shown herewith. As will be seen, the 
manner of attaching it is very simple, and it can be done by any 
mechanic. The Albany cups require the minimum of attention 
and very seldom get out of order. When filled with the lubricating 
composition they will run from one to four months, according to 
the power and velocity of the shafting, without refilling. They 
thus effect a great saving of labor, as well as in the cost of lubrica- 
tion. With the use of Albany grease and these cups, no drip pans 
are required. 



Vol. XV., No. i 

Combined Baggage and Passenger Car 

The two great fertile valleys of Frederick and Middletown, in 
Maryland, have recently been connected by a street railway run- 
ning through a gap in the mountains. The termini are respectively 
the cities of Frederick and Middletown. It is a matter of some 
interest to know that this electric railway takes nearly the same 


line as the Great National Road of the early part of the century. 
Communication .until the advent of the railway had been difficult 
between the two valleys, owing to high tolls and the steepness of 
the grades. The successful operation of the road is developing a 
baggage and express business in addition to the passenger traffic. 
The car illustrated shows the method which the road has adopted 
to carry on this business in an economical manner. The cars of 
the road are mounted on No. 21 E trucks, and the same truck is 
employed for the combination express and baggage car, which 
also has a passenger compartment. There is considerable advan- 
tage in combining the service, because it does not interrupt the 
regularity of the trips, as is the case where the car is exclusively 
devoted to freight and carries no passengers. 

The car is 18 ft. long over end panels and 7 ft. 6 ins. wide at belt 
rails. There are two G. E. 51 motors for propulsion. The plat- 
forms are 4 ft. long and have vestibules with folding doors, and 
are plated with sheet steel. They are also provided with angle 
iron bumpers. The trim of the car throughout is of solid bronze. 
The passengers' compartment is 8 ft. 8 ins. long, and the remaining 
portion of the body is finished in hardwood with folding seats, 
making a baggage, express and smoking compartment. There is 
a sliding door in the partition between them. The oak side sills 
are of unusual depth and are plated to provide the necessary 
strength. Brill sand boxes and gongs are provided. Taken alto- 
gether, the car is a very neat and complete example of its type as 
adapted for use on interurban roads. 

Hand Trucks for Buenos Ayres 

In the Street Railway Journal for November, 1898, was de- 
scribed the method by which meat is handled in the city of Buenos 
Ayres between the slaughter houses and the markets. Reference 
was made in the article to the trucks upon which the meat boxes 

ball-bearings, and the whole truck can be turned in its own length. 
While it is intended that these trucks should be moved by hand, a 
large portion of the work done with them is performed by means 
of mules, and the trucks themselves are arranged so they can be 
hauled in trains. 

The handle of one truck is made of sufficient length to drop into 
the hooks at the rear end of the truck in front of it. The handles 
of the forward truck can be turned up against the meat box, or 
can be unshipped and the team attached to the two hooks seen in 
front of the trucks. The construction is exceedingly simple, and 
at the same time of the greatest strength. Hyatt's roller-bearings 
for each journal reduces the friction to a minimum. This is a 
small truck that might be used to advantage in repair shops, depots 
and other places where heavy weights are to be moved and when 
the roads do not have overhead trolleys for the purpose. The 
trucks illustrated were made for 6000 lbs. capacity, but they can be 
built for any desired load from 1000 lbs. up. 

Remedy for Flat Wheels 

The annoyance to passengers from "flat" wheels and the expense 
to the street railway company of renewing these wheels has made 
this problem of preventing "skidded" wheels one of the most seri- 
ous that the manager has to meet. Various methods have been 
suggested as to the best way of dealing with the problem, one of 
the latest being the use of a brake shoe containing emery inserts. 
This shoe is designed to be substituted for the ordinary brake shoe 
on a wheel that has become flattened, and in this way to gradually 
true up the wheel without removing it or the car from service. 
This shoe has been introduced by the Wheel Truing Brake Shoe 

Company, of Detroit, Mich., 
and is in every way similar 
to the regular brake shoe 
with the exception that in its 
'face it contains pockets or 
.compartments, every alter- 
nate one of which is filled 
with an emery mixture baked 
hard like the section of an 
emery wheel. When the 
wheel becomes flattened the 
.regular brake shoe is re- 
moved and the wheel truing 
.brake shoe is put on in its 
place. The car is then run as 
usual, and every time the 
motorman applies the brake, 
for the purpose of checking 
the speed of the car, the 
wheel is ground down a little 
and brought back to the 
proper shape. The shoe, of 
brake is applied, so that 
trips to true up the wheel 


course, grinds only when the 
usually it requires a number of 
and then the old shoes are replaced. It will be seen that in this 
way the new brake shoe acts upon the same principle as an emery 
wheel, with the exception that the emery is held stationary and the 
wheel revolves against it. The face of the shoe is a part of a true 
circle, and therefore the shape imparted to the wheel will be per- 
fectly true. The time required to take off the old shoes and put 
on the wheel truing brake shoe is very short compared with the 
loss of time incident to running the car into the barn and jacking 
up for the purpose of grinding the wheels. 

These shoes have passed the experimental stage and are now in 
use on a number of roads. The Rapid Railway, running between 
Detroit and Mt. Clemens, Mich., was the first road to equip its 
cars with them, and it is stated that this company has not been 
obliged to remove any wheels, for the purpose of truing them up, 
since the time the new shoes have been in operation. The inven- 
tion is patented in America and in all European countries, the later 
patents being the exclusive property of J. M. Griffin, the president 
of the company which is handling the shoe in the United States. 


Open and Closed Feed Water Heaters and Purifiers 


were handled on arrival at destination. The accompanying illus- 
tration shows one of these trucks. They are mounted practically 
upon three wheels, although the forward wheel is doubled, to facili- 
tate turning. This forward wheel is set in a turn-table carried in 

Steam users designate the two leading types of feed water 
heaters as open and closed. In the former the water is divided by 
means of open pans, so that the exhaust steam comes in direct 
contact with the agitated water. In the closed type the cold water 
is directed through a nest of pipes, and is heated by the surround- 
ing steam. An open type of heater is shown in the accompanying 

January, 1899.] 



illustrations, Figs. 1 and 2. In this particular type the shells, as 
well as the interior parts, are made from cast iron, it being found 
that this metal is less liable to corrosion than steel or rolled iron. 
As will be noted, the interior construction consists of a series of 
round settling pans, mounted one above another on a central hol- 
low shaft, but loosely, so that they can be readily turned and every 
part be brought before a side door in the shell, when they are 
easily cleaned or inspected. The water is admitted at the top 
through perforated branching pipes of brass, by which means the 
water is evenly sprayed over the whole surface of the upper pan, 
which is perforated, and from which the water flows in small 
streams to the pan below, then over the edges of the succeeding 
pans until it is accumulated at the bottom of the heater. Exhaust 
steam is admitted through the sides of the heater, below the pans, 
and ascends along the outer edge of the pans and through the per- 
forated hollow shaft, so that it passes over the surface of each pan, 
imparting its heat to the finely subdivided water, causing rapid 

! 'i 11 111 I 1 ! 7 ill ! V 

The "Sterling" Specialties 

The beautiful white enameled dial of the Sterling Supply & 
Manufacturing Company is coming to be seen more and more 
oflen on the cars of American street railways, small as well as 
large, though hitherto a favorite among the larger companies 
chiefly. Its exclusive use by the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company, of New York, is, of course, almost in itself a guarantee 
of its excellence and satisfactory qualities, since it is well known 
that every possible "leak" is avoided on the Metropolitan system, 
and no leak is so important as that of earnings. The Sterling trip 
and totalizing alarm registers are made with either the plain white 
numeral disc referred to, or the dial indicator, as may be preferred, 
and are arranged for either cord or rod connection, as desired. 
All of the auxiliary equipment devices are of the finest quality and 
most carefully made. 

Nearly every one who rides on the Broadway cars in New York 
City wonders at the power and delicate adjustment of the brakes in 
use thereon, by means of which a car may be run in a crowded 
street at considerable speed, almost to the point of touching a 
wagon or another car in front, and yet may be instantly brought to 
a complete stop by a slight movement of the gripman's hand. The 
brake which accomplishes this result is the invention of Thomas 
Millen, master mechanic of the Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany, and is made by the Sterling Company. It is a simple hand 
brake with one essential peculiarity, namely, that the usual move- 
ment of the brake rod is multiplied in power through a gear and 
pinion working in the ratio of 5 to 2. On the gear axle is a double 



condensation, with little or no back pressure. In its passage all 
impurities are deposited in the pans or at the bottom of the heater. 

A horse-shoe trough within the shell at the normal water level 
serves to skim off and discharge the oil or other floating impuri- 
ties, while a sensitive float, consisting of a copper ball, operates a 
valve in the supply pipe, at the top, and thus regulates the supply 
of water. A small auxiliary cylinder, known as an oil separator, is 
attached to the side of the shell, and is connected by a pipe to the 
water in the base of the shell, but a little above the bottom. The 
suction pipe from the feed pump enters this auxiliary cylinder a 
little below the surface of the water, while a second pipe, or by- 
pass, connects the top of the cylinder with the steam space in the 
heater, and so designed that should the water, from any cause, fall 
to a level with the suction pipe, it would draw steam instead of 
water, or the oil that might possibly have gained entrance to the 
cylinder. Blowoff pipes for removing the sediment are provided 
at the bottom at both the main shell and the auxiliary cylinder. A 
water gage and thermometer complete the essential parts of the 
heater. The heaters as above described are known as the Pitts- 
burgh feed-water heaters and purifiers, and for which James Bonar 
& Co. are general sales agents. 

The same concern handles a closed type of heaters that are man- 
ufactured in various shapes, both with curved and straight pipes, 
which united different chambers, and providing large heating sur- 

The open heaters are manufactured in sizes from 50 h.p. to 6000 
h.p. Some of the shells, as shown by Fig. 1, are from 18 ft. to 20 ft. 
in height and 5 ft. to 6 ft. in diameter. The heaters of different types 
are manufactured in Pittsburgh under the direction of J. E. 
Schlieper, by whom they were designed and patented. 

sprocket wheel, which operates the brake levers by means of a 
chain. Another feature of the entire brake apparatus is that" the 
brake shoes are run very close to the wheel, so that a slight mo- 
tion only is necessary to bring them to full bearing, and the wear 
on the brake shoe is taken up in the chains connecting with the 
brake rod. There is a material saving also in the wear of chains 
as compared with the old-fashioned brakes. With the sprocket 
wheel used a chain usually wears several years. 

Another well-known device made by the company is a street car 
fender also in use in New York and other cities. This is a track 
fender, not a dashboard fender. 

The Sterling Company has recently enlarged that portion of its 
plant devoted to the manufacture of insulating material and com- 
mutator bars, and large quantities are being turned out to meet a 
greatly increased demand. The insulation is a special compound 
molded while in a plastic state under hydraulic pressure. It is hard, 
tough and impervious to weather, and has high insulating qualities. 

In addition to these more important specialties, the Sterling 
Company also manufactures a large line of street railway supplies 
of various kinds, including the Sterling sand box, conductors' 
badges, the Sterling counter for counting reciprocating or rotary 
movements, including revolutions of wheel axles, machinery, etc., 
a wire measuring machine and a winding machine for recording 
revolutions of spindles and armature bobbins. With so large a 
number and variety of specialties, it goes without saying that the 
Sterling Company is of great use to street railway purchasers. 

The Bloomfield (Mich.) & Orchard Lake Electric Railroad 
Company has been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000. 
George L. Hendrie is the principal stockholder. 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

The Lord Baltimore Maximum Traction Truck 

The design of this truck conforms to that of the well-known 
Lord Baltimore single and center bearing trucks. The pedestals 
are of steel and form part of the side frames; they are provided 
with housings to receive graduated coil springs, which rest on the 
axle boxes and carry entire weight, thoroughly cushioning all. 
The car body and load ride upon four half elliptic springs, two to 
each truck and suspended from the below the side frames by links 
and connected by posts to the truck bolster, the posts being held 
in place between and guided by the bars forming part of side 
frames and connecting the pedestals. They are of bolster con- 
struction, to which pivotal centers are fastened, the pivotal centers 
being located at or near the centers of driving axles; the weight 
of the entire structure is so proportioned that 66 per cent rests 
upon the driving wheels, and is applied to the wheels through 
bolsters and distributed upon centers of bolsters and self-oiling 
roller side-bearings revolving upon steel thimbles. These roller 
side-bearings, upon which car body chafe plates bear, are placed 
directly above centers of half elliptic body springs. The axle 
boxes are of most approved dust and oil tight pattern and pro- 
vided with either felt or waste feed, as may be desired. 

The driver and cross frames are bolted directly to the main 
pedestals and of such form that they will never be outside of track 
line in curving; the only function they perform is to carry bars 
supporting the motors upon outer ends, the motors being placed 
outside of drivers. 

These end cross frames form stiff end ties for side frames, which 
are also securely braced diagonally between the wheels. The 
frames, taken as a whole, are as securely built as the best loco- 
motive trucks and have all the advantages of stiffness and stability 
claimed for center-bearing trucks of the most approved design. 

The brakes are applied between wheels and so constructed with 
proportioned levers that 70 per cent of the braking power is ap- 
plied to the drivers; they are operated by levers acting from the 
pivotal points of trucks, avoiding the use of objectionable quad- 
rants in applying brakes upon curves; all the working parts of the 
brake mechanism have large bearings provided with oil holes, 
work upon steel thimbles, are placed at center lines of trucks and 
not liable to receive mud or dust thrown up by the wheels. They 
are extremely powerful, and the braking power is equalized be- 
tween the trucks by interposing springs in such manner that it will 
be divided equally between the trucks, and each wheel will receive 
its proper proportion of the braking power. 

These trucks are thoroughly and carefully built in every particu- 
lar, and special attention has been given to preventing shearing 
strains upon the bolts, and all parts are of steel and malleable iron, 
no cast iron being used except for wheels and brake shoes. 

The trucks are manufactured by the Baltimore Car Wheel Com- 
pany, of Baltimore, Md. 


Transformer Design and Operation 

Under the title, "Transformer Design and Operation," the Gen- 
eral Electric Company issues a pamphlet from two important 
papers on the subject of electrical transformers. One is written 
from the standpoint of the central station manager by W. F.White, 
general manager of the Omaha (Neb.) Electric Light, Heat & 
Power Company; the other, by Prof. Winder Elwell Goldsborough, 
M. D., deals intimately with the question of transformer economy. 
The first paper, which was read before the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, is the record of long personal experience 
with the operation of transformers under actual commercial con- 
ditions, showing the relation of the many losses incident to the use 
of many small transformers to the earing capacity of the plant, arid 
the very tangible economies realized as the result of the substitu- 
tion of a few high efficiency transformers of large capacity. Mr. 
White gives examples of these economics reduced to dollars and 
cents. In his station a saving of $6,000 per annum in the cost of 
coal alone was realized as the result of the practical application of 
lessons drawn from his extended observation and experience. 

Prof. Goldsborough's paper was read before the National Elec- 
tric Light Association, and treats of the inherent economy of 
transformers of various design and construction. It contains 
many able arguments in favor of the use of high-grade trans- 
formers, and emphasizes the necessity of frequent tests as the only 
means of detecting leaks, losses and the general depreciation of 
transformers. Prof. Goldsborough gives examples of manu- 
facturers' claims belied by careful test, but instances other cases in 
which guarantees have been exceeded, and urges upon station 
managers the wisdom of keeping as vigilant a watch on the effi- 
ciency of their transforming apparatus as upon the items of operat- 
ing expense and maintenance if economical results are to be ob- 

To these papers the General Electric Company has added sev- 
eral maps showing graphically the significance of the substitution 
of a few large transformers for numerous small ones. The 
pamphlet is, as usual, well printed and illustrated, and should find 
a prominent place in the literature of every alternating current 
station and every educational institution. It will be sent free by 
the General Electric Company. 


MR. JOHN B. HICKS has resigned his position as manager of 
the railway department for Pratt & Lambert. 

MR. W. W. RUTHERFORD has been elected chairman of the 
Liverpool Tramways Committee and Alderman F. Smith has 
been appointed deputy chairman. 

MR. GEORGE J. JACKSON, of New York, is spending the 
winter in London, looking after the interests of the recently incor- 
porated National Conduit & Cable Company, Ltd. 

MR. CHARLES H. KIRKLAND has made arrangements for 
handling in New York the supplies of the Bibber-White Company 
and the Crefield Electrical Works, both of Boston. Mr. Kirkland 
has been for some time in the sales department of the C. & C. 
Electric Company. 

H. WATSON, of the E. P. Allis Company, have returned to 
America from Europe. Messrs. Soldana and Harrington have just 
completed the erection of two 500-h.p. engines at Madrid and three 
at Barcelona, Spain. 

HON. GARDNER C. SIMS, who served during the war with 
Spain as one of the chief engineering officers on the "Vulcan," 
has returned home, to Providence. The "Vulcan," as is well known, 
was the repair ship for the fleet off Santiago, and as such rendered 

MR. HENRY G. ISSERTEL, formerly manager of the Boston 
office of the Walker Company, has accepted the position of man- 
ager of the New York office of the Anchor Electric Company, 
which makes a specialty of high-grade switches. Mr. Issertel's 
headquarters will be at 26 Cortlandt Street. 

connected with the Elektricitats Aktien Gesellschaft ■ vorm. 
Schuckert & Co., were in New York last month inspecting a 
number of electric railway plants, including the third-rail system 
in use on the Marine Railway at Coney Island. Mr. Tischendorfer 
will remain in this country about a month longer. The other 
three gentlemen returned to Nuremburg Dec. 10. 

MR. A. BAKER, manager of the Nottingham Corporation 
Tramways, has been appointed to the post of "Chief Officer of 
Tramways" of London by the London County Council, and his ap- 
pointment was ratified Dec. 13. Mr. Baker has shown conspic- 
uous ability in the discharge of his duties at Nottingham, and 
much satisfaction is expressed at his acceptance of the post in 
London. It has been decided to call the London tramways "The 
London County Council Tramways," although only the initials, 
"L. C. C," will be painted on the cars. 

PROF. SIDNEY H. SHORT, of Cleveland, sailed for Liver- 
pool on the Majestic, Dec. 13, for an extended tour in England and 
the Continent. In the course of his travels he will visit London, 
Paris, Frankfort and Berlin, besides many other places of interest. 
This is almost the first real vacation which Prof. Short has had for 
many years, and his intention is to devote his time chiefly to recre- 
ation, although he has already been invited to address a number of 
scientific societies in England, France and Germany on the sub- 
jects, particularly, of application of electricity to heavy railroad- 
ing, and of high speed traction, on which subjects he is recognized 
as an authority of high standing. Prof. Short is accompanied by 
Mrs. Short, and they expect to return to America about the middle 
of April. 

MR. JOHN YOUNG, manager of the Glasgow Corporation 
Tramways, has recently declined the office of Chief of the Tram- 
ways Department in London. Mr. Young's recent work in Glas- 

January, 1899.] 



gow is known throughout the tramway field, and his remarkable 
success in bringing the Glasgow Municipal Tramway service to its 
present state of efficiency has placed his name among the foremost 
tramway managers of the world. Mr. Young was born in 1845 at 
Fulwood, Renfrewshire. He received his early education at the Pais- 
ley Grammar School, and expected to take up the duties of a pro- 
fessional life. His love of the country led him to devote himself 
to the practical study of agriculture, and for a time he was in 
charge of his father's farms. It was from this position that in 
1895 he was appointed Superintendent for Cleansing in Glasgow. 
Shortly after that time he became manager of the tramway sys- 
tems of Glasgow, and under his guidance all the various depart- 
ments of the tramways were thoroughly organized and equipped. 

MR. FRANKLIN E. HUNTRESS has been re-elected for the 
third time from the Seventh Middlesex District to the Massachu- 
setts House of Representatives. This is the first instance in the 
history of the city that a candidate has ever received three terms 
from his ward. Mr. Huntress was successful against the com- 
bined efforts of the local machines, and, though there was a large 
number of candidates, he carried his own ward and precincts over 
all others. He has served for two years on the committee on 
manufactures, which has supervision over the gas and electric 
lighting interests of the State. Mr. Huntress is a Republican, and 
though a candidate a number of times, he has never been defeated. 
He is a member of the local Republican organization, the Massa- 
chusetts Republican Club, the Middlesex Club, the University 
Club of Boston, and several fraternal organizations. He was 
graduated from Harvard University in the class of '89. In busi- 
ness he has been equally successful, and successfully introduced 
the Neal electric headlight, which has been adopted by the West 
End Street Railway, of Boston; the Brooklyn Heights Railroad, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Metropolitan Street Railway, of New York 
City, and is in use on hundreds of roads all over the United 


MR. WM. E. HALE, treasurer of the Toledo Traction Com- 
pany, of Toledo, Ohio, and also a prominent capitalist, died on 
Nov. 16, after a short illness. Mr. Hale made his home in Chi- 
cago, where he was connected with a number of large enterprises, 
and he was also a heavy stockholder in the Toledo Traction Com- 

engineering department of the General Electric Company, died, at 
the early age of twenty-six years, of typhoid fever, at his home, in 
Hartford, Conn., on Dec. 7. Mr. Whitmore began his career with 
the Thomson-Houston Company, on the "students course," at the 
Lynn factory, from which he was advanced to the power and min- 
ing department, where he was engaged chiefly in design. In 1894 
he was transferred to the Scranton, Pa., office of the General Elec- 
tric Company, where he was general consulting engineer in power 
and mining work till 1898, at which time he returned to the home 
office, in Schenectady. His work at Schenectady was wholly with 
the railway engineering department, in which at the time of his 
death he was filling with conspicuous success an important post in 
connection with the design of special railway apparatus. Mr. 
Whitmore was a man of uncommon gifts, who possessed unlimited 
energy and enthusiasm in his work. He had, besides, a manly and 
straightforward character and numerous qualities of personal 
charm, which won him friends and gained him universal esteem. 



W. C. NAGEL & CO. has been organized, with headquarters at 
Toledo, Ohio, for the purpose of conducting a general business in 
electrical machinery, supplies and construction. 

received the contract for the supply of six motor cars for the Liv- 
erpool Tramways at £554 9s. 6d. each, and sixteen trail cars with 
extra brakes at £587 4s. 6d. each. 

R. I., has recently published a catalogue and price list of its rub- 
ber-covered wires and cables, giving full details of all the sizes and 
characters of wire manufactured by them. 

have been granted the contract for the overhead construction for 

the Liverpool Tramways along the Aigharth Road, a distance of 
2 miles. The contract price was £1,780 12s. id. 

COMPANY, of New York City, has moved from the Cotton Ex- 
change Building to the Empire Building, 71 Broadway, rooms 
1813-1816, where it will be glad to receive inquiries and give infor- 
mation regarding the Weber joint. 

Iowa, reports that the Sioux Corliss engine at the Omaha Exposi- 
tion was awarded the gold medal over its competitors. This en- 
gine was in continuous operation, twenty-four hours per day, dur- 
ing the greater part of the exposition, furnishing all of the power 
used on the grounds. 

St. Louis, Mo., has published a handsome and complete catalogue 
of its electric railway supplies, entitled Catalogue No. 16. This 
pamphlet seems to be a regular cyclopaedia of all overhead parts, 
track tools and other apparatus required in operating electric rail- 
ways, and is well illlustrated. 

moved its works from Arlington, N. J., to Troy, N. Y., where it 
has erected a new and much more extensive plant. Henry Bur- 
den, 2d, of New York, has been elected vice-president, and Eugene 
Seitz, of Troy, N. Y., treasurer, of this company, to fill vacancies 
caused by the resignation of Henry Johnson. 

Wentworth Building, Boston, reports some good contracts in 
hand for new electric roads. This company embraces in its man- 
agement and directory some of the most solid and influential men 
in New England, and its capital is reported as sufficient to enable 
it to carry out any contracts the company may make. The com- 
pany's principal business is the construction and equipping of 
electric railways complete. 

etta, Pa., was granted the highest award at the Omaha Trans- 
Mississippi and International Exposition for telephone apparatus. 
The company did not make any special effort to secure the award, 
merely sending a line of samples to the exposition, in charge of 
its local agent. The Pennsylvania Electric Company is now at 
work on an order for 2000 telephones for the Independent Tele- 
phone Company, of Lancaster County. 

contract for the electrical equipment of the Third Avenue Railroad 
Company last month upon the lines laid down in the Street 
Railway Journal for December. This is probably the largest 
contract for electric railway equipments which has ever been given 
to any one company or set of interests, and means, it is under- 
stood, that Westinghouse apparatus will be used throughout in the 
power station, rolling stock and elsewhere on the line. 

announce that they have resumed the manufacture of chilled 
wheels at 901 Montgomery Avenue. Having their old patterns 
and chills, as well as the drawings and records of all former orders 
for the last fifty-two years, they will be prepared to duplicate ship- 
ments made heretofore, as well as to meet new requirements. The 
firm is composed of James S. Whitney, manager; Asa W. 
Whitney, superintendent, and H. F. Hannis, treasurer. 

Conn., is furnishing the steel work for the new electric power sta- 
tion of the Boston & Maine Railroad Company, at Portsmouth, 
N. H. The building is 118 ft. wide and 64 ft. long, divided into 
two rooms, one for the boilers and the other for the engines and 
electric generators. The side walls are of brick and the roof con- 
struction is fireproof. The trusses are of steel, and they support 
steel beams for the purlins, on which is to be placed a concrete 

Limited, of Philadelphia, is sending out a postal card to all its 
customers reading as follows: "Owing to the high prices of cop- 
per, tin, etc., we hereby withdraw all quotations on phosphor- 
bronze, delta metal and other alloys in manufactured goods, ingots 
and castings. We shall be pleased to quote prices on detailed 
specification for prompt orders, or to receive any orders, which 
will be filled at such prices as are warranted by existing condi- 

PANY, of Boston, Mass., reports that the demand for its gov- 



Vol. XV., No. i. 

ernors is constantly on the increase. During the last month the 
company received orders for upward of twenty governors to regu- 
late forty-one water wheels, which will develop 15,750 h.p. More 
than half of this machinery will be used in electric stations— prin- 
cipally in power transmission plants — and electric railway stations, 
the balance being in textile and other manufacturing plants driven 
by water power. 

SUPPLY COMPANY is the title of a new firm organized in the 
last few months at San Francisco by Allen St. J. Bowie and S. H. 
Taylor. The company is agent for the Ohio Brass Company, 
Eureka Tempered Copper Company, Solar Carbon & Manufactur- 
ing Company, Vulcanized Fibre Company, Positive Lock Washer 
Company, A. O. Schoonmaker, and several other prominent East- 
ern manufacturers, and it is its purpose to extend its lines in the 
electric railway field. 

burgh, Pa., is sending out quite an elaborate catalogue describing 
the Westinghouse compound engine. The catalogue contains 
handsome half-tone engravings and a large amount of informa- 
tion of value to steam users. The manufacturers of the Westing- 
house compound engine claim that, running non-condensing, it 
will deliver a horse power at the shaft for a smaller expenditure of 
steam than any other non-condensing engine of any type what- 
ever running under similar conditions. 

Limited, is just introducing a new device by which a motorman 
can turn a switch which he is approaching without leaving the 
platform. The device consists in inserting in the trolley wire a 
short insulated section, and the motorman can operate the switch 
by passing this with the current on. If he does not care to move 
ihe switch, he shuts his current off and drifts past the insulated 
section. This device has been in use for some time at the corner 
of Fourteenth and Warren Avenues, Detroit, Mich. 

THE Q & C COMPANY, of Chicago and New York, is send- 
ing to the trade a very handsome catalogue descriptive of the 
Q & C valveless pneumatic tools for riveting, chipping, caulking, 
cutting stray bolts, chipping iron and steel castings, stone cutting, 
carving, lettering, etc. The Q & C Company has recently pur- 
chased the entire business of the Ridgely & Johnson Tool Com- 
pany, of Springfield, 111., and has added a pneumatic tool depart- 
ment to its already well-known list of special machinery and rail- 
way appliances. Pneumatic tools are now coming into quite ex- 
tensive use, and the full line carried by the Q & C Company will 
undoubtedly create a large demand for this class of implements. 

has made arrangements for issuing from time to time special or group 
catalogues containing a list and descriptions of hydraulic tools 
best adapted for some one particular use. It has recently issued its 
catalogue No. 50, which illustrates tools designed for steam rail- 
road work, and it intends to publish within a short time catalogue 
No. 52, which will contain tools used by street railways. Cata- 
logue No. 51 is just being sent out, and it is shown as the "Illus- 
trated Index of Hydraulic Tools." This index is intended to show 
in a medium-sized book, the large variety of tools which this con- 
cern manufactures. Each cut shown represents from one to about 
twenty sizes of tools, and the illustrations are intended more as 
suggestions than anything else. Full and complete descriptions 
of any one of these tools or of any class of tools will be sent upon 

THE B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY, of Boston, Mass., 
has just issued a second edition of its very suggestive pamphlet, 
Bulletin E, entitled "Draft Without a Chimney." The pamphlet 
will be sent on application. This company has also just issued its 
Bulletin G, which contains a description of the Sturtevant generat- 
ing sets with automatic horizontal and upright engines. The gen- 
erating set with horizontal center crank engine and four-pole gen- 
erator manufactured by the Sturtevant Company is described else- 
where in this issue, but these sets are also made with horizontal 
center crank engines with six-pole generators, double upright en- 
gines with four-pole generators, single upright engines with four- 
pole generators, single upright engines with eight-pole generators 
and horizontal center crank engines with four-pole (marine type) 
generators. All of these sets have been very carefully designed, in 
order to secure the maximum amount of efficiency with the mini- 
mum amount of weight and size. 

New York, has published from time to time very interesting and 
attractive printed matter describing the safety third-rail electric 

system, better known as the Murphy system. The latest pamphlet 
to be issued by this company is unusually artistic typographically, 
and, in addition, contains a great deal of information which will be 
eagerly read by all engineers, or others, interested in the develop- 
ment of an electric railway system to take the place of the over- 
head trolley in large cities on suburban and interurban railways 
and on steam railroads. The pamphlet just issued first describes 
and illustrates the principal third-rail, conduit and surface contact 
systems on the market, and points out some of their disadvan- 
tages. The safety third-rail system is then described, and the 
principal claims made for it are given in such a way as to show 
how the Murphy system overcomes the objectionable features in 
other systems. 

phia, Pa., reports a very large number of recent sales of Cochrane 
separators. Among these may be mentioned: Standard Oil Com- 
pany, Whiting, Ind., 6-in. oil-ammonia; De La Vergne Refriger- 
ating Machine Company, New York, two 5-in. oil-ammonia; 
Buckeye Engine Company, Salem, Ohio, 5-in. vert.; Bailey Estate, 
Boston, one 3-in. and one 4-in. horz. ; Montgomery, Ward & Co., 
Chicago, one each, 12-in., 7-in. and 4-in. horz.; Parke & Lacy 
Company, San Francisco, Cal., one each, 3^-in. and 5-in. horz., 
and one 5-in. vert.; Theo. A. Koch Company, Chicago, two 2-in. 
and one 6-in. horz.; Brown Bldg., St. Louis, Mo., three 4^2-in. 
and one 3-in. horz.; Washington Coal & Coke Company, Star 
Junction, Pa., two 6-in. horz.; Fred. W. Wolf Company, Chicago, 
4^4-in. horz.; Jung Brewing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, one each, 
5-in. and 6-in. oil-ammonia; Buffalo (N. Y.), Bellevue & Lan- 
caster R. R., 8-in. horz.; Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis R. R. Company, Urbana, 111., one 5-in. and two 3-in. vert.; 
So. Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway Company, Newport, 
Ky., 4-in. horz.; Edison Electric Illuminating Company, Brock 
ton, Mass., two 6-in. horz. A few of the recent sales of Cochrane 
feed-water heaters and purifiers are as follows: Raritan Copper 
Works, Perth Amboy, N. J., 1000 h.p.; Montgomery, Ward & 
Company, Chicago, 1000 h.p.; Chicago & Great Western Railroad 
Company, Oelwein, Iowa, 500 h.p.; Boston Packing & Provision 
Company, Cambridge, Mass., 200 h.p.; St. Clair (Pa.) Coal Com- 
pany, 1500 h.p.; U. S. Glue Company, Carrollville, Wis., 1500 h.p.; 
Armour Elevator "D," Chicago, 1200 h.p.; Rush Run Coal & 
Coke Company, Rush Run, W. Va., 500 h.p.; Isaac Braithwaite & 
Son, Kendal, England, 100 h.p.; Phoenix Iron Company, Phcenix- 
ville, Pa., 2000 h.p.; Diamond Ice Company, Wilmington, Del., 
200 h.p.; C. W. Boynton, Chicago, 100 h.p.; O. S. Kemmerer, 
Nazareth , Pa., 50 h.p. (special). 

New Publications • 

Tourists' Guide to New Orleans. Published by the New Orleans 
City & Lake Railroad Company. 14 pages. 
This is a neat little folder containing a map of all the street car 
routes in New Orleans and directions for reaching all the princi- 
pal points of interest. 

Graphite. Vol. 1, No. 1. December, 1898. Published by the 
Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey City, N. J. 4 

This is a periodical which will be issued from time to time by 
the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, and will be sent to all users 
of graphite or others interested. Graphite now enters very exten- 
sively into most of the arts, sciences and trades, and is, in 
fact, employed in some form by every civilized nation in the world. 

President's Address Before the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers. 15 pages. Published by the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. 
This is a copy of the address delivered by President Charles 
Wallace Hunt before the above-mentioned society. In his address 
Mr. Hunt carefully reviewed the latest engineering practice in 
America and abroad, and spoke of the duties, pleasures and use- 
fulness of the engineer of to-day. 

Report of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York. Published by the New 
York State Street Railway Association. 144 pages. 
This is the printed proceedings of the sixteenth annual meeting 
of this association, which was held at the Manhattan Hotel, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 13-14, 1898. The report is very complete, 
giving all the papers read, all the discussions and all the speeches 
both at the meetings and at the banquet. The pamphlet also con- 
tains the annual report of the secretary and treasurer, and a copy 
of the constitution and by-laws of the association, together with 
a complete list of all the members. 

January, 1899.] 



Trade Catalogues 

Pneumatic Tools. Published by the Q & C Company, of Chicago 

and New York. 46 pages. Illustrated. 
Hydraulic Tools. Published by the Watson-Stillman Company, 

of New York City. 44 pages. Illustrated. 

The Safety Third-Rail System. Published by the Safety Third- 
Rail Company, of New York City. 16 pages. Illustrated. 

The Westinghouse Compound Engine. Published by the West- 
inghouse Machine Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 94 pages. 

List of Street Railway Patents 

U. S. Patents Issued Nov. 22 to Dec. 20, 1898, Inclusive 

Prepared for the Street Railway Journal by 
Thomas Drew Stetson 

Week Ending Nov. 22, 1898 
Rolling Stock— Henri J. Caillet, Paris, France. No. 614,697. 
Three claims. 

Car Fender.— John D. Hodges, Chicago, 111., assignor of five- 
sixths to James Bellew, Frank H. Repetto and Patrick J. 
King, same place. No. 614,654. Four claims. 
Claim. — 2. The combination of the rule-jointed fender frame, 
pivots upon which it swings and which constitute the hinge be- 
tween its joints, the buffer, its bearing rods terminating in about 
a line with said hinge, a thrust rod in contact with the headed rear 
end of one of said bearing rods, and mounted in the rear section 
of the fender frame, a lever actuated by said thrust rod, a latch bolt 
with which said lever engages, a spring acting upon said latch bolt 
in opposition to the lever, and a latch hanger into which said bolt 

Indicator for Railway Cars. — Edouard Cros, Paris, France. No. 

614,700. One claim. 
Means for Driving Railway, Tramway or Automobile Cars. — Gus- 

tave Dupont and Maxime Johannet, Paris, France. No. 614,- 

709. Four claims. 
Claim.— 3. In a motor vehicle, the combination of a front and 
rear axle of two counter shafts, a field magnet and armature 
mounted on each, a main shaft geared to both counter shafts, a 
reversible clutch on the main shaft and a single circuit including 
the armature of both dynamos, substantially as described. 
Lubricating Car Wheels.- — John V. Hawkey, Greensburg, Pa. No. 

614,808. One claim. 

Week Ending Nov. 29, 1898 
Nut Lock. — William H. Carruthers, Chicago, 111., assignor to 
Marguretta E. Carruthers, same place. No. 614,835. Two 

Trolley for Electric Cars. — Hosea W. Libbey, Boston, Mass. No. 

614,875. One claim. 
Claim. — A trolley head having two arms between which the 
main trolley wheel is mounted and a bracket on each side between 
which and one of the arms is mounted a small contact wheel or 
roller substantially as and for the purpose set forth. 
Rail Joint. — George F. Owen, Canal Winchester, Ohio. No. 614,- 

885. Two claims. 
Railway Rail.— John W. Peterman, Banta, Cal. No. 614,976. One 


Underground Conduit for Electrical Conductors. — Charles H. 

Sewall, Chicago, 111. No. 614,995. Seven claims. 
Claim. — 1. The combination with a body of material having a 
conduit or conduits inclosed therein, of an inclosing layer or 
sheath of insulating material completely surrounding said body of 
material on the top, bottom and sides and effectively insulating the 
same from the earth to prevent the access of extraneous currents 
to the inclosed body of material, substantially as described. 
Railway Switch. — George A. Penrose and Thomas F. Penrose, 

Meredith, Ark. No. 615,101. Three claims. 
Nut Lock. — Silas Chambers, Sterling City, Tex. No. 615,139. 

Seven claims. 

Electric Railway. — Hermann T. Hillischer, Vienna, Austria-Hun- 
gary. No. 615,176. Four claims. 
Claim. — 4. In an electric railway, the combination of the running 
rails, an inverted U-rail arranged parallel thereto, an electrical con- 
ductor carried in the hollow of said U-rail, but insulated therefrom, 
a channel or conduit between the said rails, a slot between the said 
rails leading to said channel or conduit, plates pivoted to the track 
rail along the conduit, springs acting upon said plates and tending 

to hold the same across said slot, a trolley running upon said rails, 
a curved contact arm carried thereby and running in said conduit, 
and rollers mounted in said trolley frame for depressing said 
pivoted plates seriatim to allow the said contact arm to pass along 
said slot, substantially as described. 

Week Ending Dec. 6, 1898 
Bicycle Carrier. — Thomas C. duPont, Johnstown, Pa. No. 615,- 
264. Two claims. 

NO. 614,875 NO. 615,264 

Claim. — 1. The combination of a wheel holding frame, a brace 
pivotally secured thereto and supporting the same, and a brace 
block having a vertical slot for the passage, the brace and a cam 
slot for the end of said brace, said cam slot extending downward 
from the top of the brace block and curving outwardly at its lower 

Street Car Motor. — Thomas D. Hoskins, New York, N. Y., as- 
signor, by mesne assignments, to Sarah E. Warner. No. 615,- 
274. Twelve claims. 
Driving Gear for Motor Vehicles. — Joseph Millot and Benoit Mil- 
lot, Gray, France. No. 615,360. Six claims. 
Headlight Reflector.— Andrew Metternich, Newark, N. J. No. 
615,490. One claim. 
Claim. — In combination with a car having an interiorly lo- 
cated lamp, of an elongated tubular reflector extending through 
the wall of the car with its opposite ends flaring outwardly from a 
point between its ends; the inner flaring end of the reflector being 
independent of connection with said lamp and supported in a 
position opposite the latter with a space between the same, and its 
opposite outer end extending to a desired position to utilize the 
light from said interior lamp as an exterior headlight. 
Truck Lifter. — William J. Donaldson, La Grange, Tex. No. 615,- 
534. One claim. 

Electric Locomotive. — Martin E. Thomas, Cassaday, Ky., assignor 
of three-fourths to W. F. Toops and H. L. Hendrick. Bowling 
Green, Ky. No. 615,592. Three claims. 
Claim. — 1. In an electric locomotive, a truck, a body mounted 
thereon through the medium of interposed springs, wheels 
mounted upon an axle journaled in the truck, a motor carried by 
the truck in gear with the axle, a dynamo carried by the body in 
electrical connection with the motor, an engine, a gear upon the 
axle, a gear journaled in the floor of the body and normally held 
in mesh with the gear upon the axle by a spring interposed be- 
tween the floor of the body and the gear, a gear meshing with the 
said gear mounted upon a horizontal shaft, pulleys upon the said 
shaft and a belt connecting the pulleys with the armature of the 
dynamo, substantially as described. 

Electric Locomotive and Truck. — Samuel M. Vauclain, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. No. 615,594. Four claims. 
Claim. — 4. The combination in an electric motor or truck, of the 
frame, bearing blocks thereon, a motor, a motor shaft carrying the 
armature of the motor, said shaft being reduced at each end, a 
crank adapted to each end of the said shaft and keyed thereto, (he 
ends of the shaft being threaded, nuts thereon confining the cranks 
to the shaft, the sleeves of said cranks extending through the 
boxes, wheels mounted on the sleeves, substantially as described. 
Brake Handle.— Patrick Flood, Albany, N. Y. No. 615,614. Two 


Week Ending Dec. 13, 1898 
Wheel and Track Brake for Railway Cars.— Richard Shultz, Davis, 

W. Va. No. 615,917. Four claims. 
Electric Arc Headlight.— William G. Wag-enhals, Dayton, Ohio, 
assignor to the United States Headlight Company, Utica, 
N. Y. No. 615,927. Twenty-five claims. 
Claim. — 3. The combination with a vehicle propelled by elec- 
tricity, of a case and an electric arc lamp contained therein, means 



Vol. XV., No. I. 

for detachably securing the case to the vehicle, a carbon-feed-oper- 
ating device attached to the case, but disconnected from the lamp 
fixture, an upper carbon carrying rod adapted to slide in suitable 
guides attached to the lamp fixture, spring retracting feeding 
mechanism adapted to coact with said rod and said carbon feed 
operating device, means whereby the latter can be manipulated, 
and suitable connections with the lamp and the case and the vehicle 
whereby electric current is conveyed from the propelling power of 
the vehicle to and from the lamp. 

Trolley Replacer for Electric Railways. — Lucian A. Cowles, Ran- 
dolph, Mass. No. 615,966. Five claims. 
Claim. — 2. A trolley wheel restoring device composed of a 
forked lever, properly connected with the trolley pole and wheel, 
and having the ends 5, swinging guides, slotted and adapted to be 
moved by the ends of the forked lever, a spring hinge in said 
guides, proper mechanism for connecting and operating said lever 
and guides in connection with a trolley pole, and a spiing normally 
holding said device out of action, substantially as and for the pur- 
poses described. 

Hand Strap for Cars.— Edward P. Hendrickson, New York, N. Y. 
No. 615,986. Two claims. 
Claim. — 1. A hand strap for cars comprising a main portion and 
integral straps extending in opposite directions therefrom, a bar 
and means for uniting the straps together at their ends and to the 
bar so that loops are formed in the straps to receive the rail of the 
car and at the main portion for the hand, the straps being held in 
a diverging condition by the means aforesaid and the hand opening 
being parallel to the supporting bar, substantially as set forth. 

Ball Bearing for Trolley Wheels.— George E. Mittinger, Jr., Cleve- 
land, Ohio, assignor of three-fourths to Frederick J. Schweit- 
zer, same place. No. 616,060. Six claims. 
Claim. — 1. A wheel having at each side a ball cavity situated at 
the center of rotation thereof, supporting bearing blocks having 
registering ball cavities, and a single ball in each pair of cavities, 
the balls projecting from the wheel cavities into the supporting 
block cavities and a connection for the supporting blocks passing 
around the wheel and adapted to permit it to freely revolve, sub- 
stantially as described. 

Trolley Wheel Replacer. — George E. Mittinger, Jr., Cleveland, 
Ohio., assignor of three-fourths to Frederick J. Schweitzer, 
same place. No. 616,061. Seven claims. 
Claim. — 6. A replacing section consisting of sheet metal tapered 

toward its outer ends and provided with a spiral groove formed by 

depressing the sheet metal, substantially as described. 

Ball Bearing for Electric Motors.— John M. Murphy, Torrington, 
Conn., assignor of two-thirds to David F. Halsted, New York, 
N. Y., and William M. Keepers, Newark, N. J. No. 616,063. 
Four claims. 

Week Ending Dec. 20, 1898 

Controller for Motor Cars.— Arthur P. Dodge, New York, N. Y. 
No. 616,089. Six claims. 
Claim. — 1. In a motor operated by steam or like pressure, a 
boiler, a controller, comprising a valve, a central shaft, a hand 
wheel connected therewith, a piston and a cylinder on one side 
thereof connected with brake mechanism by a hydraulic column, 
a piston and cylinder on the opposite side similarly connected with 
a reversing mechanism, the sleeve surrounding the shaft and con- 
nected so as to operate the reversing piston and the hand lever 
with geared connections with the piston of the first named brake 
cylinder, substantially as described. 

Car Fender. — Peter Heesem, Pittsburgh, Pa. No. 616,102. Three 

Claim. — 1. A car fender comprising the frame provided at its 
forward portion with rollers mounted on a shaft 19, said shaft 19 
being provided with a pinion at one end, in combination with a 
shaft provided at each end with a pinion, said shaft and pinions 
being adapted to be brought into engagement with the pinion on 
the shaft 19 and a gear wheel on the front axle of the car, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Nut Lock. — Raymond Hines, Cresson, Pa. No. 616,103. One 

Railway Switch. — Edwin S. Leaycraft, Jersey City, N. J. No. 616,- 
120. Eight claims. 
Claim. — 1. A railway switch, consisting of a switch tongue, an 
armature operated by a magnetic device carried on a vehicle mov- 
ing along the railroad track, an arm carrying said armature and 
oscillating transversely of the railroad track, and a mechanical con- 
nection between said switch tongue and armature whereby move- 
ments of the latter will be transmitted to the former, substantially 
as specified. 

Combined Rail Joint and Device for Preventing Spreading of 
Rails. — Henry M. Williams, Fort Wayne, Ind., assignor of 
one-fourth to Franz Burger, same place. No. 616,171. Five 

Claim. — 2. The combination with the parallel rails of a railway 
track, of a rail joint connecting abutting rails at one side of the 
track, and a tie rod formed at one end with a fork, the branches 
of which extend through openings of the rail joint and receive 
nuts at their ends, said rod extending across the track and being 
provided at its opposite end with a bearing for engaging the rail 
at the other side of the track, substantially as described. 
Car Coupling. — Charles S. Park and George B. Park, Greenfield, 

Mass. Filed Feb. 8, 1898. No. 616,203. Two claims. 
Extension Car Step. — William J. Griffiths, Jr., Mount Vernon, 

N. Y. No. 616,230. 
Rail Bond.— Walter E. Harrington, Camden, N. J. No. 616,232. 

Six claims. 

Claim. — 2. In combination with abutting ends of railway rails, a 
bonding member with smooth contacting surface adapted to con- 
tact therewith, 'a temporarily plastic alloy intermediate said bond- 
ing member and the rails and set screws adapted to act upon said 
bonding member to maintain pressure between it and the rails, 
substantially as described. 

Car Advertising Device. — Arthur H. Hieatzman, Baltimore, Md., 
assignor of one-half to Napoleon B. Lobe and Ernest M. Man- 
ger, same place. No. 616,235. Six claims. 
Car Truck Equipment. — Sidney H. Short, Cleveland, Ohio. No. 
616,264. Five claims. 
Claim.— 3. The combination with a truck and its supporting 
axles, a reservoir carried by said truck, a frame loosely journaled 
at one end on one of said axles, means for yieldingly suspending 
the other end of said frame from the truck, an air compressor 
mounted on said frame, and a pipe delivering from said com- 
pressor to said reservoir, as and for the purpose seti forth. 
Air Brake.— Murray Corrington, New York, N. Y. No. 616,288. 
Three claims. 

Pneumatic Motor for Electric Appliances for Cars. — Clarence A. 
Evans, Upland, Pa. No. 616,301. One claim. 

Valve for Pneumatic Motors. — Frederick W. Hedgeland, Chicago, 
111., assignor to The W. W. Kimball Company, same place. 
No. 616,323. Five claims. 

Sprinkling Vehicle. — Arthur H. Howland, Worcester, Mass., as- 
signor to Frederick C. Austin, Chicago, 111. No. 616,334. Four 

Rail Joint. — William E. Smith, Telluride, Colo., assignor to him- 
self and John Hebbard Adams, same place. No. 616,365. Six 

Claim. — 6. In a rail joint, the combination; of a chair, a pressure 
plate extending alongside the rail, and a toggle working between 
the chair and the pressure plate, the toggle having means for hold- 
ing it in extended position. 

Station Indicator. — Jefferson D. Barry, Marlin, Tex., assignor of 
one-half to A. L. Branson, same place. No. 616,393. Two 

Car Coupling and Operating Device Therefor. — Seth Bedford, 

Charleston, Mo. No. 616,395. Twenty-two claims. 
Combined Bearing and Power Transmitting Device.- — Carl O. C. 

Billberg, Lewisburg, and Paul A. N. Winard, Philadelphia, 

Pa. No. 616,396. Four claims. 
System of Electric Traction. — Michelangelo Cattori, Rome, Italy. 

No. 616,403. Three claims. 
Rail Joint. — Orlando Smay, Johnstown, Pa., assignor by mesne 

assignments, to the Lorain Steel Company, of Ohio. No. 

616,440. Two claims. 
Claim. — 2. In a railway joint, the combination of rails having a 
portion of their entire web removed, two splice bars, one of which 
is formed with a projection and perforation, said projection serving 
in place of the said removed web and sustaining the head of the 
rails at all points necessitated by the removal of the web, a lug on 
the other of said splice bars, said lug extending through said per- 
foration, and a key to engage said lug. 

Nut Lock or Fastener Bar. — Irvin Y. Baringer, Perkasie, Pa., as- 
signor of one-half to Thomas L. Kneile, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Term of patent, 14 years. Design 29,834. One claim. 

Railway Rail. — George J. Capewell, Hartford, Conn. Filed Nov. 
26, 1898. Serial No. 697,565. Term of patent, 14 years. De- 
sign 29,833. 

We will send copies of specifications and drawings complete of 
any of the above patents to any address upon receipt of fifteen 
cents. Give date and number of patent desired. The Street Rail- 
way Publishing Company, Havemeyer Buidding, New York. 



Financial Notes. 

AKRON, OHIO— The property of the Akron Street Railway 
& Illuminating Company has been appraised at $932,000, and will 
be sold to a reorganized company, of which Samuel Thomas 
is at the head. The new company will be capitalized at $2,000,000. 
The present outstanding indebtedness of the company is $1,200,000, 
one-half of which will be done away with. The present bond- 
holders will be given preferred 5 per cent stock to the amount of 
$600,000, in place of the amount of bends now held. In addition 
to this, bonds to the amount of $300,000 will be issued to provide 
for the entire rebuilding of the lines and the purchase of new roll- 
ing stock. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— The Baltimore & Northern Electric 
Railway Company, backed by a syndicate of capitalists headed by 
Alexander Brown & Sons, of Baltimore, have purchased the Balti- 
more City Passenger Railway Company. The terms of the sale 
are $90 per share, cash, involving a total of $12,600,000. The 
directors of the Baltimore City Passenger Railway Company have 
ratified the sale, subject to the decision of the stockholders. It is 
understood that the lines will be rearranged, and that the motive 
pewer of the Red & White lines will be changed from cable to 

BALTIMORE, MD.— The capital stock of the Baltimore Con- 
solidated Railway Company is to be increased from $9,172,000 to 
$9,672,000, to meet the expense incurred by the construction of the 
extension to Ellicott City. Present stockholders will be allowed 
to subscribe for the new issue at par in amounts proportionate to 
their holdings. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— The Consolidated Railway Company has 
decided to issue $500,000 additional stock, which will be offered to 
the present stockholders in proportion to their holdings at par. 
The company has outstanding $9,172,000, and its authorized cap- 
ital is $10,000,000. 

BOSTON, MASS.— The West End Street Railway Company 
has declared a semi-annual dividend of 4 per cent., payable Jan. 2 
by the Boston Elevated Railway Company. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y.— The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 
reports earnings as follows: 

November. 1897. 1898. 

Gross receipts $417,818 $446,501 

Five months ending Nov. 30. 
Gross receipts 2,271,539 2,614,732 

BUFFALO, N. Y.— The Buffalo Railway Company has declared 
a quarterly dividend of 1 per cent, payable Dec. 15. 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN.— The Chattanooga Electric Rail- 
way Company has filed a consolidated mortgage to secure $625,000 
of 5 per cent bonds, with the Maryland Trust Company, of Balti- 
more, as trustee. The new mortgage takes the place of the $625,- 
000 old bonds now existing, the object being to reduce the interest 
from 6 to 5 per cent. 

CHICAGO, ILL.— Stockholders of the Chicago & St. Louis 
Electric Railway Company, which was organized several years 
ago to build an electric railway from Chicago to St. Louis, are, it 
is said, considering an investigation of the affairs of the company. 

CHICAGO, ILL. — The Chicago City Railway Company pro- 
poses to increase its stock at the annual meeting to be held in 
January, from $12,000,000 to $14,000,000, the stockholders to be 
given the right to subscribe. The company has declared a divi- 
dend of 3 per cent, payable Dec. 31. 

CHICAGO, ILL.— The West Chicago Street Railroad Com- 
pany recently declared a quarterly dividend of iy 2 per cent. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO.— It is reported that an English syndi- 
cate is negotiating for the purchase of the property of the Cleve- 
land City Railway Company, the Cleveland Electric Railway 
Company and suburban roads. 

DENVER, COL— The Denver City Railroad has been sold 
at auction, by order of the United States Court, under foreclosure 
of a mortgage for $4,000,000. Frederick P. Olcott, of New York, 
chairman of the reorganization committee, secured the propertv 
for $500,000, the minimum bid allowed. The West End Street 
Railway was also sold under foreclosure, being purchased by the 
same party for $40,000. 

not increase your 
dividends by using 

Tie Plate ? 


Doubles the life of Tie. 


Q & C Co. 

700=709 Western Union Building, 


Branch Offices ; 

100 Broadway, NEW YORK. 

109 Endicott Arcade, ST. PAUL. 
17 Place d'Armes Hill, MONTREAL. 

537 Mission St., SAN FRANCISCO. 



GREEN BAY, WIS. — Upon the application of M. Joannes and 
Thos. W. Spence, receivers of the Fox River Electric Railway 
Company, Judge Hastings has signed an order for the sale of the 
property on Jan. 14. The sale will be held at the office of the 
Sheriff of Brown County, at 9 A. M. 

LANCASTER, PA.— The report of William B. Given, receiver 
of the Pennsylvania Traction Company, for the past year shows 
an increase in passengers carried of 274,779 over the previous 
year, and an increase of $15,005.31 over last year in receipts. A 
decree has been entered, by the United States District Court, for 
a final adjustment of all accounts. A committee of reorganization 
has been appointed and a charter applied for. 

MERIDEN, CONN.— The Meriden, Southington & Corn- 
pounce Tramway Company has prepared a petition to the Gen- 
eral Assembly for permission to increase its capital stock to $500,- 
000, with rights to build and extend its tracks from Milldale to 
Mt. Carmel, Waterbury, Meriden and Berlin, by an independent 
route, to Plainville from Southington, from Dunham's to Corn- 
pounce Lake, and to build a cable road to West Peak. 

NEW YORK, N. Y.— The car barn of the Union Railway 
Company, situated at Woodruff avenue and Boston Road, was 
totally destroyed by fire recently, together with a number of cars 
and supplies. The loss is estimated at $150,000. 

OSWEGO, N. Y.— Justice Wright, of the Supreme Court, 
has granted the motion of the Knickerbocker Trust Company, of 
New York, to foreclose bonds against the Lake Ontario & River- 
side Railway Company for $125,000. The property has been or- 
dered to be sold within two months. 

PORT CHESTER, N. Y.— The Highway Commissioners ot 
Harrison have granted the Port Chester Electric Railway Com- 
pany a franchise through that part of the town lying between Rye 
and Mamaroneck. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I.— The Providence and Taunton Street 
Railway Company has declared a dividend of 2j4 per cent, payable 
Jan. 2. 

QUEBEC, QUE., CAN.— Notice is given that the Quebec, 
Montmorency & Charlevoix Railway Company will make applica- 
tion, at the next session of the Parliament of Canada, for an act 
amending the act incorporating the said railway company, viz.: 
To change the name of the company to the Quebec Railway, Light 
& Power Company; to ratify and confirm the purchase of the 
property and franchise of the Quebec District Railway Company; 
to authorize the company to build a line, or lines, of railway or 
tramways in Levis, Bellechasse, Dorchester, Beauce and Lot- 
biniere Counties; to ratify and confirm the purchase of the prop- 
erty, works and capital stock of the Montmorency Electric Power 
Company; to authorize and empower the company to carry on the 
business of the Montmorency Electric Power Company; to acquire 
water powers, and to maintain the construction necessary to im- 
prove or utilize the same; to expropriate for the purpose of placing 
poles and carrying wires; to authorize the purchase of gas and 
lighting companies. 

ST. LOUIS, MO. — Negotiations, which have been in progress 
for more than three months, have resulted in the sale to a New- 
York syndicate, represented by Brown Brothers, of the Lindell 
Railway and the Missouri Railroad systems for $8,500,000. The 
papers completing the sale have been signed and the actual trans- 
fer will be made in a few days. The purchase price paid is on the 
basis of $174 a share for Lindell stock and $192 for Missouri. 
Nearly every part of the west and southwest portions of St. Louis 
are reached by the two systems. 

ST. CLOUD, MINN.— The car barn of the Benton Power & 
Traction Company was destroyed by fire recently. Four passen- 
ger cars, a snow plow and the building were completed destroyed, 
entailing a loss of $15,000; partly insured. 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO.— The stockholders of the Dayton, 
Springfield & Urbana Electric Railway Company have authorized 
an increase of the capital stock of the company from $10,000 to 

WASHINGTON, IND.— Ziba F. Graham, formerly general 
manager of the Washington Street Railway Company, has pur- 
chased, at sheriff's sale, the property of said company for $12,500. 

ZANESVILLE, OHIO.— A number of Philadelphia capitalists 
have inspected the lines of the Zanesville Street Railroad, relative 
to purchasing the same at the receiver's sale, to be held January 3. 

Harvey Fisk & Sons, 

Bankers and Dealers in 

Government, Railroad and Municipal 



NEW YORK, 29 Nassau Street, 
BOSTON, 13 Congress Street, 
421 Chestnut Street. 

Our list of Selected Securities sent on application. 


Bankers and Brokers, 

Members of the- 

New York Stock Exchange. 


Street Railway Bonds ♦♦ 

.. and Inactive Securities a Specialty. 

Market Letter furnished on application. 




41 Wall Street, 

New York, 

Street Railway and Gas Properties Bought, Sold and Re- 


t Nanmiu St., New York. 42 1 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 


Eastern Street Railway Bonds Adv * n u c I s ht nade 

George A. Huhn & Sons, 

143 South Fourth Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

N. W. HARRIS & CO., 


Marquette Building, 31 Nassau Street, 70 State Street, 

Chicago. New York. Boston. 

We Purchase Total Issues of 


On Properties in the Larger Cities. 

Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XV. 


No. 2. 


Buenos Aires, the largest and most important city in 
South America and the capital of the Argentine Republic, 
is situated on the River Plate, which is here about 30 
miles wide. The majority of the inhabitants of the city are 
descendants of the Spaniards who have settled in the coun- 
try during the last 300 years, but there is also a very large 
number of foreigners, among whom the Italians are prob- 
ably the most numerous. The houses are generally of 
brick, and are usually one story in height. With the 

narrow, so that only one track is allowed orr>-^treet, and 
the cars of a line run down one street and up another, 
making most of the mileage single track. The average 
width of the streets in this section of the city, from curb 
to curb, is 25 ft., and the tracks are laid on the left-hand 
side of the roadway, leaving room for only one line of 
vehicles, which are obliged to run in the same direction 
as the cars, so that all traffic on every street in this portion 
of the city is in one direction only. The sidewalks in 

_ k ■ — § ■ 
ti — * nfi — { •• 


rapid immigration which has been setting in the direction 
of the Argentine and its capital during the past few years, 
the city has grown and is growing rapidly. The present 
population is not far from 850,000, and, at the present rate 
of increase, will probably reach 1,000,000 in three or four 

The great extent of the city makes street railway riding 
a necessity, and as a result the street railway systems 
have had an extensive development. Every street in the 
older part of the city, for a territory covering about two 
square miles, is traversed by a street railway line, with the 
exception of one short avenue, the shopping street of the 
city, from which tracks have been rigorously excluded. 
The streets in this part of the city are, for the most part, 

these narrow streets are usually but 4 ft. in width. In the 
newer part of the city, where the streets are 50 ft. wide or 
above, double-track construction is allowed. 

A list of the street railway companies in Buenos Aires, 
with mileage and a general description of the street rail- 
way conditions in that city, was published in the Street 
Railway Journal for July, 1.898. The railway com- 
panies have generally a London office, and they are owned 
in large part by English capital. Horses are used for the 
most part, and only two systems have yet adopted elec- 
tricity. Horses and fodder are cheap, an excellent horse 
bringing only about $25, while coal is expensive. It is 
nearly all shipped from Wales, and costs from $6.50 gold 
per ton up. Nevertheless, the railroads which have 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

adopted electricity speak favorably of the economical re- 
sults secured, and electric equipment is being rapidly for- 

The companies which have already installed electric 
power on their lines are the La Capital Tramways Com- 
pany, the greater part of which, comprising about 8} 
miles of double track, is now in operation by electric 
power, and the Buenos Aires & Belgrano Railways, or 
B right's concession, of which a short section now employs 
electric traction, but which is being rapidly equipped 
throughout with the improved power. 

The system of the La Capital Tramways Company, with 

Aires were built by a French company in 1889, a t a cos - 
of several million dollars. They have been purchased 
since by the Government, which rents stalls to the meat 
purveyors. All the meat consumed in the city comes 
from these houses, and as there are no refrigerating meth- 
ods for preserving meat in general use, cattle are killed 
and the meat distributed to be eaten the same day. The 
La Capital Company has a contract for transporting all 
this meat to the city, and about 600 tons are carried on its 
cars and delivered to about thirty large markets located 
in different parts of the city. The butchers commence 
work about 2 o'clock in the morning and all the meat is 

Street Hallway Jul* 

i-nal.N. T. 





Street Railway Journal, N. ¥. 







- -26 10 



Street liaihaay Journal, 


which this article directly deals, reaches from the center 
01 the city almost due west to New Chicago, where the 
government slaughter houses are located, and handles 
not only a large passenger business but also a large busi- 
ness in the transportation of fresh meat from that point 
to the city. Some reference has already been made to this 
traffic in former issues, and as it constitutes a very import- 
ant branch of the transportation business of the city, and 
one which might be followed to advantage in other south- 
ern cities where the refrigeration of meat is not followed 
to any considerable extent, some particulars of it may be 
of interest. The present slaughter houses of Buenos 

delivered to the retail markets before 9 o'clock the same 
day. The special cars for handling this meat were illus- 
trated in the Street Railway Journal for November, 
1898, and January, 1899. 

The power station of the La Capital Company is located 
in the old part of the city, near the end of the line and 
close to the docks. It consists of a framing of steel, sup- 
plied by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, and filled in 
with brick between the steel columns. The engine room 
contains three Ball & Wood vertical compound engines 
of 450 h.p. directly connected to three Walker generators. 
The piping is in duplicate, and was furnished by Best, Fox 

February, 1899.] 



& Company. The arrangement of the piping is shown in 
the plan view of the station, and under normal conditions 
of working both sets of duplicate pipes are in continuous 
use. In case of an accident to one set the other is run 
at slightly higher pressure until the trouble is remedied. 
Bent pipe is used instead of elbows. The boilers are of 
the Stirling type, four in number, and of 350 h.p. each. 
Green economizers and Worthington compound feed 
pumps are used, and an induced draft apparatus, supplied 
by the B. F. Sturtevant Company, is employed. The fans 

can be run by electric motor or separate steam engine, as 
desired, but the motor is usually employed. The fans are 
in duplicate, but arranged with a clutch so that one or both 
can be driven by either engine or motor. The induced 
draft apparatus and economizer are both placed over the 
boilers, as will be seen on the diagram, and by-passes are 
arranged to cut the economizer out of service if desired. 
The condensers are of the Conover type, and Barnard 

cooling towers, supplied by the Wheeler Condenser & En- 
gineering Company, are in use. The management speak 
in favorable terms of the use of induced draft, which, under 
the circumstances existing in Buenos Aires, is particu- 
larly valuable. In that city heavy showers come up sud- 
denly, and when these occur the people crowd into the 
cars, throwing a sudden load on the power station. The 


use of induced draft enables the station engineer to force 
the boilers up quickly at these times, and thus take care of 
this sudden load. The ability to force the boilers at will 
is also valuable in taking care of the evening pleasure 
load, which, in summer, is often very heavy. 

The company has recently installed, close to the station, 
a chloride accumulator battery of 1000-h.p. hours capacity 
for station regulation, and also one of about the same size 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

at about half a mile from the further end of the line for 
maintaining the necessary pressure at that point. Both 
batteries are fitted with motor-driven boosters; that for the 
distant battery is a shunt-wound machine of the or- 
dinary type, with current always flowing in the same 
direction and at about 150 volts. The booster for the sta- 
tion battery is of the differential type. Both boosters were 
supplied by the Bullock Electric Manufacturing Company. 
The track construction, when the electric 

was found impossible to ship the 60-ft. lengths. They are 
mounted on 4-in. x 6-in. ties of Colorado quebracho, which 
is a native wood, dark red in color, and so hard that spikes 
cannot be driven into it; holes, therefore, have to be bored 


Street Railway Journal,**'. 


Street liailtvay Jutirnal.N.Y '. 


Street Railway Jbumal f N,^Z 



Street Railway Journal t N.T. 


was first commenced, was that used formerly with horse 
traffic. The rails were quite soft and of the section shown 
herewith. An attempt was made to utilize these on 
part of the line, but it was finally decided advisable to 
replace them with a modern 9-in. 90-lb. girder rail in the 
city and a 7-in. 70-lb. rail in the suburbs. The section 
now employed is that shown above, the grooved rail 
being compulsory. The 9-in. rails were supplied by the 
Lorain Steel Company, and the 7-in. rails by the Penn- 
svlvania Steel Company. They are in 30-ft. lengths, as it 

for their reception. Ties of this wood practically last 
forever. They cost about 75 cents apiece, are spaced 2 
ft., center to center, and are mounted on 6 ins. of concrete. 
The joints on the 9-in. rail are all of the twelve-bolt type 
and most of the track is double bonded with the Brown 
plastic bond. The special work was supplied by the 
Lorain Steel Company and the Pennsylvania Steel Com- 

In the original construction tie-rods were used, but it 
was found that the heavy carts which are in use in this 

February, 1899.] 



country broke off the ends of these rods, so that now braced 
tie-plates are being installed in their place. These native 
carts weigh from ten to fifteen tons each, and are fitted 
with wheels about 10 ft. in diameter. They are drawn by 

All feeders from the power station to Entre Rios, a 
distance of i£ miles, are carried underground in creosoted 
wooden ducts; the rest of the feeders are carried overhead. 

son, and the feeders and the trolley wire by the Ansonia 
Brass Company. A number of poles in the center of the 
city carry arc lights. All the streets are paved either 
with stone^ blocks or native wood, and all paving is done by 
the company. 

The cars are all of the double-deck type, with 18-ft. 
bodies. They were built by the J. G. Brill Company, and 
are mounted on Brill 21 E trucks. They are equipped 



Dimensions in Metres 


Slreet Railway Journal, 2f F. 

Below Entre Rios iron poles with ornamental brackets 
are employed; beyond that point wooden poles are in use. 
The iron poles, which were supplied by Morris & Tasker, 
are all fitted with what are called refuges; these consist 
of a raised area at the base of the pole, about 39 ins. square 
and 6 ins. high, formed by curb stones and paved in the 
middle. The line appliances were supplied by H. W. 
Johns Manufacturing Company and A. & J. M. Ander- 

with short platforms, and are all of short length on account 
of the narrow streets in the old part of the city, which 
would prevent the use of a longer car. The double 
decks are employed on account of the variable climate, 
which makes some passengers prefer an open car and 
others a closed car. The management reports that no 
accidents have followed the use of double-deck cars, and 
they seem well suited for the conditions existing in Buenos 



Vol. XV , No. 2. 

Aires. The usual European regulations in regard to lim- 
iting the number of passengers on the cars are in force, 
and only four people are allowed to stand on the front 
platform and six on the rear platform. The climate is 
about similar to that in Richmond, Va., and no car heaters 
are required. At present one motorman and two con- 
ductors are employed on each car, one conductor for the 

makes nineteen trips a day, or 380 miles in toto. The 
cars are double truck, and are made by the Barney & 
Smith Company. 

The fare from Milwaukee to Waukesha is 35 cents sin- 
gle trip, and 50 cents round trip, which is considerably 
lower than the competing railroad fare, and the electric 
railway has taken nearly all the business away from the 
steam railroad. The line to Waukesha has been recently 
rebuilt, and is in magnificent condition. A large portion 
of it is over private right of way. A short time ago, on the 
invitation of General Manager Beggs, Henry Villard and 
other largely interested stockholders of the North Ameri- 


lower deck and one for the upper deck. Practically all 
of the motormen and conductors are Italians, as the natives 
cf the country do not seem to take to the work. The 
wages paid are about $2.25 in paper, which is equivalent 
to about 80 cents in gold. 

The officers of the company are: President, Theo. N. 
Vail; secretary and treasurer, H. Roberts Parrish; con- 


Street Railway Journal,^ .Y. 


suiting engineer, E. T. Birdsall, M. E.; resident general 
manager, Charles R. Thursby, C. E.; resident chief en- 
gineer, J. W. McCrosky. 

Electric Railroading in Milwaukee 

Perhaps the heaviest daily car service on any American 
street railway is that given by the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light company, of Milwaukee, from Milwaukee 
to Waukesha. The distance between these two points is 
20 miles, and the winter service is given by two cars, which 
make the distance in about fifty-five minutes, an allowance 
gf five minutes' wait being made at each end- Each car 

can Company, and Edward E. Higgins, editor of the 
Street Railway Journal, made a trip over this line to 


Waukesha in fifty minutes, the speed at places being as 
high as 45 miles per hour. 

The Milwaukee Company's lines now extend south from 
Milwaukee also as far as Racine and Kenosha, a distance 
of about 26 miles from the center of Milwaukee, and it 
will probably be but a short time before the intervening 
gap between the end of this line at Kenosha and the Chi- 
cago & Evanston Railway, now building northward from 
the Chicago city limits, will be filled up by a connecting 
railway, completing a through electric railway between 
Chicago and Milwaukee, 

February, 1899.] 

Electric Railways in Madrid and Barcelona 


In spite of the fact that war was being waged last sum- 
mer by Spain, the streets of Barcelona and Madrid, the two 
most important cities of the Iberian peninsula, presented 
scenes of great activity on account of the introduction of 
electric tramways in both cities by British capital. It is 
but just to say here that although the sympathies of Great 
Britain in the late war were supposed to be with the United 
States, the engineers who were engaged in the work of 
tramway installation in Spain were not molested in any 


The city of Madrid, the capital of Spam, is very 
similar in appearance to many other European capitals ot 
the same population, with broad streets and fine buildings, 
many parks, amusements and manufactures. Barcelona, 
the largest city in population in Spain, is, on the other 
hand, a typical seaport town. Most of the houses are of 
brick, and many of them particularly in the new part of the 
city, are of hewn stone and of imposing appearance. It is 
the seat of various manufactures, a number of which are 
silks, woolens, cottons, calicoes, etc. 

The Tranvia de Madrid is owned by an English com- 
pany, the Tramways Union Company, Winchester House, 
Old Broad Street, London, which is also the owner and 


MB: j , ; ; 


way, although most of them were Englishmen and among 
them were a number of Americans. 

Perhaps no nation in Europe is less understood by the 
English speaking people as a whole than the Spanish. 
While nearly all the other countries on the Continent are 
overrun each summer by tourists from England and 
America, comparatively few venture into Spain. As a 
result many people have formed their ideas of rhe Spanish 
from Cervantes' famous novel, and have the impression 
that they are a brave, chivalrous, but impractical nation, 
romantic and dreamy, with little desire for modern im- 
provement and with no habits of industry. While Spain 
as a nation has suffered from many causes which it is not 
the purpose of this article to discuss and which have re- 
pressed enterprise, both individual and corporate, the 
Spanish nature is far from being an idle one, and the aver- 
age workman bears a striking resemblance to the French 
peasant in his qualities of frugality, temperance and capa- 
bility for work. 

operator of several other continental tramways. The com- 
pany's lines in Madrid cover the principal streets of the 
city, and are approximately 17 miles in length. The Bar- 
celona Tramways Company, Limited, is also an English 
corporation, with offices at the same address in London, 
and the routes of the two systems are shown in the ac- 
companying maps. When the electric equipment of both 
lines was decided upon, Alfred Dickinson & Co., the well 
known English electrical engineers, were appointed en- 
gineers to supervise the installation and tenders were re- 
quested from thirty firms for the electrical equipment of 
both lines. In October, 1897, the contract was finally 
awarded to Dick, Kerr & Co., Limited, of London, for the 
complete equipment required for the conversion of both 
systems. The equipment is similar in many respects, as 
will be seen from the following description: 


The power station at Madrid is equipped with two water 
tube boilers, each having 3654 sq. ft. heating surface, and 

7 6 


Vol. XV., No. 2. 

working at a pressure of 8 atmospheres. The engines are 
of the Corliss type, cross-compound, having cylinders 20 
ins. and 40 ins.x42 ins. stroke. They are coupled direct to 
compound wound multipolar generators of 425 kw. capa- 

Hypod rnmo 

M Section Box 

Street Railway Joui-nal,N.Y. 


Scale of Feel 

10 20 

these being put in operation. Indeed, when the full power 
tests were being made, 800 h.p. was dealt with for twelve 
consecutive hours, and, strange to say, the water in the 
reservoir was found to be 3 deg. cooler at the end of the 

Street Railway Jvumal,N.Y, 



Street Railway Jeurnal,.V.F.. 

Street Railway Journal, N, Y. 


city. ^ Each power unit is provided with an independent 
Admiralty type surface condenser, operating in con- 
junction with a cooling tower. This tower has a capacity 
of dealing with 50,000 lbs. of steam per hour. It is pro- 
vided with fans for creating an artificial draft, but so far 
the load has never been sufficiently heavy to necessitate 

Street Railway Journal, N.F, 


run than at the start. Piping is arranged on the loop sys- 
tem, and consists of mild steel with flanges shrunk on and 
brazed; all elbows, T-pieces and special fittings are also of 
mild forged steel and the valves are of specially heavy de- 

From the generators the current is conducted to the 

February, 1899.] 




7 R 


Vol. XV., No. 2. 

switchboard by lead covered cables. The switchboard is 
arranged on the usual panel system, there being three gen- 
erator panels, a main output panel and seven feeder panels. 
In addition to these there is a Board of Trade panel, as the 
system has been laid with the view to complying with the 
Board of Trade regulations as to drop and rail return. 
There is also a special lighting panel which is arranged so 
that current can be taken either from the supplementary 
unit or from the main bus bars and distributed to the 
several lighting circuits. 

The power station of the Barcelona tramways is located 
near the shore close to the southern end of the system, as 
will be seen from the map, this selection being dictated by 
the high price of coal in Barcelona and the necessity of 
operating, condensing and of reducing the transportation 
charges on fuel. Owing to the treacherous nature of 
the soil at this point, the foundations were made extremely 
broad, that for the chimney, which was to be 200 ft. high, 
being especially elaborate. After considerable investiga- 
tion, it was finally decided to make the base of the founda- 


tion 54 ft. sq. Concrete was first laid to a depth 
of 4 ft. 1 in. Upon this was placed a layer of 6-in. 


railroad rails, laid close together, and above these 
rails was a layer of concrete 2 ft. 5 in. deep; 

another layer of rails was then laid in a re- 
verse direction and another layer of concrete 
2 ft. 1 in. was placed upon these rails; above 
this was placed a third layer of rails, then 2 
ft. of concrete, and finally, 11 ft. 6 ins. of 
brick work. By this arrangement of raft 
foundation, the total weight of the chimney 
on the foundations was reduced to less than 
2 tons per superficial foot. 

The boilers are of the water-tube type, 
and have the same heating surface as those 
in Madrid, and are equipped withfeedpumps, 
hot well and economizers. The engines are 
of the Corliss type with similar cylinder 
dimensions to those in Madrid, and are each 
directly coupled to a 425-kw. generator. 
The piping in this station is on the same 
general plan as that in Madrid, as shown in 
the plan of both stations, and in each station 
there is a small supplementary steam dyna- 
mo equipment for use in operating all-night 
cars and car-house lighting. There are two 
of these at Barcelona and one at Madrid, 
each consisting of a horizontal tandem com- 
pound engine coupled to a 75-kw. multi- 
polar compound wound dynamo. If neces- 
sary, these units are also to be used as boosters for the 
long-distance transmission. 






Vol. XV., No. 2. 


The overhead construction in both cities is generally of 
the center pole type, though span wire construction is also 
employed to a considerable extent. The 
poles are steel tube, with a length of 26 ft. 6 
ins., and taper from 7 ins., at a point 6 ft. 
above the ground, to 3^ ins. at the top, the 
butt end of the pole being parallel. The 
poles are bedded in concrete to a depth of (: 
tt., and some of them, especially those in the 
principal street, are most ornate. The whole 
of the cast iron work for this was done in 
Spain, and the manner in which it was_ exe- 
cuted shows that the Spanish art of manipu- 
lating iron has not been lost. The brackets 
of the center pole construction, as will be 
noticed, are extremely short, and in most 
instances are not more than 15 ins. in length, 
and give a remarkably pleasing and un- 
obtrusive appearance to the over-head 
work. This result is made possible by 
the use of the lateral or Dickinson type of 
trolley, which is employed throughout. A 
section of the base of this trolley, with the 
arrangement of springs, is shown in one of 
the engravings on page 81. 

All feeders are laid underground, and the 
distribution from the generating station is 
arranged as shown in the accompanying 
plan. The bitumen solid system has been used' through- 
out, the cables being laid in cast iron troughs, sup- 
ported on suitable bridges, and the whole then filled in 
solid with bitumen. Distribution is made in Madrid from 
under-ground boxes at feeding and section points. This 
was necessary because the authorities would not allow the 
ordinary type of feeder pillar to be erected. The engrav- 
ings show the general arrangement of these boxes, the 
number of connections varying according to the location. 

to the line, are supplied with the usual switches and fuses, 
and, in addition, a pilot wire for testing purposes. This 
latter wire is also to be used for communicating with the 


generator station by means of a portable telephone. Where 
return feeders are employed, and their use is quite general, 
especially in Barcelona, they are laid in cast iron troughs 
and bitumen, similar to the outgoing feeders. 


With the electrical equipment of the line the track has 
been entirely rebuilt and the gage adopted is 4 ft. &| ins. 
The rail is of the grooved type, weighing 82 lbs. per yard, 
and rests on a stringer 6 ins. deep, and 1 ft. 6 ins. wide, 
made of concrete in the proportion of one part of cement 
to five parts of broken stone, gravel and sand. The rails 
are double bonded at each joint. 


In Barcelona railway pillar boxes as shown in the cut are 

The overhead system is divided into half-mile sections 
by means of the section insulators, on the same conditions 
as laid down by the British Board of Trade. The feeder 
boxes, through which the current is taken from the cables 



The cars in use were built to specifications at Saragossa, 
and are very similar in general appearance to those used 
in America; in fact they were modeled on American lines, 
except that extra large platforms are in use. The cars 
measure over all 25 ft. 2 ins., with body length, inside, of 

February, 1899.] 



15 ft. 9 ins. and width of car 6 ft. 11 ins. They carry forty- 
four passengers, twenty-two seated and twenty-two stand- 
ing. Eighty-five cars are in use at Barcelona and fifty-five 
at Madrid. 

The cars are mounted on trucks of the Brill 21 E type, 

- 1 

, — ^ paw?* 


12 i 


n. 1. fb. ' 




Street Railway Jou,-nal, N. Y. 


with 30-in. steel wheels with cast centers and rolled steel 
tires, and are equipped with two motors with series parallel 
controllers. The trolley is of the Dickinson type, as de- 
scribed elsewhere. 

Both plants possess peculiar interest from a tramway 
standpoint, as they are practically the first examples of the 
electrical equipment of large continental tramway systems 
upon strictly American lines, viz., the use of slow-speed, 

" ^ s ' N ^ x - ' 1 «~-|RON THROUGH 

I 6.5%THICK 


Street Railway Journal,!! I 


direct-connected engines with water tube boilers, econo- 
mizers, single-deck cars, etc. The only important feature 
in which a departure has been made from standard Amer- 
ican practice has been in the use of the Dickinson trolley. 

Taking into consideration the extent of these two instal- 
lations and the circumstances under which they have been 
made, their successful completion within practically one 
year from the date of signing of the contract must be re- 
garded as exceedingly creditable both to the consulting 
engineers, Messrs. Alfred Dickinson & Co., who were re- 
sponsible for the plans and who supervised the entire in- 
stallation, and to the contractors, Messrs. Dick, Kerr & 

Co., Limited, by whose staff the work was carried out with- 
out a hitch from beginning to end. 


Method of Splicing: Cars in Philadelphia 

The Union Traction Company of Philadelphia is splicing 
at its car repair shops quite a number of its old 18-ft. cars, 
making a new body 25 ft. in length, which is mounted on 
eight-wheel trucks. In the operation of splicing, the cars 
are cut in two and the sills are united by a corresponding 
section inserted with a ship splice, when the whole is re- 
inforced by a steel angle plate 6 ins. x 4 ins. and H in. in 
thickness. This is placed on the outside of the sill with the 
4-in. limb on the under side. The car is also reinforced by 
truss rods. The sides and roof are then completed to cor- 
respond with the original structure of the car. 


An Important Appointment 

The Boston Elevated Railway Company has engaged 
John Lundie, the well-known expert in railroad transpor- 
tation, as its consulting engineer, for the construction of 
the new elevated railway in Boston, and Mr. Lundie will 
shortly begin his preliminary work in laying out and de- 

Sir*et Railway J<nirnal,.\\F. 


termining the factors in the elevated railway composition as 
presented by Boston's peculiar conditions. Mr. Lundie's 
valuable work in analyzing the traffic conditions of the Il- 
linois Central's Chicago suburban lines has given him a 
high place among railroad experts, and his exceptionally 
careful study of the Brooklyn elevated railway problems 
during the past few months has brought him even wider 
experience. Mr. Lundie's unique methods of attacking 
railroad transportation questions are the admiration of 
those who have been privileged to follow them, and his 
grasp of all the elements entering into any particular case 
is remarkable. 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

The Cincinnati & Hamilton Electric Street Railway- 
In Southeastern Ohio there is now completed a system 
of connecting interurban electric roads reaching from Cin- 
cinnati to Eaton via Hamilton and Dayton, a distance of 
nearly 100 miles. The lines extending from Eaton to 
Dayton, and from Dayton to Hamilton, were completed a 
year ago, while the Cincinnati & Hamilton has just been 
placed in operation. The road is 15 miles long from Ham- 
ilton to the point where it connects with the lines of the 
Cincinnati Street Railway Company. 

The company owns its right of way, which lies along- 
side a highway owned by a corporation, from whom the 
railway company purchased the right of way strip. The 
road throughout its entire length has been chosen so as to 
he upon the highest ground, and in this way the high water 
so frequent in the Miami bottoms will be avoided. The 
route is very rough, there being but few level stretches in 
it; the maximum grade is 5 per cent and 1,000 ft. long. 
There are many sharp curves, but they have been laid out 
with such extreme care that they can be rounded at a high 
rate of speed. 

The brick power house is located at Symns Corner, 
some 5 miles from the Hamilton end. It is 143 x 49 ft., 
covered with a slate roof supported on steel trusses and 
has cement floors. There are installed two Hamilton- 
Corliss engines of 600 h.p. each and running at 90 r.p.h. 
The cylinders are 24 x 28 ins., the fly-wheels 20 ft. in di- 
ameter and weigh 27 tons each. The engines are belted to 
400 kw. Westinghouse generators. 

Four Stirling water tube boilers of 250 h.p. each form 
the boiler equipment. These boilers are the Stirling Com- 
pany's standard street railway type, provided with large 
drums affording liberal steam reserve space and disengag- 
ing surface, sudden demands for steam are thereby pro- 
vided for without the usual attendant danger of entrain- 


inent or sudden dashes of water into the cylinders of the 

Berryman heaters, Austin separators, Hoppes purifiers 
and Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon pumps make up the re- 
mainder of the power house equipment. 

The furnaces are fitted with two sheet iron stacks 100 

ft. high by 5 ft. diameter; these are set on the boiler walls 
and held in position by two sets of guys. The storage 
cistern holds 3,000 bbls. and is supplied from two wells 70 
ft. deep reaching into the river gravel. 

Near the power house is the car barn 152 x 96 ft., with a 
wing 69 x 41 ft. Tt is also of brick with a gravel roof. 


There is room for twelve cars and the repair department 
is also under this roof. 

Five fire plugs connected with a fire pump in the power 
house are located in and around the buildings. 

Two No. 0000 trolley wires are used. These are hung 
from brackets on 7 in., 35 ft. cedar poles, except in the 
towns of Mt. Healthy and College Hill, where iron poles 
were demanded by the residents. Three cables of 300,000 


cm. feed the southern part of the road, and two of the 
same size are required for the northern end. All over- 
head material was furnished by the Ohio Brass Company. 
The track is double bonded with No. 0000 Washburn and 
Moen bonds. 

The rails are 70 lb. T section laid on oak ties 6 ins. x 

February, 1899. ) 


8 ins. x 8 ft. At the joints are 6-bolt angle bars. All 
special work was made by the Lorain Steel Company. A 
good heavy layer of ballast, consisting of either gravel or 
broken stone, is used everywhere. The company bought 
gravel beds near the line and used two steam engines for 
hauling its gravel trains. 

Eight Kuhlman cars constitute the rolling stock; these 
are 43 ft. long over all and weigh 25 tons. They are 


painted maroon and yellow and are substantial, comfort- 
able and elegant, and are mounted on double trucks of the 
Peckham Truck Company. They have smoking com- 
partments, are heated with the Consolidated Car Heating 
Company's electric heaters, and fitted with New Haven 
registers. The motors, controllers, gears, and pinions and 
the electric brake are all of General Electric design. 

The despatching is by the well-known Carl Telephone 
system; a portable instrument is carried on each car and 
plug-in stations are located along the line at intervals of 
1000 ft. The road was projected and built by Christy 
Bros., Akron, O. The officers are Will Christy, president; 
F. J.J- Sloat, general manager. F. H. Conner was in 
charge of the erection of the plant. 

— ♦♦♦ 

Roadway Department of the Union Traction Company, 

The extent of the system of the Union Traction Com- 
pany, of Philadelphia, the company owning a greater 
number of miles of track than any other in this country, 
has permitted the company to introduce certain methods 
and appliances into its various departments, which, in 
many cases, could be adopted to advantage by smaller 
companies. It is the purpose of this article to describe 
the practice of one department only, that covering the 
important subject of roadway. The work of this depart- 
ment embraces not only the care of the track and roadbed, 
but also the care of the conduits for underground cables, 
the paving of the entire streets on which the tracks are 
laid, the care of all the bridges on the system, of which 
ihey are seventy, all building repairs, including those on 
the car houses, power houses and the stables for the draft 
horses, and the feed and care of the horses. The work is 
carried on under the supervision of H. B. Nichols, with the 
designated title of engineer of way. 

The forces employed are divided into regular and emer- 
gency gangs. All orders and assignments for work are 

issued from the engineer's office to the foremen of the 
divisions, of which there are three. The regular gangs 
have a monthly assignment as to the streets to be covered, 
and detailed orders to them are issued daily. It is the 
practice to go over the entire trackage once a year for 
surfacing, examining and tightening joints, as well as for 
reversing or renewing angle plates, except where the cast- 
welded joints are employed. 

All paving is also inspected once a year by the regular 
gangs, while the special forces repair any dangerous holes 
and attend to complaints, replacing any stones that have 
been forced from their bed, and repairing the asphalt sur- 
face where necessary. The different classes of paving are 
all numbered, and consist of about an equal amount of 
granite blocks and asphalt, with some brick. Included in 
the work of the special gangs is the shoring and protection 
of all excavations for sewer or pipe connections, whether 
the excavation is made by the company, by the city or by 
private parties. The expense for shoring, if for the city or 
for private individuals, is charged up to the persons or 
body for whom the work is done. 

All jobs for repairs, either to track or paving, or for 
other purposes, are numbered, and all labor and material 
are charged to such a number. The labor account for 
each job number is shown on the daily time sheets, which 
are forwarded every night, by the time keeper of that divis- 
ion, to the general office. In the issuing of material from 
the stock room, the amount is first temporarily charged 
to the foreman of each job, and he is also given credit for 
any scrap or material returned. The amount of material 
actually used is given on the material slip, which is for- 
warded to the general office by the store-keeper. When 
the job is finished, the amount is charged to the number, 
and the account of the foreman balanced, but he is held 
responsible for all work and material. 

The care of the special work includes the cleaning of 
switches, sanding the tracks on the hills and oiling the 
curves. For this purpose, especially designed carts or 
wagons, to the number of fifteen, are provided and supplied 
with pails for oil and sand. On the rear of the cart is a 
step for the driver, so that mounting and dismounting are 
rendered easy. Each driver is assigned to a certain dis- 
trict, in which he is expected to keep the switches and 
curves cleaned and oiled, and the hills sanded. The cost 
of removing snow and ice is not charged up to each street, 
as in the paving repair, but goes in as a lump sum. The 
removal of ice from the track in cold weather is quite an 
item, as in many parts of the city surface drainage is em- 
ployed, and water from the alleys runs over the rails and 
freezes in cold weather. 

The engineer of way makes a monthly statement to the 
president and general manager of all work done during the 
month, under classified headings. At the beginning of 
each month also he hands in an estimate of the cost of 
material and labor required for the current month, and 
also reports the different classes and amount of track sup- 
plies on hand. The material in stock is checked up twice 
a year, and with the careful records kept, the resources 
and amount of material on hand can always readily be as- 

In the consolidation of the various companies into the 
L'nion Traction Company the new company inherited a 
great variety of rail sections, so that the work of keeping 
the track in repair is very considerable. The cast-welded 
joint is employed to a large extent on the old rail sections, 
and about 10,000 such joints are now in service. The 
standard rail, as required by the city authorities, is a 9-in. 
girder, but with various head modification. The standard 
joint plate is 36 ins. long, with twelve bolts. The mileage 

8 4 


Vol. XV.. No. 2. 

also includes about 27 miles of T rail construction on rock 
ballast. This is the easiest track to keep in repair, and is 
generally laid on the side of macadam roadway. The 
company is required to keep in order 35 miles of macadam 
paving, and for this work a regular force is employed, 
equipped with steam rollers and other road machines. 

All designs for special work are made in the draughting 
room, under the direction of the engineer. Each piece of 
special work is numbered and a record is kept of all repairs 
required on it. A record is also kept on file of the life of 
each piece. 


Two standard types of spiral transition switches are em- 
ployed for all the turnouts on the entire system, one or the 
other of which installed is depending upon the radius of 
curve. The accompanying diagrams show the design of 
these two standards and the cross section at different 
points, and the table of curves illustrates the method of 
laying out the spirals. The wearing surface for the 
switches, frogs and mates is all of manganese steel. In 
the construction, a very large bolt is employed at the heel 

, c.n.v, 

Street Railway Journal, fr.Y. 


are several other special features, including two grooves 
in the mates, for the wheel flanges, so that with four- 

^ ^ C.B.V. 

Street Railway Jaurnal,y.y. 


cf the tongue, and the latter, it will be noted, is reinforced wheel trucks the flanges of the front and rear wheel can 
at the base, the sides of the track being under-cut. There run in separate grooves. The system requires about 3000 





of Arc. 





Ex. Sec. 

For any curve. 






I nside. 






q°-48' - 



1 -16 
1 -35 

1 -54 

2 -13 
2 -33 

2 -52 

3 -11 
53 -28 



2- 42 

3- 58 


19.905 % ' 










2 261 
2 288 
35 635 


Middle R 
For Switch 
R < 60 + 
ub. 4.573 









in 1st col. 
Same for 
Switch if 
R < 60 + 
37 391 
29 997 





s i 

£ r 
i < 

< a 

v s 

« < 

+ 8 

n £ 

+ ~ 


+ j 

r— - qj 

n o 

■n o 

JL « 


> n 
a ia 




3 -00 
1 -35 
1 -20 

1 -32 

2 -13 
2 -33 

2 -52 

3 -11 
53 -28 

3- 00 

4- 35 

5- 55 











90 014 

2 487 
2 000 


1 959 
* 2.212 

2 234 


21 -28-07 
23 -59 -49 

25 -22 -45 

26 -27 -01 

27 -18 -52 
27 -54 -30 

26 808 

O _, 
V ^ 

>. + 

* X 




+ J 
.5 + 

« + 








Tangent 90°. 

Abs. of Middle Center. 

Ord. of Middle Center. 





.63617 R + 26.176 
.70532 R + 23.686 
.76574 R + 21.270 
.81788 R + 18.923 
.86190 R + 16.635 

.31344 (36— R) + 12.481 
.26022 (40— Rj + 11.440 
.21161 (45-R) + 10.382 
.16792 (52-R) + 9.207 
.12906 (60— R) + 8.170 

36.597— .94961 (36 — Rl 
40.459— .96555 (40— R) 
45.346— .97735 (45— R) 
52 246— .98580 (52— R) 
60.179-. 99156 (60-R) 

For symmetrical 90° curve; 
Tan = R (cos s —sin s) + Abs. S +Ord. S 
F^or svmmetrical curve, any angle ; 
Tan = Ct. Abs. + Ord. x tan Kii A 
Ex. Sec. = Ct. Ord. x sec. % A — R 



.86190 R 

+ 12.060 

.12966 (68— R) + 2 


68.110— .99156 (68— R) 

Ct. Ord. 
cos l A A 

— R 





.89159 R 

+ 10.041 

.10308 (80-R) + 1.322 

80.046— .99467 (80— R) 

S = en 

d of spiral approach, s 

= A a 

t s. 

February, 1899.] 







Vol. XV., No. 2. 

pieces of special work, including steam crossings, of which 
there are about 135, and the crossings embrace from 
two to twenty tracks, making about 700 track crossings. 

The company manufactures a large portion of its special 
work, the balance being purchased from the Lorain Steel 
Company and William Wharton, Jr., & Company. A spe- 
cial shop has been fitted up for track work, and a very 
complete assortment of tools and appliances have been in- 
stalled. The track shop occupies a two-story brick build- 
ing, having a large floor space, and the upper floor, which 
is served by an elevator, is utilized for setting up and fitting 
the work; it is the practice to set up complete all curves, 
crossings and special work, before sending them out. The 
tool equipment embraces a circular cold saw, operated by 
an electric motor, heavy punches and shears, a cupola and 
foundry equipment, two portable hydraulic bending ma- 
chines, one of 75 tons and the other of 125 tons, both of the 
Watson & Stillman make. Among these special appli- 
ances worthy of note are the beds on which the special 
work is cast welded. In the preparation of these beds a 
foundation of concrete, 3^ ft. in depth, is first laid. On 
the surface of this are steel plates having slots similar to 
those in the bed plate of the planer, and into these slots are 
placed the heads of bolts, which serve to anchor the parts 


firmly into position. The sand molds are then made 
around the junction, and into them the molten metal is 
poured. There is also a second bed with 4-in. T rails, be- 
tween and beneath the heads of which the anchor bolts 
are slid. On the opposite side of the shop is a surfacing 
bed, consisting of a perfectly level wooden floor, rein- 
forced by strips of steel plate ] in. in thickness and 3 ins. 
wide, spaced about 18 ins. apart. By placing rails or 
special work on this bed, any unevenness in the surface is 
readily detected. For cast welding simple joints, or where 
it is necessary to connect rails of different patterns, a 
mould, consisting of adjustable pieces called chills, is em- 
ployed, and so designed as to be readily clamped into 
place. For this class of casting a specially prepared bed 
is employed. It is in the yard adjoining the shops, and is 
protected by a temporary cover. In addition to the joint 
castings and special work the foundry department supplies 
drain grates and almost all kinds of castings required in 
this department. The cupola blast is generated by a rotary 

blower driven by an electric motor. The cold saw men- 
tioned above is also driven by an electric motor, which is 
started by an ordinary type K controller, but with a water 
rheostat in place of the ordinary resistance coils. This 
rheostat is home-made, and consists of a large cask located 
on the floor above. It is filled with water, in which are 
two large plates of iron, to which the conductor terminals 
are attached. To one of these plates is fixed a wooden 
bar which works in a guide, and is designed to lift the 
lop plate up or to let it down. This bar is operated by 
means of a rope and windlass from the floor below adjoin- 
ing the saw. In this way the speed of the saw is readily 
changed by the windlass rather than the controller. The 
rails are fed to the saw by a peculiarly designed trolley 
hoist. The track for the hoist consists of an I beam, about 
30 ft. in length, with one end pivoted above and just to one 
side of the line of the saw bed. The other end of this 
beam is fitted with wheels which are operated with a hand 


chain, so that it can be swung around on a circular track. 
This provides a wide range for the hoist, so that pieces of 
rail may be lifted and readily conveyed to the saw, and in 
case of a crooked rail, the outer end of the rail can be sup- 
ported in any position. 

For drilling rails, either in the shop or on the line, the 
company uses a portable electric drill, illustrated on this 
page. This drill consists of a box or case having two 
wheels and handles like those of a wheel barrow, on which 
is placed a 2-h.p. electric motor; the latter is provided with 
a Stow flexible shaft through which power is transmitted 
to the drill, which is clamped to the rail in the usual man- 
ner. By this arrangement, holes for tie rods, or for other 
purposes, can be readily drilled. For delivering the cur- 
lent to the motor a pole with a hook to which an insulated 
conductor is attached, is used. The end of this pole can 
be hooked over the trolley wire anywhere on the line, 
while the return circuit is provided by the rail. Another 
motor similarly mounted and provided with a flexible 
shaft is employed to operate an emery wheel used for 
grinding the surface of the rails where the cast-welded 
joint is employed. The emery wheel is mounted on a 
short shaft with insulated handles on each side, consisting 
thimbles surrounding the shaft. The operator holds 
the wheel in position by means of the handles, and it is 
readily adjusted to any surface. A portable motor is also 
employed for operating a hack saw, so that the rails may be 
cut at any place on the line. This saw is connected to the 
rails by means of a frame and clamp, and is capable of 
sawing a 9-in. rail in nineteen minutes. In connection 
with the track work there is an auxiliary shop furnished 
vith a number of small iron working tools on which ma- 
chine repairs are made, and where, also, such small tools 
and dies as may be required are manufactured. 

The track shop is in charge of H. H. Nichols, who has 
held the position of foreman about two years. 

W. D. Young, electrical engineer of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Raihoad Company, writes that that company has not 
decided to instal the third rail system in the Belt Line tun- 
nel, but has simply been looking into the advisability of its 
adoption in place of the present overhead structure. 

February, 1899.] 



Wrinkles in the 

Hartford Street 

Railway Company's 

The thought expended on the little labor-saving devices 
around a street railway is the best evidence of success, for 
the successful railway management is a problem of details 
satisfactorily solved. The Hartford Street Railway Com- 
pany has introduced many wrinkles, and the following 
have been selected as being general useful pointers to any 
system. Mr. Crawford, the general manager, and Mr. 
Caum, the chief engineer, are responsible for them. 

A method of always obtaining dry sand without the cost 
of drying is an attractive proposition. In Hartford the 
problem has been solved in this way: Over the boiler 
room a sealed loft has been built that is used to heat the 
barn and repair shops. Fig. 1 shows the side elevation of 
the loft and boiler room. It will be seen that the iron stack 
from the boiler down stairs passes through this room, and 
around it is a wrought-iron funnel with a circular opening 
about 2 ins. wide around the stack at the bottom, and with 
a flare about 2 ft. wide at the top. The wet sand is intro- 
duced into this hopper by a conveyor from the sand pile. 
This conveyor is run by a motor. The sand when dried 
by the heat of the stack spreads over the flue of the sand 
bin, and is perfectly dry by the time it reaches the spout, 


whence it is delivered into the sand car. In this way the 
sand is dried practically automatically, and by a heat that 
would otherwise be wasted. 

Eventually Mr. Caum proposes to fill his car sand boxes 
with sand by a rather novel method. It is not generally 
known that sand, under air pressure, will flow through 
a pipe for several hundred feet like a viscous fluid. The 
pipe itself, however, should curve to changes of direction, 
and sharp corners with the regular pipe fittings should be 
avoided. A flexible hose can be used with a valve at the 
end. This hose can be carried into the car and the sand 
box filled without the dust and spilling of sand which 
usually accompanies the replenishing of sand boxes. 

The use of the car rheostatic controller, which operates 

by moving the handle to the right to go forward, and to 
the left to reverse, leads to accidents. Where a motorman 
is required at times to operate also a series parallel con- 
ti oiler, with a separate reverse, he is liable to move the 
handle of the controller past the neutral point and reverse 
the motors in the rheostatic controllers, as this action is 
just like that of the series parallel controller in passing 
from multiple to series. Several accidents being attributed 
to this cause, the Hartford people filed a square hole in the 
cover of the controller, and into this fitted a metallic block, 
which projects through far enough to strike the handle 
when in open position. In this way the motors are pro- 
tected from being reversed by mistake. A view of the 
controller with this device is shown in Fig. 2. 

Car houses are hard places to keep warm, largely on 
account of the warping and poor fitting of the doors to 
their jams. In Hartford a 
special device is used to draw 
the door tight, and it is made 
by the company's blacksmith. 
The door is swung on the out- 
side, and a long strap-iron U 
fastened to the top of the door, 
as shown at A, Fig. 3. The 



wedge-shaped latch is operated by two levers from the barn 
floor, and is forced into this U, drawing the door tight up 
to the jam. The result is that the car house. can be easily 

Where there are a number of circuit breakers in a row 
on the switchboard it is difficult at a distance to see which 
one is open. The Hartford Company has a long narrow 
power house, and the station engineers have devised a 
semaphore system to clearly indicate what circuit breakers 
are thrown. The arrangement is as follows: The toggle 
joint in opening up the switch jaws strikes a pin, which 
gives a quarter turn to the semaphore on the circuit break- 
er and displays a red disc. This is invisible from the en- 
gine room floor when the circuit breaker is closed, for it is 
then edgewise. Each generator circuit breaker is also 
provided with a semaphore, so that the engineer at a glance 
can see which units are operating on the system. Fig. 4 
shows tne general arrangement. 

The oiling of a bearing by the oil-can method entails 
both a waste of oil and manual labor. The conduction of oil 
to the bearing by a piping system and its withdrawal 
again after it has worked through the bearing surface the 
lubrication can be made automatic in its action and does 
not require the handling- of the oil. Mr. Caum has devel- 
oped for the Hartford Street Railway power station a very 
complete system. 

p. J 


Each engine has an independent piping system, which 
can be shut down with the engine; all piping systems are 
controlled from one point, and a sight feed is introduced 
into each pipe line. The oil is fed from supplementary 
tanks in the engine room to the engine bearings by gravity. 
A tripe valve is used, so that air can be blown 
through the pipe to clean it out. Five-eighths-in. 
brass tubing and brass fittings are used through- 
out. The oiling system can be fed from two inde- 
pendent sources of supply. 

The oil house is located at a distance in the rear of the 
station, and is divided into three fire-proof compartments, 
which are lighted externally by lamps placed outside the 
windows. One compartment is for the handling and stor- 
age of cylinder oil ; another contains the filters, and a third 
cooling and storage tanks. The oil from the bearings 


Track Construction on Concrete in Detroit 

The Detroit railways were among the earliest in this 
country to employ concrete for sub-construction in street 
railway track. The original construction employed by the 
Detroit Citizens' Railway was a 9-in., 100-lb. grooved rail 
carried on steel ties spaced 5 ft. centers. The ties were 
channels 7 in. wide x 7 ft. long and § in. thick, with a flange 
of 1^ ins. deep. They weighed 21 lbs. each. The concrete 
was laid 6 ins. below the base of the rail and tamped under 
the ties. It was also laid on top of the ties and carried up 


collects in a receiving tank and is forced from this by com- 
pressed air to the filtering room, where it is heated and run 
through filters. From the latter it is forced to the cooling 
and storage rooms. 

There is a duplicate system both in the oil house and up 
to the air compressor. By turning a two-way valve either 
supply can be drawn on. The rate of flow of oil through 
the bearing is about a gallon in two minutes. It is found 
that the oil does not get worn out as fast when circulated 
rapidly, and the volume has a cooling effect on a bearing 
which tends to heat. 

The method used for supplying a bearing with oil and 
drawing it away is accomplished without the slightest ex- 
ternal appearance of oil. The engines supplied are hori- 
zontal, and the wipers on the crank-pin and the crosshead 
pin have been dispensed with. The crankhead is lubricated 
by means of holes drilled at an angle through the cranks 
from the circumference of the main bearings to the crank- 
pins. Holes are drilled from the top of the crosshead to 
the crosshead pin and through the latter to the bearing. 
This receives oil furnished to the top guides. There is no 
indication of oil on the white floors and the amount of oil 
required to supply the waste is extremely low. Even the 
self-oiling bearings of the dynamos are piped up and sup- 
plied with oil by this circulating method, to furnish fresh 
cold oil during extremely hot weather. 

to within i| ins. of the base of the paving. When Belgian 
paving was used, the latter was then laid on 1^ ins. of sand. 
The same construction was used with .asphalt. 

The Detroit Railway, which was built about the same 
time, used in part wooden ties and in part concrete string- 
ers. The wooden ties were laid on a 6-in. concrete base, 
between which and the tie was a i-in. layer of sand. Con- 
crete was also carried up above the ties, and where 5-in. 
paving was used with a 7-in. rail, the concrete extended to 
a height of 1^ ins. above the ties. There was then a layer 
of \ in. of sand, on which the paving blocks rested. Where 
concrete stringers were used a trench was first cut 15 ins. 
deep and 1 ft. wide, a layer of concrete composed of one 
part of Portland cement, four parts of Louisville cement, 
eight parts sand and sixteen parts of broken stone, was laid 
in the bottom of the trench to a depth of 6 ins. The rail, 
which was 7 ins. high, was then placed in the trench and 
the 2-in. space between the top of the concrete and the bot- 
tom of the rail, with the space on each side, was filled up 
to the bottom of the pavement with grouting, composed of 
one part Portland cement, one part sand and three parts of 
clean fine gravel. The rails were bound together with tie 
rods placed 10 ft. apart. 

The two railways are now under the same 
management, and the experience of the last three 
years with both types of track construction have 

February, 1899.] 



led to some slight modifications. The stringer 
construction of the Detroit Railway was found to 
have gone in spots, and it was thought that this was due in 
part to the method of holding the rail, which, being with 
tie rods, did not hold the rail vertical. On the other hand, 
the heavy ties employed on the Citizens' Railway were not 
found necessary. The accompanying engraving shows the 
standard type of track construction now employed by both 
companies. The present tie is a 3-in. angle bar, and its 
use is more for keeping the track to gage and the rails 
vertical, for which purpose it answers better than a tie rod, 
than it is to support the rails. The concrete is carried down 
6 ins. below the base of the rail and covers the ties to a 
height within half an inch of the base of the paving, which 
in the engraving is 4 ins. thick. If, however, there should 
be any soft spots encountered in laying the track the con- 
crete is carried to a greater depth, 2 ft. if necessary, to give 
a perfectly substantial base for the rail. The management 
consider the construction illustrated perfectly satisfactory 
with the clay sub-soil, but with a sand sub-soil would not 
recommend any type of concrete construction. 

After the concrete is laid it is necessary to let it set for 
five days without running any cars over it if the weather is 
dry; in the fall when the road is moist it sometimes must 
be allowed to rest a week. Over 98 miles of track have 
been constructed in this way during the last three years. 
The rails are bonded with a U-shaped riveted bond in the 
base of the rail. The rails are not cross connected, as the 
axles are depended upon for this purpose, but the inside 
tails of the double-track are cross connected for 500 ft. by 
Chicago rail bonds. 

As is well known, the Detroit Railway Company in- 
stalled a considerable amount of electrically welded rail on 
its Jefferson Avenue line. This rail is still in good condi- 
tion, and is satisfactory, although the company is not elec- 
trically welding any more of its track rails. One chief ad- 
vantage found with the electrical weld was the good elec- 
trical return which it afforded, and the section welded is 
that upon which the power station is located, so that these 
rails afford an excellent return to this point, in fact so good 
that no ground return is employed. In all, about 2 per cent 
of the welds have broken during the past two years. Where 
this has occurred the rails have been well bonded. 

Changes in Brooklyn 

Official announcement has been made that the controll- 
ing interest in the capital stock of the Nassau Electric 
Railroad Company has been purchased by the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company, owner of the Brooklyn Heights 
railroad and the two roads will hereafter be operated in 
complete harmony. The Nassau Company has $6,000,000 
capital stock outstanding, and $4,849,000 bonds, and was 
formed for the purpose of operating the Atlantic Avenue 
railroad and the Brooklyn, Bath & West End Railroad- 
It is stated that very few changes will be made at present 
in the actual operation of either of the companies with the 
exception that one or two of the Nassau lines will be given 
a through service to New York via the bridge over Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit lines. A number of changes in the per- 
sonnel of the Nassau Company has been made, however, 
and the present officers and directors are as follows: Presi- 
dent, John E. Borne; vice-president, Hugh J. Grant; treas- 
urer, C. D. Meneely; secretary, W. F. Ham. The stock- 
holders of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company will 
shortly vote on the proposition to increase the capital stock 
of that company to $45,000,000, 


Notes on the Standard Rules and Regulations as 
reported by the A. S. R. A. Committee 


Schenectady, Jan. 14, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

The report of the committee appointed by the American 
Street Railway Association has now been publicly printed 
in your columns, December, 1898, and it is, therefore, open 
to discussion and criticism. 

The intrinsic value of a comprehensive, consistent and 
equitable set of standard rules would be immeasurable. 
The accepted usages of a road, of similar roads or groups 
of roads are the "constitution" of discipline, the rules and 
regulations are its "by-laws." With good rules intelligently 
enforced, the employees will be bound into a homogeneous 
and interdependent body, but with rules that are incom- 
plete, inconsistent or inequitable their enforcement will be 
a subversion instead of a conservation of discipline. 

Beyond their application to the employees there is at 
present a further use of good rules, and that is their effect 
on the courts, the municipal and other authorities and the 
general public. In these days of conventions with open 
doors, unlimited discussions and publications, of yellow 
journalism which probes and exploits the inmost recesses 
of everything, of suits at law during which matters per- 
tinent and impertinent are "expert-ed" and spread broad 
among the people, in these days, the rules of a company 
and the measure and quality of their enforcement are very 
often matters in which the courts, the authorities and the 
people at large take a keen interest, an interest the results 
of which are often felt in unexpected ways. There is, there- 
fore, all the more reason that the rules themselves should 
be as perfect as experience, observation, knowledge — and 
a desire for perfection — can make them. The enforcing of 
them is an important, but secondary matter; good rules 
will partly enforce themselves, but the task of enforcing 
rules that are unreasonable, unjust, inconsistent or other- 
wise imperfect, is an impossible one, and if persisted in may 
become a two-edged sword to be used against the en- 

The task given the committee was a difficult and thank- 
less one, difficult, because in a territory so large as that 
covered by the national association, conditions of every 
kind vary so greatly that a rule that would be perfectly 
just, proper and appropriate in one section of the coun- 
try, might, in another section, be considered very unde- 
sirable. Also at present, the varying laws, regulations, 
ordinances, recommendations, etc., etc , of the legislatures, 
courts, municipalities and railway commissioners of the 
several States and Territories would militate against the 
formation of a general set of rules ; that is to say, of a set 
of rules which — without change of form or meaning — 
should be applicable to all railways in the United States. 

The task was a thankless one, because, if there is one 
thing that the average superintendent or general manager 
believes to be perfect and immaculate it is his rules and 
regulations, and he usually does not take kindlv to, and is 
not grateful for any rules which have not emanated from 
him directly or in the formation of which he has not had 
a hand, especially if he sees that in many respects they are 
not actually a betterment. In this he is somewhat right, as 
his rules are generally the outcome of local experiences 
and necesities, and while they are often crude and stronglv 
tinged with local color and personal idiosyncracies, they 
have been, as a whole, more just, wise, safe and reasonable 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

than those forced — or sought to be forced — on him by local 
legislators and muncipalities or by the aspiring, but inex- 
perienced directors of his own company. 

Moreover, given that the committee had reported an ab- 
solutely perfect and complete set of general rules, the As- 
sociation has no authority to enforce their use. nor has it 
the means to obtain or compel such authority. It would 
have to depend on the willingness of each railway that was 
a member of the A. S. R. A., and of the many who are 
not, and would have been met at once with the inertia of 
conservatism and the literary jealousy of every-superin- 

It seems, therefore, that the A. S. R. A. has given the 
gentlemen of the committee a doubly difficult and thank- 
less task, as it is well nigh a useless one, and it will not be 
exaggeration to say that not one company will change its 
rules to conform to those of the committee at the present 
time, nor would one in a hundred do so were the Associa- 
tion to ratify and recommend them. This, the Association 
should have thought of at the time of appointment of the 
committee, as they have placed the gentlemen of the com- 
mittee in a very difficult position, and have led the street 
railways of the country to expect something that cannot 
be realized. The name itself is misleading even were the 
thing itself possible, as a set of rules for voluntary use by 
any and all railroads in the country might be called "Uni- 
form," or "Universal," or "General," but could hardly be 
called "Standard" unless their use was in some way 

If the A. S. R. A. had been less ambitious or more 
thoughtful and had contented itself with asking its com- 
mittee to prepare a uniform set of general rules for sub- 
mission to the several State associations for action, the task 
of the committee would not have been so out of propor- 
tion to its report — and its thanks. 

As a matter of fact, the State associations are, at present, 
the only bodies that should attempt to standardize rules. 
They represent at once the largest and smallest division 
or group of street railways that have mutual and uniform 
interest as regards legislation, and they arc the only 
bodies that possess — even indirectly — mandatory powers, 
as they can, if their majority wills it, influence and co- 
operate with their several State Railroad Commissions in 
the formation and enforcement of a standard set of rules. 

Such a standard set of rules would, at present, be of very 
great value within a State. Ratified by the State associa- 
tion, recommended by the State Railroad Commissioners 
and enforced by the State legislature, they would have 
the effect of laws, would greatly simplify lawsuits arising 
from their enforcement or their neglect, and in cases where 
they were strictly adhered to would greatly minimize the 
damages. They would make a more efficient body of the 
railway employees affected by them, as these employees 
would be more "standard" as regards general rules and 
would not have — as now — to change all their ideas and 
methods because they changed their location and em- 
ployer. They would greatly lessen difficulties, arguments 
and misunderstandings with the general public, as the rules 
would soon become as well understood as the "five-cent 
fare" and, having the authority of the State at their back, 
would be much less liable to infraction on the part of the 

As the State associations and State railroad commis- 
sioners multiply, these rules — amplified and amended to 
meet larger and more general conditions — could be made 
uniform between State and State until they become uni- 
form and standard all over the country. This is not a 
millenial forecast, nor a Utopian dream, but a matter that 
is right upon us and needs recognition. With interurban 

street railways stretching out until they become inter- 
State, with companies operating roads that run across 
State-lines, and, perhaps, across States, it is ridiculous to 
think that the running across an imaginary line on the 
ground should change the whole character of an em- 
ployee's actions. 

Going back to the committee's report and taking into 
consideration all the difficulties in their way, it was pos- 
sible for them to have given the Association a general set 
of rules that could have been offered to the State associa- 
tions. Underlying all street railway transportation busi- 
ness, from Maine to Texas, from California to New Jersey, 
are certain fundamental principles which must be followed 
by all if the public is to be served with safety, convenience, 
comfort, regularity and punctuality, if employees are to 
serve with the greatest efficiency and with the least dan- 
ger, deprivation, exposure and labor, if the employer is to 
obtain a fair profit on his investment and without needless 
risk. To expound and explain these principles, to apply 
them to specific cases, to show their capabilities and their 
limitations, to embody the whole thing in a clear, concise 
and consistent form — that is the province of a "general" 
set of rules and regulations. 

Such rules must 

1. Be rules, not suggestions nor advice; such — if per- 
tinent — may be prefixed as an introduction or deduced as 
corollaries, but must not be masqueraded as rules. 

2. Be "general" in the sense that they are applicable 
without change of intent or principle to all street railways 
or surface railways within the territory they are intended 
to cover. 

3. Be "general" in the sense that they must contain 
nothing local or individual, either as regards locality or 
personality, use or manufacture. 

4. Be comprehensive, covering every point in regard to 
all employees whose duties are in any way in connection 
with the public — either directly or through their fellow em- 

5. Be perfectly clear and lucid in language, admitting of 
no double meaning nor obscurity of meaning. 

6. Be perfectly free from contradictions either within 
themselves or with one another. 

7. Be in acordance with general usage, experience and 

8. Be reasonable. 

9. Be just and equitable. 
Such rules should 

10. Be couched in plain, simple, terse language so as to 
be easily understood, and — if necessary — memorized. 
Slovenly composition, ungrammatical language, false 
syntax, obscure expression, involved, complicated and in- 
verted sentences are to be as much avoided as "elegant 

11. Be arranged in some connected, definite and con- 
secutive manner, and divided into groups having specific 
relation to certain persons, duties, acts or things. Under 
each group the rules themselves should be arranged as 
much as possible in a natural sequence or order, all cog- 
nate matters should be brought under one rule if possible, 
and each rule should be preceded by its subject as a head- 
ing. On the other hand, no rule should treat of more than 
one subject. 

12. Be free from repetitions either within themselves or 
of one another. Repetitions in rules and of rules do not 
emphasize; they only weaken. Emphasis should be used 
only in proportion to the importance of the subject and 
should be manifested by other means. 

13. Be free from unnecessary, irrelevant or axiomatic 
remarks and directions. Employees for whom these rules 

February, 1899.] 


are made must be considered as having ordinary common 
and moral sense ; a street railway is neither a kindergarten 
nor a Sunday-school. 
They should not 

14. Be unnecessarily peremptory in tone; "must" and 
"shall" used too frequently lose their force. It is much 
better on ordinary occasions to say "will" and "should." 
The imperatives should be reserved for imperative cases. 

15. Be addressed to the second person — "you." It 
sounds — and is — better to address the rules to employees 
in the abstract, i. e., impersonally, and for this the "third 
person" — "he" or "they" is necessary. This is somewhat 
a matter of opinion, however, but there can be only one 
opinion on the question of sticking to one kind of address 
in the rules, either "you" or "he" and "they" may be used, 
but they should not be mixed. In an introduction to the 
rules the less formal style is an advantage, as each in- 
dividual employee is there being addressed, while in the 
rules the employees as a class or group are being in- 

16. Threaten. Penalties should form no part of a rule, 
although they may be an adjunct of the rules. Dismissal 
for certain specific and proven grave offences, such as 
drunkenness on duty, lying, dishonesty and wilful dis- 
obedience of safety rules, should be made a rule, but be- 
yond that, all penalties, punishments and threats had 
better be kept out of the rules and the "punishment made 
to fit the crime" — when the crime occurs. Prompt and 
just punishment in actual practice is all that is necessary, 
and a few cases of such will do more good than a rule-book 
full of "bogy-man" threats, very few of which can be car- 
ried out in practice. 

The above qualifications and conditions contain nothing 
but what is reasonable and necessary in a matter so im- 
portant, and it will do the report of the committee no 
injustice to test it by them and see how near it comes to 
fulfilling them. This will be done in a future article. 

H. S. Cooper. 


Methods of Accounting: 


Binghamton, N. Y., January, 10, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I notice your editorial in the January issue, wherein 
you ask for views upon Mr. Kittredge's article entitled, 
"An Ideal System of Street Railway Accounts," and would 
say that the system of dividing and sub-dividing of the ac- 
counts as outlined are almost identical with those followed 
in this company, and the ideas expressed by Mr. Kittredge 
as to intelligent and perpetual comparisons have been car- 
ried on by us for several years, for the constant informa- 
tion of the general manager of the company. 

In addition to our ledger showings we have a compara- 
tive table (special) book, in which we show a constant 
comparison of the receipts from each passenger division of 
the road, from various other resources, the operating ex- 
penses in detail, as well as increase and decrease in sup- 
plies on hand, floating debt, etc., and a daily comparison 
of each division's receipts. From this statement the man- 
agement is enabled to watch the earning capacity of each 
division of the road, and to decide as to what service such 
division is entitled, also to determine at a glance whether 
any leakage occurs in operating expenses and to correct 
such intelligently. The many other details of information 
conveyed by this table furnishes to the office at all times 
the exact standing of the road. I mention this book as 

giving the same information constantly as by Mr. Kit- 
tredge's system without what seems to me a complication 
of bookkeeping. 

More as a matter of asking information than criticism, I 
wish to express the following: The appearance of the 
Maintenance and Emergencies (sub-divided) accounts in 
the Reserves, as Liabilities in the Balance Sheet, as I un- 
derstand it from the article, act as sinking funds for the pro 
rating and equalizing of all expense accounts. 

If this interpretation be a true one, I am at a loss to un- 
derstand how these accounts could be intelligently pro 
rated unless an estimate be based in each case upon the 
year preceding, and even then the variation of a year might 
be so great that the following year would be unjustly pro 
rated. While the distribution of expense in the various 
accounts through different months or shorter periods, 
might seem just when one thinks of a large expense of re- 
placement falling on one month the expense of which has 
really been accrued during preceding months, the question 
arises, how can the pro rating be properly adjusted, and 
why is not the actual condition of the expense account of 
more instant and valuable information to the manager than 
the study of the balance sheet. For instance, would the 
showing of the same operating expense for the summer 
months with increased car service for pleasure rides, etc., 
be correct as against the winter months, or could the re- 
moval of snow and ice be pro rated throughout the sum- 
mer intelligently, and, in that line, would not an open win- 
ter, without storms, or a winter with frequent and heavy 
storms, make an unjust showing of one year with another? 
Again, how can a company depend upon the life of a gen- 
erator and, as they run year after year without repair or 
replacement, have you not created a false asset which must 
also appear in the balance sheet, or, without indemnity in- 
smance, how can one intelligently pro rate against acci- 
dents ? 

Perhaps I may be speaking from ignorance or a too 
limited knowledge of Mr. Kittredge's ideas in this respect, 
but it would almost seem that the receipts could be even 
more accurately pro rated, thus enabling the accountant 
to forecast correctly any report, for any time, the other 
necessary and valuable information being available onlv 
to those who have access to the balance sheets. 

From a personal point of view, gathered from the in- 
formation desired by, and on hand for, our General Man- 
ager, it would seem that the supply store system with its 
daily charges and vouchers, together with comparative 
tables, made up constantly from the ledger, properly di- 
vided, gives the actual and satisfactory status of the road 
it all times, which cannot be furnished more acceptably to 
management, bond and stock-holders, the public, and the 

John B. Rogers, Treasurer. 

Fitchbur.g & Leominster Street Railway Company, 
Fitchburg, Mass., Jan. 9, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I have carefully read Mr. Kittredge's paper on "An Ideal 
System of Street Railway Accounts," and, in general, can 
commend it very highly. 

It must be remembered that small roads cannot go into 
the detail of classification or of accounting as deeply as can 
the larger, and there are a great many small roads. There 
is a danger line beyond which the expenses of accounting 
are entirely out of proportion with the income and needs of 
the corporation. For example, with a road of $75,000 
yearly operating expenses, a weekly inventory would be 
an absurd proposition. The expense of it would be en- 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

tirely incommensurate with the cost of supplies not going 
into immediate consumption. Yet it is as necessary for 
these small roads to have a sound accounting system as the 
largest. So any "ideal" system of accounts must be suffi- 
ciently elastic to be of use to all without too great expense 
to any. This, it seems to me, is a virtue of the system 
which Mr. Kittredge suggests. 

I think Mr. Kittredge's reasoning in omitting accounts 
A' and entirely wrong. If the items of these accounts 
may be classified as assets, as parts of other accounts, why 
are they not assets "in themselves?" They are more 
tangible and more properly classified as assets than good- 
will, which is almost illusory, and they are as properly 
separate as accounts A and B. These latter accounts could 
be as easily pro-rated among the others as N and 0. The 
cbject of accounting must be accuracy, and pro-rating 
these accounts is far from that, as actual experience shows. 

One thing which Mr. Kittredge neglects is tickets. These 
little pieces of paper do a big business on many roads, 
thousands of dollars worth of-them sometimes outstanding. 
They are essentially a liability and must be accounted as 
such. The practice of carrying receipts for tickets sold 
directly to revenue is wrong. The minute they are sold 
they become a liability against the corporation and so re- 
main until used. 

Further, it seems to me that the classification of divi- 
dends declared and unpaid as a floating liability and taxes 
and interest as reserve accounts is wrong. These are all 
accrued liabilities, and, as such, should have separate classir 
fication. Reserve accounts for sinking, maintenance or 
emergency funds are in no sense accrued liabilties nor are 
accrued liabilties-, by nature, exactly similar to Rinds for the 
payment of outstanding liabilities like bonds or future ex- 
traordinary expenditures for maintenance and emergen- 

Why are not express and advertising (in cars) receipts 
from operation as much as freight or mail ? 

Robert N. Wallis, Treasurer. 

Bergen County Traction Company, N. J., 
Fort Lee, N. J., Januarv 14, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

The form you give in your January issue (chart of 
Analysis and Classification of Street Railway Accounts) is 
practically the same we use for balance sheet. 

William N. Barrows, Secretary. 

Method of Drilling- Armature Bushings 

Boston, January 12, 1898. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

They have a way at the West End railway shops here 
for drilling street railway car axle bushings that is both 
simple and effective. The rig is especially designed for 
drilling plug holes in the bushings. A double-end arbor 
is used, with a drilled bushing on one end and a bushing 
to be drilled on the other end, as shown in the annexed 
sketch of the tool. 

The arbor (A) is cut with a thread and movable nuts 
(B) and (C) put on. These nuts are cone-shaped on the 
sides facing in, and are screwed up on the bushings, as 
shown in the next view, which represents the bushing (G) 
in process of being drilled to correspond to the master 
bushing (F). The arbor rests in the bearings (E) (E), and 
can be turned easily by the hand. The guide pin (H) rides 
in the shoulder piece, and the latter is set-screwed to the 
base piece (D). The drill (I) operates in a leader, which 

is set-screwed to the base. The nuts for sustaining the 
bushings in place can be square and tightened with a 
wrench, or they can be round and provided with holes in 
which to insert a shaft for turning. As the nuts hold the 
bushings very firmly in place the machinist can be sure of 
getting uniformly drilled work. Bolt holes, etc., may be 
drilled at regular intervals in other lines of work on this 
device, and at any desired distance from the axis and from 


each other, regardless of the diameter of the pieces or the 
length. The jig can be provided with an index plate that 
can be set for any number of equal divisions and clamped 
firmly in position. The drill is held in the usual man- 
ner, and by means of a variety of sleeves this jig is ready to 
drill equal spaced holes at the proper distance from cen- 
ters. B. F. F. 

Amusing Letters 

Nearly every railway manager has received letters more 
or less amusing, asking for a position, damages for a sup- 
posed injury to property or feelings, or protesting against 
some "outrageous" invasion of the author's rights. Below 
will be found a copy of a letter recently received by F. J. J. 
Sloat, of the Cincinnati & Hamilton Railway Company. 

Hamilton, Ohio, Dec. 19, 1898. 
Mr. Sloat and Will. Christie: 

Dear Sirs. — The 13 of this Month the No. ten Car Cut My val- 
uabel Dog In Two you have no Pitty for Me I Am Lonesome 
For My Dog yet I was ofered A Big Prise For My Pet Dog I 
Would not Take it I would rather have My Dog now What will 
I do and What will you do My dear Dog is gone. 

Yours Most Respectfully, 

Mrs. . 

P. S. — Mr. Sloat Swope has fine dogs get him to give me one 
In Return For Mine Mr. Sloat you know I Deserve A good Dog. 

Mrs. . 

Great as the loss of her dog must have been to this 
lady, it was insignificant as compared to the damage re- 
cently inflicted upon a gentleman in Brisbane, Australia. 
His pathetic letter to J. S. Badger, manager of the Bris- 
bane Tramways Company, describing the catastrophe is 
given below, and should act as a warning to all those who 
persist in sitting on the hand railing on the top of a double- 
deck car while escorting ladies home from the theater. 

To the Manager of the Brisbane Tramways Company, Ltd.: 

Dear Sir. — I regret to have to inform you that on returning 
from the theater on Wednesday evening last I boarded the first 
theater car to W'Gabba, and owing to the car becoming over- 
loaded I had to sit on the hand railing on top of the car, with 
the result that I had my trousers destroyed by being caught on 
the stone pillar at the north end of the bridge. 

As I suffered sufficiently by having to escort a lady home with 
my pants minus the seat I am sure you will deem it only just that 
you should suffer the inconvenience of the loss of their value, 
viz.: £1 is. 

February, 1899.] 



If you have any reason to doubt my assertion you may refer to 
Mr. , who was also a passenger. 

I will send you the damaged pants if you wish it. 

Trusting you will see the justice of my demand and forward 
cheque for amount at your earliest convenience, 
I am, sir, yours faithfully, 

Fighting: Snow in Newport, R. I. 

A snow storm is unwelcome to most railway managers, 
no matter how well one may be prepared to keep the track 
clear, and during a heavy storm continuous and arduous 
work is usually required from every member of the operat- 


ing force, front the switchman to the superintendent, to 
keep the tracks open. Many of the New England roads 
suffered severely from the blizzard the latter part of No- 
vember. A good idea of the amount of snow which fell 
at that time in localities where the fall is comparatively 
light at most times, is shown in the accompanying engrav- 
ing, which was taken on the Newport Street Railway, at 
Newport, R. I. The means employed by this company for 
combating this snow storm are the snow plow, with its long 
nose set at an acute angle, a snow shovel brigade, and, 
coupled with these, vigilance and prompt action. 


Combined Street Railway and Lighting Station 

The Hagerstown Railway Company has recently com- 
pleted a new station, from which power will be supplied 
for operating the street railway system and the electric 
lights for city and other service, both industries being 
controlled by the same company. The new building is of 
brick, tasteful in design, with a ground dimension of 80 
ft. x 116 ft., and wing for boiler room 45 ft. x 50 ft. The 
generators are to be driven from a jack shaft, which ex- 
tends the whole length of the building down the middle of 
the floor, and is provided with Hill clutches for coupling 
the different sections. The power is generated by three 
tandem compound condensing engines of the Standard 
type, manufactured by the Harrisburg Foundry & Ma- 
chine Works. They are of the single piston-valve type, 
and so far are operating to the entire satisfaction of the 
management. Two of the engines, which are each of 400 
h.p., are located at the ends of the shaft, on the opposite 
side from the generators, and transmit their power by 
belts to the shaft. A third engine, a 300-h.p. machine, is 
belted to the middle of the shaft. 

The street railway generator equipment consists of two 
325-kw, machines of the General Electric make, which are 

belted from the extremities of the shaft. An 80-kw. gen- 
erator provides the power for stationary motor service. 
The lighting generators consist of one 3000-light alter- 
nating machine, one 1500-light alternator, one 125-light 
Brush arc machine, and four 50-light Schuyler generators, 
all driven by belts from the shaft. The belts are all of 
Chas. A. Schieren manufacture. 

The boiler equipment consists of three boilers of the 
Berry type, aggregating 550 h.p., and were manufactured 
by Robert Wetherell & Company, of Chester, Pa. 

Among the auxiliary steam equipment are the con- 
densers and steam piping, which were furnished by Best, 
Fox & Company, and a Spencer damper regulator, which 
controls all the dampers of the three stacks. 

The switchboard is of black and blue marble, the blue 
portion being occupied by the lighting instruments. This, 
with its equipment, was furnished by the General Electric 
Company. The equipment seems to be well designed for 
the purposes required. As it was necessary to operate 
both the lighting and railway generators from the same 
engine, it was found better to install the shaft with clutches 
and belting, so that either engine, or all combined, can be 
coupled to each or all of the generators. For these 
reasons direct coupled units were not installed. The plant 
has been erected and the machinery installed under the 
direct supervision of C. W. Lynch, president of the com- 
pany, the designs having all been made by W. C. Happer- 
ley, superintendent. 

Business During J 898 

In spite of the fact that the United States was engaged in 
a war during the past year, the electric railway business 
has been more prosperous than ever before, and probably 
a greater amount of contracts for new equipment have been 
awarded than in any previous year. It is certainly true 
that most manufacturers have not complained of lack of 
orders during this period. 

From data collected recently by the Street Railway 
Journal on the output of certain manufacturers of rolling 
stock, it is estimated that from all the shops in this country 
manufacturing street cars, between 5500 and 6000 cars 
were turned out during 1898. During the same period it 
is estimated that the output of electric car trucks in the 
United States was from 8500 to 9500, and of car wheels 
for street railways from 125,000 to 150,000. A certain 
proportion of the two former and a small percentage of the 
latter were undoubtedly for export, but it is impossible to 
say just what proportion was sent abroad. 

The secret of success in handling damage cases lies, no 
doubt, in their being properly looked after from the very 
start, i. c, from the time they are first reported. How to 
do this varies as do the different cases, but no case should 
ever be handled by any one but an honest, careful and ex- 
perienced claim agent. For such work, men must be natur- 
ally qualified; they should ever have the interests of their 
road at heart, and yet not blinded by too great a prejudice 
in its favor; they should have sound, shrewd judgment, 
and be painstaking and careful of detail to the highest de- 
gree. Like the true physician, they should be of a happy, 
calm temperament; and also, like him, should ever be 
ready to answer a call. The successful claim agent should 
have the faculty of handling all sorts of people without fric- 
tion. His keen perception should reveal to him the nature 
of each case, but he should never betray anxiety for settle- 
ment. — From address delivered at the Niagara Falls Con- 
vention, 1897. 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

FEBRUARY, 1899. 



Main Office : 

NEW YORK, Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt Street. 
Branch Offices : 

Chicago Monadnock Block. 

Philadelphia 931 Chestnut vStreet. 

London 39 Victoria Street, Westminster. 

Paris 50 Boulevard Haussman. 

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Berne Chas. Rochat, 15 A Falkenburg. 

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Moscow : Alexander L. Lineff, 9 Gt. Tcliernishevsky Pereulok. 

Long Distance Telephone, " New York, 2664 Cortlandt," 
Cable Address, " Stryjourn, New York." 


in the United States and Canada $4.00 per annum. 


Subscriptions payable always in advance, by check (preferred), money older 
or postal note, to order of C. E. Whittlesey, Treasurer. 


Papers and correspondence on all subjects of practical interest to 
our readers ate cordially invited. Our columns are always open for 
the discussion cf problems of operation, construction, engineering, 
accounting , finance and invention. 

Special effort will be made to answer promptly, and without 
charge, any reasonable request for information which maybe received 
from our readers and advertisers, answers being given through the 
columns of the Journal when of general interest, otherzvise by letter. 

Street railway news and all information regarding cJianges of 
officers, new equipment, extensions, financial changes, etc., will be 
greatly appreciated for use in our Directory, our Financial Supple- 
ment, or our news columns. 

All matters intended for publication in the current issues must 
be received at our office not later than the twenty-second of each^nonth. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt St., Neiv York. 

Apropos of the revival of active interest in increased 
rapid transit facilities in New York city and the more fa- 
vorable attitude of the municipal authorities on the ques- 
tion of building an underground electric railroad, we take 
occasion to again point out the impossibility of avoiding 
or long postponing the building of such an underground 
road, or of looking forward with equanimity to the future 
congestion of traffic on Manhattan Island if greatly in- 
creased facilities be not provided. The new electric sur- 
face lines are proving so immediately and unexpectedly 
popular that almost as soon as they start into operation 
the traffic on all the longitudinal lines is dangerously near 
the topmost limit of capacity. We know now quite closely 
the ultimate capacity of the elevated lines, except for pos- 

sible "double decking," and we know also that there is an 
enormous number of new apartment houses and private 
dwellings going up in the northern portion of the Island. 
These buildings must have tenants and the tenants must 
have transit accommodations for their every day market- 
ing, as well as for business purposes, and better rapid tran- 
sit facilities are even to-day a crying necessity. What won- 
der is it, then, that the political powers behind the throne 
in New York city should execute a demivolte and consent 
to the further consideration of rapid transit plans on broad 
gage lines — what wonder also that those at present in 
charge of, and responsible for the transportation of the 
people of the city of New York should give most serious 
consideration to financial and engineering problems inci- 
dent to the construction of such lines, and should resolve 
to build them as a supplement to the present almost over- 
burdened facilities. 

About ten years ago, just before the beginning of the 
"boom" in electric railroading, there were well-defined 
rumors that a European syndicate was forming to intro- 
duce compressed air as a motive power for street railways 
on an extensive scale. The immediate success of electric- 
ity prevented the syndicate's plans from being carried to 
fruition, and compressed air has not since figured as a 
competitor of importance in the street railway field. With- 
in the past five years, however, further experiments in com- 
pressed air have been carried on in this country on a some- 
what extensive scale, and the results have been such that 
ample and powerful financial support has lately been se- 
cured for compressed air as a motive power. The first 
large effort of one of the new syndicates will be directed 
toward the building of "auto-trucks" for handling the 
trucking business of large cities, now done by horses, and 
the parent company purposes licensing local companies for 
this purpose. It is expected, too, that cabs and possibly 
even omnibuses will next be taken up. Considerable ex- 
perimental work has also been done in the street railway 
field, as has been duly chronicled in the Street Railway 
Journal from time to time, and within a few months, a 
twenty-car, five-mile crosstown line is expected to be in 
operation in New York City by compressed air. It will 
need a year or more of full operation of this line before 
even a preliminary idea of the operating expenses of com- 
pressed air can be obtained, although reasonably close es- 
timates of everything except depreciation and "contin- 
gencies" is now, perhaps, possible. What has been so far 
demonstrated in New York is, first, that compressed 
air motor cars will run, and with fair satisfaction to the 
public; second, that an amount of air, compressed to 2,500 
pounds pressure, can be stored out of sight in an ordinary 
street car, sufficient to run a car from twelve to fifteen 
miles, under ordinary conditions of track and service, and 
somewhat more under favorable conditions; and, third, that 
air at this high pressure can be compressed and "bottled" 
with reasonable safety, and the pressure reduced by simple 
means to a point where it can be used in the motors. What 
is not demonstrated is whether under all working condi- 
tions which street cars and trucks have to meet, including 
collisions, etc., absolute safety to the public can be always 
assured; whether heavy grade work such as is frequently 
found in city streets can be done by compressed air motors 
or any form of self-propelled car employing reciprocating 

February, 1899.] 



motion; and whether the costs of motive power and of 
maintenance will be comparable with electricity. All these 
demonstrations will come in time, and what is now certain 
is that experiments on a larger scale than ever before made 
in this country are already instituted, and will be vigorous- 
ly prosecuted to a definite conclusion. 

The cost of copper has been constantly rising for the 
iast year and more, and, according to all indications, will 
continue to increase, especially if the consolidation of the 
copper mining companies of the Northwest, which has 
been proposed in Boston, the financial headquarters of the 
American copper interests, is consummated. The use of 
the metal is, of course, also constantly increasing, and the 
extent of its employment in the electric railway industry 
makes the question of its market price an extremely im- 
portant one to street railway companies. Efforts to find a 
substitute for copper as an electrical conductor have been 
numerous. As is well known, the rails are being em- 
ployed for carrying the return current to the power sta- 
tion much more extensively than formerly, and under- 
ground supplementaries are going out of use. Some com- 
panies have even gone so far as to lay mains of buried 
rails, well bonded together, for connecting the tracks with 
the power station. The chief reason for this, of course, is 
to save the expense of the copper, but measures of this 
kind are, on the whole, poor substitutes, so that the an- 
nouncement of the aluminum manufacturers that they can 
compete in price with copper, comparing the two metals 
in their current-carrying capacity, is interesting. Alumi- 
num is practically three and one-half times lighter than 
copper, and the pure metal has a conductivity of about 
63 per cent that of pure copper. Upon these figures as a 
basis, it is estimated that for electrical conductors of equal 
conductivity aluminum at twenty-nine cents a pound is 
cheaper than copper at fourteen cents. The tensile 
strength of pure aluminum may be greatly increased, with- 
out much loss in its conductivity, by properly alloying it, 
and it is then well fitted for aerial wires, owing also to its 
iightness. The chief drawback to its use as an electrical 
conductor at present seems to be the difficulty of soldering 
or brazing it, but it is said that this objection is being over- 
come. The material has been employed as an electrical 
conductor to a limited extent on some of the long-distance 
lines in the country, chiefly for telegraph and telephone 
work, and any advances made in the method of adapting it 
to electrical uses will be watched with interest. 

It is the impression in some quarters that under the 
Light Railways Act, it will be possible to duplicate in Eng- 
land and other parts of Great Britain, to some extent at 
least, the interurban electric railways now being so exten- 
sively introduced in America, but present indications seem 
to be that while there may be some construction of this 
kind, it will be in no way commensurate with that of 
America or with the development of the electric tramway 
industry. The Light Railways Act was passed principally 
with the intention of encouraging the construction of light- 
ly built and inexpensive steam trams for the cheap carriage 
of agricultural products and goods to the nearest trunk 
line terminal, in cases where the amount of the traffic 

would not warrant the construction of a regular railway. 
The control of such light railways is vested in a body called 
the Light Railways Commission to whom the applications 
for the construction of such lines must be made. The re- 
strictions on the construction of these roads are made 
less severe than those which govern tramways proper, and 
the procuring of the necessary powers is much less pro- 
tracted and expensive than is necessary for tramways. 
The intention is thus to encourage the building of these 
roads for the benefit of the agricultural class who could 
thus ship their products at a much less expense than that 
required for cartage. In spite of the fact that the provi- 
sions are in many ways liberal, as described, the develop- 
ment of light railways in England has been exceedingly 
slow. Although those at present are operated by steam, 
there seems to be no legal objection to their use of elec- 
tricity as a motive power, but there are a number of rea- 
sons which will serve to prevent the rapid development of 
these lines, even with electrical equipment. One of the 
difficulties will be that the city tramways are generally con- 
trolled by the municipalities with whom it is necessary to 
make arrangements for running rights and the use of cur- 
rent. Another, and seemingly a more serious objection to 
those who have studied the development of similar roads in 
America, is the limitation of speed. This limitation de- 
pends upon circumstances, but the usual maximum is 
twelve miles an hour. The first objection may be over- 
come, because the right of municipalities to build roads be- 
yond their own limits is not fully determined and they 
surely ought to be willing to make any reasonable ar- 
rangements for terminal facilities with the light railroad 
companies, because they must recognize the value 
of the suburban and interurban feeders to their 
own systems. The limitation of speed, however, 
is a very great drawback and seems, under the present 
conditions of public sentiment, almost insurmountable, 
owing to the opposition of the vested interests of the steam 
railroad lines. The latter are extremely powerful in Eng- 
land and represent an enormous amount of capital with se- 
curities widely distributed. Any attempt to interfere with 
the earning powers of any of these roads by the construc- 
tion of high speed electric railways built along the high- 
ways as competing lives is naturally almost doomed to de- 
feat, although the conditions for their construction be 
otherwise favorable. On the other hand, the tram- 
way development in England will, of course, be very large, 
as practically all the corporations which own tramways, or 
will soon acquire them, are requesting powers to equip 
with electricity. Public sentiment in England is favorable 
to the control of the tramways by the municipal corpora- 
tions, who have undertaken the management of quasi-pub- 
lic enterprises to a much greater extent than in America, 
Outside of the tramway field there will undoubted- 
ly be a large development in the electrical equip- 
ment of suburban and feeder branches of the steam rail- 
roads proper and even — in the not far distant future — of 
the main trunk lines themselves. There is probably no 
other country in the world that offers the opportunity for 
high speed electric service as that furnished by the Eng- 
lish trunk lines, with their private rights of way, two and 
four tracks, no grade crossings, and their frequent train 
service. The population density in the cities and country 
is very great and these roads can afford to give their 
patrons far better service than at present. 

9 6 


Vol. XV., No. 2. 

A New General Formula for Train Resistance 

The alchemists of old sought diligently for the philoso- 
pher's stone, the inventors of a later age for perpetual 
motion, and engineers of the nineteenth century have been 
almost as eager to obtain a general formula which shall 
lcconcile all existing data and experiments upon train 
resistance. The first two objects of effort are now known 
to be unattainable, and the third has until now baffled the 
best minds in the railroad profession. Only a month ago 
"Locomotive Engineering," which for years past has de- 
voted special attention to this subject, said editorially: 
"We do not believe that it is possible to devise a formula 
that will show an approximation of the resistance due to 
different kinds of trains at different speeds when train 
tons are the basis of calculation." 

A general formula which appears to be applicable to 
passenger trains of all weights, running at all speeds up to 
the highest limits so far reached, has been lately worked 
out, however, by John Lundie as a result of a long series 
of tests of trains in actual service, and is here given to the 
engineering public for the first time. His methods of ob- 
taining data are decidedly differ- 
ent from, and much more satis- 
factory than those commonly em- 
ployed hitherto, where indicator 
cards of engines drawing trains 
at constant ( ?) speed on level ( ?) 
track have been made the basis 
(with an arbitrary allowance for 
engine friction) of estimates of 
resistance per ton moved. In 
order to be of any value such 
tests must be made in long dis- 
tance runs, and it is almost im- 
possible to find a hundred miles 
or more of absolutely level track 
for the purpose, while it is also 
difficult to obtain perfectly uni- 
form speed even on a dead level. 
Mr. Lundie's method of deter- 
mining train resistance is based 
on an examination of the speed 
curves of a train when coasting 
The possibilities of such a method 
will be instantly evident to an 
engineer, and it may be said, at 

once, that the results warrant a decided predisposition 
in its favor. It is not only possible to obtain the gross 
resistance due to track and journal friction and 
air resistance combined, but to differentiate between 
the air and the friction elements. The frictional 
resistance of a train being reasonably constant 
within somewhat wide limits of speed, the speed 
curve should be a nearly straight descending line from 
full speed to a point somewhere near a full stop. Now the 
actual speed curve dips below this straight line, as seen 
in Fig. 2, clearly showing a decreasing retarding force 
(due to air resistance), with decreasing speed. 

In Fig. 1 are shown in graphic form the results calcu- 
lated from more than 150 runs made by Mr. Lundie with 
trains of different weights on the South Side Elevated 
Railroad, of Chicago. It will be seen that these results, 
expressed by the location of points on the diagram, cluster 
around "straight line curves," and that these lines intercept 
each other, with surprising accuracy, at a single point lo- 
cated at a definite distance above the origin. This indi- 
cates, of course, that the first step in obtaining the final 
formula has been reached, in the establishment of a con- 

stant, representing the minimum possible train resistance 
for all speeds and weights, and it is interesting to note, by 
the way, that in none of the recorded experiments so far 
made on passenger or freight trains of all weights has the 
resistance per ton been less than the figure indicated by 
this constant — 4 pounds. 

Mr. Lundie's formula is as follows: 

R=4+s (o. 2+3i i± T ) 

35 + T 

T = the weight of the transportation unit in tons (2000 

R = resistance in pounds per ton. 
S = speed in miles per hour. 

It will be seen at once that unlike most previous for- 
mulae, there are here two variables after the con- 
stant, namely speed and train weight. Many other investi- 
gators have endeavored to accomplish this, but unsuccess- 
fully, and in the formula which has been in most general 
use in engineering hand-books, that of D. K. Clark, speed 
only appears as a variable. From a careful study of his 



Conducted on the South Side Elevated R.R. Chicago, 
August and September, 1898, under the direction of 
John Lundie, Consulting Engineer. 

*0® " 


• Average of Results on 21 ton Car, 

© Series of Actual Results, 82 ton Train. 
R = Resistance in pounds per ton. 
S = Speed in miles per hour. 

Lines are drawn from the formula, R— 4-i-S (0.2-fp—- ) where 
T=weight of Transportation unit in Tons (2000 lbs.) 

10 15 20 25 30 

Speerl in Miles per Hour. 

FIG. 1 

results, Mr. Lundie developed the formula on the follow- 
ing mathematical basis: the expression by which "S" is 
multipled is proportional to the tangents of the angles 
made by the lines developed for different weights, as 
shown in Fig. 1, and is the characteristic of a rectangular 
hyperbola which (throughout the range of tests made) 
co-ordinates quite accurately the relations between train 
vv eights and the inclinations of the lines mentioned for 
corresponding weights. The term 0.2 is an intercept on 
the axis of y; 14 is the constant product of x and y, with 
the intersection of the asymptotes as origin; and 35 is an 
intercept on the axis of x. 

The test of any formula lies in its application. Gaged 
by this test, Mr. Lundie's formula unifies in a remarkably 
close manner nearly all recently published experiments, 
together with other formulae of more limited application, 
as will be seen by an inspection of the accompanying table. 
The Stroudley, Sinclair and Dudley tests of train resist- 
ance scheduled in this table were brought together by A. 
M. Wellington in the "Engineering News" in 1892, and re- 
ferred to as intrinsically worthy of confidence on account 
of the careful manner in which they were made. To these 

February, 1899.] 



we have added further experiments made on the Philadel- 
phia & Reading Railroad in 1889, and on the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey in 1892, so that a fairly complete range 
Ot train weights from 200 to 400 tons, and of train speeds 
from 40 to 70 miles per hour is given in the tahle. The 
Lundie formula checks up all these tests very closely, 
though in all but one case the results obtained by its use 
are slightly higher than the observed results. In this 
connection it may be noted that Mr. Lundie obtained his 
speed figures by positive methods, having found that speed 
recorders for variable speeds are not sufficiently accurate 
owing to the inertia of the moving parts. 

These tests are all for heavy railroad passenger trains, 
upon which Mr. Lundie himself has made no experiments. 
For trains of from 20 to 100 tons, and for speeds of from 
five to thirty miles per hour, the Lundie formula is accur- 
ate, inasmuch as it is obtained directly from 150 or more 
observations made by Mr. Lundie in Chicago, as before 
stated. For lighter units still, the formula agrees with 
the results of private tests made by several of the great 
e'ectric companies, and checks very well indeed the Clark 

CR= f^ + 7.i6), 

bearing in mind that the latter is generally admitted by en- 
gineers to be from one to two pounds too high. 

Now it need scarcely be pointed out that when a formula 
of this general kind, deduced on mathematical principles 
from a large series of experiments within a comparatively 
narrow range of action, is found to be equally applicable 
over a much wider range, a strong presumption in favor 
of the soundness of its underlying principle is established. 
It seems practically certain, therefore, that the Lundie for- 
mula is thus applicable to the whole range of passenger 
train traction on straight, level, exposed track in a calm 
atmosphere. It cannot, however, be said to be applicable 
to street cars running on gritty or dirty rails, and, in fact, it 
is unfortunately too probable that no formula whatever 
can be devised for street railway work for which a large 
factor of safety would not have to be allowed in practice 
to provide for great differences in condition of track. 

An interesting question nowarises as towhether theLun- 

Table Showing Application of Lundie 

level track of 5.5 lbs. per ton. By the Lundie formula this 
would have been 8.3 lbs. per ton. An extremely heavy train 
cf freight cars on the New York Central, weighing 3428 
tons, had an average train resistance, at 20 miles per hour, 
of about 4 lbs. per ton, or the limiting resistance by the 
Lundie formula as expressed in the first constant. Other 
tests on fairly heavy freight train work recently made have 
shown approximately 6 pounds per ton as an average, 
when track conditions were good, but these results vary 
greatly with the condition of the track. 

Now it being reasonable to suppose that with the heav- 





— is 







0. 2?, ,V 



FIG 2. 

iest freight train work, the train resistance will approach 
the minimum, and the New York Central experiment 
above referred to, indicating that this minimum is Mr. 
Lundie's first constant of 4, it would seem that the latter's 
first constant within the parenthesis, namely .2, must be 
inapplicable to very heavy freight-train work, and should 
be, in fact, modified by a variable, probably T. It w r ould 
be interesting, therefore, to bring together and plot in dia- 
grammatic form, reliable results of a large number of 
freight-train tests taken with different weights and speeds, 
to see if a modification of the Lundie formula cannot be 
Formula to Train Resistance Tests. 

Test Made By 

William Stroudley 
Angus Sinclair. . . . 

P. H. Dudley. 
Clark formula 





London, Brighton and South Coast. Single test 

New York Central Mean of six tests 

" " Single test 

" " I Single test 

Philadelphia and Reading Single test 

" " Single test 

C. R. R., N. J Single test 

Average Speed. 
Miles per hour. 
















Train Weight. 








Train Resistance. 









9 5 

I' ormula. 

14. 1 
21. 1 







die formula can be made, with some modifications, applica- 
ble to all kinds of train transportation, freight as well as 
passenger. It does not check the most recently obtained 
data for exceedingly heavy trains. Tests on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railway, made by the old method 
of engine indicator diagrams, checked by dynamometer 
car, show that a 940-ton train of loaded freight cars, run- 
ning at 20 miles an hour, has a resistance on a straight, 

made for general application to the heavy class of work, 
as well as light, and we are inclined to believe that were 
this experimenting once done there might quite possibly 
be found a common ground of reconciliation between the 
two grades of service, by which a formula possessing the 
general characteristics developed by Mr. Lundie could be 
made applicable to the entire range of railroad transporta- 

9 8 


Vol. XV., No. 2. 

The Money Centers and Tramway Opportunities of the 


/. — Europe. 

At this time when enormous stores of capital are con- 
centrated in a few great money centers of the world wait- 
ing investment in more profitable channels than those im- 
mediately in sight, and meanwhile earning little or nothing 
more than the cost to the bankers of caring for them; at a 
time, too, when all kinds of "wild cat schemes" are being 
promoted, and mining and other similar enterprises in- 
volving serious risks and possibilities of loss of principal 
are finding supporters and investors, it is not surprising 
that more and more attention is being given by the possess- 
ors and custodians of capital to the almost limitless field 
of electric railroading in its various phases — city, suburban 
and interurban — operating, projected or ready for the pro- 
jector, in all parts of the world. The flow of money into 
these channels, however, has hardly more than com- 
menced, if we consider the vast number of opportunities 
which are offered by the densely populated countries of the 
old world, so large a percentage of whose population is col- 
lected together into cities, towns and villages but short dis- 
tances apart. 

It will be useful, therefore, in the interest of capital seek- 
ing investment to take a broad survey of the world and 
note what may and what may not be done in the different 
countries, and what are themostpromising openings for im- 
mediate effort. Such asurvey, if thoroughly made, would in- 
clude a discussion of so many elementsof general and special 
problems of investment as to be entirely beyond the limits 
of any paper, magazine or even book, but there can here be 
indicated in brief space the lines on which further work 
tan be done in particular countries or sections. 

The four great money markets of the world where capi- 
tal can be obtained for all kinds of home or foreign enter- 
prises, are London, Paris, Berlin and New York — all 
charged with the duty of finding an outlet for the surplus 
profits of great manufacturing countries. It has only lately 
been possible to place New York in the list of first-class 
international money lenders, as American capital has been 
so far absorbed in self development and has even been a 
borrower in the world's money markets to assist in this 
process, but now, while self development is by no means 
completed, our annual surplus investment fund is so enor- 
mous, due to growing manufacturing, commerciai and agri- 
cultural profits, that we can no longer use all our own 
money to advantage, as is shown not only by the low rates 
of interest prevailing in America, but by the large sums of 
American money afloat in the markets of Europe, but sub- 
ject to call home at any time. 

In London there is now little or no difficulty in obtain- 
ing money for reasonably promising foreign tramway proj- 
ects, but there is as yet comparatively little real effort 
made to find them. In spite of low interest rates and large 
accumulations of money, the London banker as a rule 
limits his efforts to passing upon projects which may be 
brought to him, and leaves to promotors the task of taking 
the initiative and finding the opportunities. Berlin, on 
the contrary, is eager, active, outward-looking and anxious 
to find the money making chances. Hardly a ship leaves 
a German port without bearing an engineer sent by some 
financial concern to investigate a proposition or a possible 
opening in some distant portion of the world. German 
bankers thoroughly understand the profits in electrical en- 
terprises and are anxious to extend the range of their in- 
vestments. In fact, the recent serious stringency in the 
German monev market is attributed to the immense 

amounts of money which have flowed into electric railway 
and lighting enterprises during the past two or three years, 
many of which have not yet begun to develop their full 
earning power. Paris has been somewhat slower than 
Berlin in understanding tramway profits, but is now mak- 
ing heavy investments at home, in Italy, along the Mediter- 
ranean, and to some extent in Russia. Brussels, which 
has always been the headquarters of several syndicates 
operating horse tramways in all parts of the world, is in- 
creasing its investments in this field, frequently in con- 
junction with German or Erench capital, by which Belgian 
capital has been to some extent overshadowed. 

America has poured immense sums of money — probably 
over $1,000,000,000 — into street railway development at 
home, but has so far made little effort to enter into com- 
petition with European money centers in the building or 
promotion of new enterprises abroad. New York is losing 
great opportunities, for its capitalists thoroughly under- 
stand and appreciate the value of electricity for transporta- 
tion purposes and need no education. Perhaps a change 
is coming with the new ideas of "expansion," and this cer- 
tainly ought to be the case, for no field of international in- 
vestment offers greater promises of satisfactory return. 

It is quite certain that, in spite of occasional exceptions, 
there will be little interchange of capital for tramway in- 
vestment between the four great money countries them- 
selves. America has money enough and to spare at low 
lates of interest for American enterprises, and needs none 
from Europe. Great Britain owns two or three tramways 
in Germany and has a little capital in France, but this was 
placed there before the Germans and French waked up to 
what was going on. It goes without saying that there is 
no French capital to speak of in Great Britain, and little or 
none in Germany. German capital is, however, quietly 
and unostentatiously at work through international bank- 
ing houses in Great Britain and France, but still to no 
great extent, and not to the exclusion of local capital in 
the same investments. 

Both German and French capital is found in Switzer- 
land, in Belgium, and in Russia, German and local capita; 
has almost a monopoly in Austria-Hungary, British and 
German capital controls South and Central America, while 
all the capitalist nations of the world are gathering their 
forces for an onslaught upon Eastern Asia, which is the 
great virgin money making field of the world to-day. 

It is hard for the newer countries of the world to con- 
ceive how densely settled are the older ones. Observe the 
tollowing population densities of continents: 

Inhabitants Inhabitants 

Continent. per sq. mile. Continent. per sq. mile. 

North America 12.0 Asia 47.5 

South America 5.4 Africa 14.2 

Europe 93.0 Australia 1.1 

Is it possible that Europe will long be contented with a 
much smaller steam railroad mileage than America and 
with higher prices for transportation, when the alternative 
is presented of profitably operating thousands of miles of 
electric railways in a territory where the population dens- 
ity is over seven times that of America? No matter who 
or what is injured in the process, better transportation 
facilities must and will be given to the people of Europe. 

In the accompanying table are shown the number of 
cities of above 20,000 (usually) inhabitants found in the 
principal countries of Europe, the population of these 
cities, and the percentage of this city population to the 
total population of the country. From such figures a 
quick idea of the relative importance of each country from 
the municipal transportation point of view may be ob- 

February, 1899.] 



Cities Above 20,000 Inha 




Populat ion. 

tion per 

Population . 

Cent to 





. . 

in 1 1 T 41c 

37i/3 1 ,4 1 5 



20, 190,568 


5 2 > 2 79,9 01 

25 1 


1 1,449,000 

21 Q 

Russia (in Kurope). 

io 3,7°3> 21 j 





3 1 * i0 A°33 




17. 1 





IQ. I 

Austria-Hungary. . . . 


t *7 r 



0. 5 

T*7 cAc A "J "? 





/I KCG /I ^ T 




o>4 IO >7°3 





Sweden and Norway 

°iy*' tj i 1 / / 





s , ouu, uuu 



Q. 2 


10 3 



IS. 1 






Turkey (in Europe). 






























Great Britain. — Existing laws and customs, short time 
franchises and strict regard for private righes and vested 
interests are all against the rapid introduction of improved 
transportation facilities in the British Isles, although 
much has been done during the past three or four years to 
overcome prejudice, and considerable headway has been 
made. Nearly all desirable investments will be taken at 
home and there will be little or no chance for outside capi- 
tal, unless working in conjunction with home interests. 
German and American capital is, however, actually inter- 
ested to some extent in British tramway development, 
chiefly through international banking and manufacturing 
houses. Public sentiment is steadily tending toward muni- 
cipalization of city enterprises, including that of transpor- 
tation, and unless this should be checked by poor financial 
results or admittedly imperfect operation, there will be less 
and less chance for private capital to engage in such en- 
terprises. There is yet to be built, however, a great net- 
work of light railways, to be operated probably by electric- 
ity, supplementing the present steam railroad service, and 
providing for cheap, pleasant and frequent service between 
cities and towns. Such work will probably be left, for the 
present at least, to private capital, and if the latter can se- 
cure rights of way and terminal privileges within the limits 
of the cities which they serve, there is quite enough profit 
in prospect to satisfy the most rapacious of the investing 
interests. The location and building of such railways will 
necessarily take time, however, and will be met by vigor- 
ous opposition on the part of the existing railroads, unless 
the latter themselves undertake the work of expanding the 
transportation facilities of the British Isles, which is quite 

Germany. — With nearly half as many cities as Great 
Britain, and more than half the city population Germany 
is far more progressive and active in transportation mat- 
ters, and electric railways are being installed al! over the 
Empire. Here again local capital is dominant and suf- 
ficient, and there is little chance for foreign, although in 
Germany as in Great Britain, immense quantities of Ameri- 
can tramway apparatus and material are sold. The home 
tramway development is controlled to a very large extent 
by several great syndicates or groups, each composed of 
banks, promoting companies and manufacturing com- 
panies. [See Street Railway Journal (Interna- 
tional Edition) for July, 1898, page 389]. These 
different groups enter into competition with each 

other to secure existing and new enterprises, and 
the amount of capital at their disposal is almost unlimited. 
Nearly all new enterprises are promoted by some one of 
these syndicates, for the money influence of the country is 
very largely concentrated in their numerous banks, and in- 
dividual outside enterprise will naturally be discouraged. 
On all good propositions foreign capital can generally be 
outbid in one way and another, interest rates in Germany 
being quite low. 

Russia. — Russia has been until recently a terra incognita 
— a country jealously shutting itself up and keeping itself 
i'loof from the rest of the world so far as possible. Now, 
however, foreign enterprise, though hardly welcomed, is 
not repelled, and in spite of high protective duties, the im- 
portations of outside products are very heavy. Among 
foreign manufacturers none have been more persistent and 
aggressive than the Germans and Americans, and repre- 
sentatives of manufacturing and business houses of both 
countries are overrunning the vast Slav Empire and are 
finding and reporting opportunities for investment. The 
Russian Government is a borrower in the world's money 
markets, its borrowings being largely for the purpose of 
accumulating a sufficient gold reserve to change its mone- 
tary system from silver to gold, and as a consequence it 
has enormous stores of gold already locked up and taken 
out of circulation. There will doubtless be more or less 
disturbance of the financial fabric when this change takes 
place, and provision should be made accordingly, but in 
general it may be said that with its eighty-seven cities in 
European Russia and thirty-seven in Asiatic Russia, there 
should be great chances for money making in the con- 
struction and operation of Russian tramways. Individual- 
1) the Russians are probably well to do, though statistics 
as to wealth per capita are missing, but the building of the 
great Siberian railway to the Pacific Ocean and other large 
projects which the Russian Government has in hand for 
the development of the immense natural resources of the 
Empire will doubtless increase individual wealth, but not 
in proportion to the possibilities for investment. 

Italy. — It is somewhat surprising to find that Italy has 
a larger number of cities above 20,000 inhabitants than 
France or Austria-Hungary. Italy is not wealthy as a 
country or in its individual citizens, and there is a great 
deal of "picturesque poverty" in the peninsula. Never- 
theless, it has many tramways already established and 
more possible locations for others, although to many peo- 
ple it seems a desecration to think of overrunning the land 
of Caesar with such twentieth century improvements. Ger- 
man and French capital is quite active in Italy, and fre- 
quently comes into competition. The English also own 
two or three tramway systems, and local capital is, of 
course, interested to a large extent. The field here is well 
worth investigation by Americans. 

France. — France is self contained and self sufficient so 
far as money investments are concerned, but is using large 
quantities of foreign (chiefly American) tramway apparatus 
and material, purchased by companies formed primarily to 
control and operate tramway properties. These com- 
panies have secured French and, in some cases, Mediter- 
ranean rights for handling American apparatus, on 
advantageous terms, and have not until now found a large 
enough margin of profit in manufacturing to warrant the 
building of apparatus in France itself, in view of the larger 
margins obtainable in purchasing and operating 
tramways. The principal tramway companies of 
the country are gradually coming under the con- 
trol of some one of these promoting corporations, 
and are thus losing their distinctive character. A num- 
ber of American engineers and business men are associated 



[Vol. XL No. 2. 

with these French syndicates, and their experience in tram- 
way construction and operation is of great value. 

Austria-Hungary.- — Extreme Chauviniste or high pro- 
tectionist ideas prevail in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, 
and great jealousy of foreign inventors or manufacturers 
is found as a rule. This can be overcome only by diplo- 
macy, and much of the manufactured products which are 
supposed to be of home manufacture is, in reality, made in 
Germany or elsewhere. Germany has a great advantage 
over other countries in dealing with the dual empire in 
that so large a portion of the latter's population are Ger- 
man born or of German descent. In fact the difficulties of 
foreigners doing business at all in a country containing so 
many different peoples speaking different and troublesome 
languages are very great, and as a result there is little in- 
terference with German and Austro-Hungarian manufac- 
turers in their efforts to keep this business to themselves. 
The number of cities and the amount of city population is 
1 ertainly tempting, however, to outsiders, and transporta- 
tion facilities are by no means perfect though much better 
in some respects than in other countries of Europe. 

Spain and Portugal. — British capital has done much in 
Spanish tramways during the last two or three years, and 
those of Madrid, Barcelona, Lisbon, Cartagena, Seville, 
and others are in their control. France is the great Euro- 
pean power most nearly in touch with these two countries, 
however, and should have decided advantages in obtain- 
ing their business. Germany, too, will be favored, while 
America, in view of recent war complications, would have 
little chance of success in obtaining valuable concessions. 
The Spanish people being naturally somewhat indolent in 
private life, are good patrons of street railways, as is shown 
in some of the Spanish-American countries as well as in 
Spain itself. 

The Netherlands. — The Netherlands form one of the 
wealthiest countries of Europe, and have always been 
lenders rather than borrowers of money, but less in the 
line of railroad development than of commercial matters. 
Practically all the Dutch tramways are locally owned, and 
little is known about them outside. Rates of interest in 
Holland are so low as to discourage outside enterprise, 
while it is true, of course, that transportation by the net- 
work of canals throughout the Netherlands is so cheap as 
to make the field for interurban railways probably less 
promising than in some other countries. 

Belgium. — A single great company, the Societe Na- 
tionale des Chemin de Fer Vicinaux, controls a large pro- 
portion of the tramway and "light railway" mileage of Bel- 
gium — no less than 862 miles in all. 

As above stated, the Belgians are fully alive to the profits 
of tramway operation, and have never had to seek outside 
capital for the development of home propositions. The 
only way of obtaining a share of tramway development 
profits in Belgium would be to join forces with local capi- 
tal, and even this is difficult unless a special and substantial 
advantage can be shown to the local capital for admitting 

The Scandinavian Countries. — Norway, Sweden and 
Denmark are thrifty and prosperous countries, and for or- 
dinary capital requirements do not need to look outside 
their own borders. Nevertheless, there would probably 
be no actual repelling of outside capital there to seek in- 
vestment, but the difficulties of languages would be such as 
to make it rather hard to form joint syndicates. At present 
commercial relations with Germany are seriously strained 
and may quite likely be almost entirely broken off for 
awhile at least on account of what is considered the high- 
handed action of Germany in expelling the Danes from 
Schleswig-Holstein. In trade matters England and the 

United States would be favored, and there is a very cordial 
feeling, particularly in Denmark, forAmerica and Ameri- 

Szvitscrland.- — Switzerland is, in language, part German 
and part French, and its affiliations are also divided be- 
tween the two adjacent countries. Nearly all the railways 
and tramways of the Republic are owned by the cantons, 
and what private capital is so invested is chiefly French and 
German. English and American capital would find it dif- 
ficult to secure a foothold here. 

The Balkan Peninsula. — Turkey has for a hundred years 
been a bone of contention among the European powers, 
and it can hardly be said that any has permanently ob- 
tained great predominance in its councils. At present its 
cities are being closely examined by a number of European 
capitalists with a view to tramway possibilities, and it is 
probable that concessions may be granted in Constanti- 
nople and elsewhere. American capital would probably 
have little chance of success, as it would doubtless be the 
Sultan's policy to use his franchise conveying powers to 
further his purposes with some one or other of the Euro- 
pean powers. 

The other countries of the Balkan Peninsula are more or 
less subject to European influence, and the conveying of 
franchises would naturally be matter of some delicacy and 
would require considerable diplomacy to effect. British 
capital has so far been successful in several cities of the 


Frequent and severe punishment for petty offenses 
should be abolished and a code of rules established worthy 
of the men and the business they represent. The almost 
universal practice in punishing minor offenses is to "lay 
off" the employee from one to ten days, without pav, which 
ts in effect a fine of from two to twenty dollars. The man 
is soured, his family suffers from the loss of earnings, and 
if the man happens to be a conductor it is not surprising if 
he tries to "get even" by nipping fares. The practice is 
still adhered to by many railway companies, and the of- 
fenses which it is supposed to correct still continue. Such 
a practice would not be countenanced in a manufactory, a 
store, or in commercial affairs; why should it be on street 
railways ? If the man is valuable enough to be retained in 
service, why should his family suffer the loss of his wages ? 
If the man were permitted to continue at his work and one- 
half the amount he would lose by laying-off were assessed 
as a cash fine, the practice would be condemned in un- 
measured terms both by the press and an indignant public. 
If employees are not amenable to reprimand administered 
in a proper way, then they have not your welfare at heart, 
and should be dispensed with altogether. — From paper 
read at the St. Louis Convention, 1896. 

All foremen and sub-foremen should be impressed with 
the idea that all men under their charge should be treated 
in a gentlemanly manner, and with the utmost fairness; 
that there shall be no favoritism in recommending men for 
promotion, or in shielding them from punishment. — From 
paper read at the St. Louis Convention, 1896. 

Again, as a second suggestion, I wish that we might 
induce every street railway company in this country to take 
an active part in this, our association. I sometimes fear 
that some of the smaller companies, who, as yet, by reason 
of location or character of travel, have not found it to their 
advantage to adopt the more recent kinds of motive power, 
but are still using horses, feel that they have no place in 
our gatherings. — From address at the Atlanta Convention, 
















1897 1893 






5,507, 1 




in. io 
30. 32*. 000 
27 7 ,031 ..'Wo 




923, 1 07 

s, 047,:; (.0 



I 2.5]0,s27 
1. .-:,( i 



8, 271. 30d 
2 520.800 

SI, 110,0 


'■i',2, (100 

2, 5 35 4 
(185, Olid 
837.5(1(1 rfi 
205 (ion 
* Wi.ninj 
*4 1.000 

7211, (ion 


-5K8, Too 


70, 209, 271 


1897 1898 


(HIS, 500 


177. .",03, 55(1 
3d, 0M, 00(1 


0,603, 3 _ _ 



2 -,(125.1 

8,8-1!, 200 


,8, 53.'., (in 1 

161, 174, 664 

17. .-,05. -no 
|o..|.i- mm 

7 1, S<.<7. Don 



A, 78-1,000 


2. 045.000 

16,1 101 1 


0,20i\ -157 


2,3:;:-. ooo 

21, C73.(1(H.I 

1, "92,000 


0,928 7">0 
5. 472. 49- 
1, 0(u. 0O0 
- 1.2011,400 










72, M 





I s ;s. 308,925 







(l,90:i.o-l j 

1.5:17, 100 



21,50 I.Oli! 
13, 81-7, 0(15 













5 073,000 
?, 75(1,000 
H. (130,52s 


35. 325, 1-12 





? 25,000 
JO-5, 000 


-3.70--, 2-50 




ft tyj 










































































































































































































































1 7 




























































































































New England States. 


New Hampshire 


Massachusetts ....... 

Rhode Island 



Eastern States. 

New York 

New Jersey 



District of Columbia. 



West Virginia 


Central States. 











Southern States. 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 









Western States. 

South Dakota 












United States 




1897 1898 





' *82 




1897 1898 

54 1,214 


































* Decrease. 

February, 1899.] 



Improvements in Denver 

The Denver Consolidated Tramway Company has re- 
cently been equipping some of its cable railways with elec- 
tric power. In its new track construction the company is 
using a 72-lb., 6-in., 60-ft. T rail, mounted on 5 in. x 7 
ill. x 7 ft. creosoted ties, ballasted and thoroughly tam- 
pered with gravel. 

The company has also been experimenting on splicing 
some of its old 16-ft. cars, each with an ordinary seven- 
bench trailer to make a 39-ft. combination car, which is a 
very popular type of car in Colorado. The method of 
splicing employed is as follows: The cars are mounted 
on a framing of two 6-in. I-beams extending the entire 
length of the car, the beams being joined together by 
stout oak pieces. The running boards are then removed 
from the trailer and wooden guards put on the sides of the 
open car, which is fitted with long storm curtains in addi- 
tion to the ordinary shades. The seating arrangement of 
the open portion of the car was changed by the removal 
of the seats on one side and the substitution in their place 
01 longitudinal seats, made up to a certain extent from the 
seats removed. The object of this arrangement was that, 
while it afforded nearly the same seating capacity as before, 
it enabled the conductor to collect the fares more quickly 
and with perfect safety. The engravings herewith give a 
good idea of the external appearance of the car and the 
seating arrangement of the open portion. 

The entrance is near the middle of the car at the end of 
the closed portion of the car, and is of ample width, allow- 
ing passengers to get on and off the car at the same time. 
The company is considering the advisability of protecting 
this entrance with an ordinary gate or guard for the pur- 
pose of minimizing accidents, resulting from people step- 

vised by A. L. Lawton, manager of the Colorado Springs 
Railway. These fenders have picked up a number of per- 


sons, as well as dogs, bicycles, and in one instance, a horse. 
Ihe management reports that it is well pleased with the 

Street Railway Mileage and Capitalization in America 

In the accompanying inset will be found a most careful 
compilation of the mileage of electric, cable and horse rail- 
ways in the United States and Canada; the number and 
distribution of the cars operated thereon, and the capital 
stock and funded debt of the operating companies — all ar- 
ranged by states and sections of the country, and compari- 
son made with corresponding figures for 
1897. A similar table appeared in the 
Street Railway Journal for October, 
1897, in which the 1896 figures were 
given, and from these two compila- 
tions the general growth of the industry in 
America for the last three years can be 
understood, as well as the distribution of 
the increases from year to year. 


Contractors for Tramways in Barcelona 
and Madrid 


ping off the car while in motion. It is expected that a 
large number of cars will be equipped in this way. The 
closed portion is always at the front end of the car which 
is always run in the same direction. 

All of the company's cars have recently been fitted with 
storm fronts, similar to that shown in the engraving of the 
exterior of the car. A curtain, not shown in the engrav- 
ing, is put on the motorman's left-hand side for the pur- 
pose of protecting him from drafts. All of the cars are 
now being fitted with the changeable headlight of the 
Crouse-Hinds Electric Company, of Syracuse, N. Y. The 
company has also equipped all of its cars with a fender de- 

Elsewhere in this issue F. C. Armstrong 
describes the new electric railway systems 
recently installed in the cities of Madrid and 
Barcelona, Spain. The chief sub-contrac- 
tors for the railway apparatus used in those 
plants were as follows: 

Generators and motors — British Thomson- 
Houston Company (Limited). 

Engines — E. P. Allis Company. 
Boilers — Babcock & Wilcox Company. 

Condensers and water tower — Wheeler Condenser & Engineer- 
ing Company. 

Economizers — Green Economizer Company. 

Feed wire — Calender's Cable & Construction Company. 

Car bodies — Compania de Ferro-carrilles de Zaragoza. 

Car trucks — J. G. Brill Company. 

Trolley wire — Felten & Guilleume. 

Rail bonds — Neptune, made by Felten & Guilleume. 

Rails — Phoenix Actien Gesellschaft 


Our experience has been that if the conductors and the 
passengers will use the transfers as we intended they should 
use them, we can afford to give them.- — From address at 
the Montreal Convention, 1895. 



Vol. XV, No. 2. 


Edited by J. Aspinwall Hodge, Jr., and' Robert 
Ernest, of the New York Bar 

Heating: and Other Accommodations in Street Cars 

There was a time — not very far distant — when places of 
public concourse, such as theaters, lecture halls and 
churches, had no other means of heating than the foot 
stoves, which might be carried by some of the more luxuri- 
ous members of the audience; and long after it was the uni- 
versal custom to properly heat such places, it was still an 
unheard-of thing that any public conveyance should be 
furnished with any other means of heating than the hot 
brick or the little foot stove. 

With the steam railroad there came, first, wood and 
coal car-heaters, and now, even these are things of the 
past, and in some States are prohibited by statute, the 
steam railroad being obliged to furnish steam heat, be- 
cause of the danger of fire in case of a railroad wreck 

It was some years after the street car was introduced be- 
fore what was then considered a novel luxury was intro- 
duced into some of them in the shape of a small coal stove; 
but now that is almost universal, except where it has been 
supplanted by the luxurious electric heater supplied from 
the same current which propels the car and lights it. 

As each of the inventions is introduced and becomes 
established, it ceases, in the public mind, and in fact, to 
be a luxury, and becomes a necessity; and, in passing from 
one class to the other, a legal obligation is created, by 
leason of the general rule, that in the contract between the 
common carrier and the passenger there is an implied 
agreement that the latter will be furnished with the ordi- 
nary comforts or necessities which are incident to the mode 
of conveyance furnished. This is the common law. and 
where there are statutes they have either merely declared 
it or have imposed additional burdens upon the common 
carrier by definitions of what are necessities and ordinary 
comforts. — (Texas & P. R.R. vs. Pierce, 30 S.W., 1122; 
Boothby vs. R.R., 66 N.H., 342.) 

As the electric street railroad is gradually furnishing the 
same sort of transportation as the steam railroad, and in 
much the same way, it finds itself assuming new responsi- 
bilities, and becoming more and more subject to the same 
rules which apply to its older rival. Among these un- 
doubtedly is the duty of heating its cars and its waiting 
rooms, where these are furnished as ancillary to its busi- 
ness at its transfer points. So far as we are aware, there is 
no adjudicated case of the Appellate courts upon the duty 
of a street car company to keep its conveyances warm, and 
upon its liability to passengers for illness caused by the 
want of proper heat. 

That it is the duty of the steam railroad company to heat 
its cars, and that they are liable where, through negligence, 
they do not do so, and especially after the attention of the 
servants of the railroad have been called to the matter, has 
been more than once adjudicated. — (Ft. Worth & D. C. 
R.R. vs. Hyatt, 34 S.W., 677; Taylor vs. R.R., 38 S.W., 
304; Hastings vs. R.R., 53 Fed., 224.) 

This rule, when it shall be applied to the street car, will 
undoubtedly be applied with due consideration of the dif- 
ference in the conditions. For the ordinary passenger 
upon the street car in a city, who steps into the car 
from the street, warmly dressed, and who leaves it after 
a ride of only a mile or less, is manifestly not so exposed 

* Communications relating to this department may be addressed to the 
Editors, Johnston F.uilding. 30 Broad Street, New York. 

to the elements as to raise any presumption that a sub- 
sequent illness results from such a ride, however inade- 
quately the car was heated; and, on the other hand, upon 
the question of contributory negligence, a passenger on 
the street car can, at very small expense and comparatively 
little inconvenience, leave an unheated car as soon as he be- 
comes aware that its temperature is dangerous to his 
health, assuming that he is riding through a city street, or 
is upon a line where the headway between cars is not 
great, and where he can procure another and better- 
warmed conveyance. 

But when the trolley line reaches out into the country, 
and becomes intra-urban, the conditions grow more and 
more like those of the steam railroad, and, as they ap- 
proximate them, the duty of providing like accommoda- 
tions and comforts increases. H. 


INDIANA. — Construction of Franchise — Extension Validity — 
Conflicting Franchise — Unoccupied Streets — Completion of Tracks 
— Constitutional Law — Contiol of Streets. 

1. Acts 1861, p. 75 (Rev. St. 1894, sec. 5450; Horner's Rev. St. 
1897, sec. 4143 et seq. ), authorizes the organization of street rail- 
way companies, which are declared to be "corporate in perpetuity," 
and provides that such companies shall first obtain the city's con- 
sent to the construction of their roads through the streets of any 
city, and that the act shall not take from the city the exclusive con- 
trol of its streets. A city passed an ordinance granting a street 
railroad company a franchise to operate on its streets for a stated 
period, and afterward extended such period. Held, that the street 
railway company had not, without further legislation, the right to 
continue the operation of its railroad on such streets after expira- 
tion of the time fixed by the ordinances. 

2. Where a street railroad company incorporated under said pro- 
visions accepted an ordinance of a city granting it a franchise to 
operate its road on the city's streets for a stated period, and there- 
after sought and secured an extension of such period, it, by so 
doing, in conjunction with the city, construed said act as giving it 
no power to occupy streets beyond the time granted by the city, 
and was bound by such construction. 

3. The fact that a city has given a street railway company per- 
mission to construct its road on all the streets of the city, and that 
thereunder such company occupied a portion of the streets, does 
not make a franchise granted by the city to another company dur- 
ing the life of the former franchise invalid as to streets not occu- 
pied by the former company, since its franchise was exclusive only 
as to streets on which it had constructed its road, and from the 
time of such construction. 

4. Where a city authorized a street railroad company to con- 
struct its road on all the streets of the city, and thereafter, during 
the life of such franchise, authorized another company to construe: 
a street railroad system on the same streets, the rights of the two 
companies during the co-existence of the two charters, as to unoc- 
cupied streets, were equal, and, where one company thereafter con- 
structed its road on any of such streets, its right as to so much 
thereof as was necessary for the proper operation of its cars was 

5. A contract by which a city authorized a street railroad com- 
pany to construct a system of street railroads on its streets, in con- 
sideration of an annual payment to the city by such company, and 
its agreement to repair and clean that part of the streets occupied 
by its tracks, the fare being limited, and the undertakings of the 
company secured by sufficient indemnity, is legal and binding as 
between the city and the company, even though the contract may 
not be an advantageous one for the city. 

6. After passage of two municipal ordinances, one of which 
granted a street-railroad franchise for a term and the other of 
which extended it, the city attorney advised the city that the ex- 
tension was invalid. The city then granted a franchise to construct 
a street railroad system in the city's streets, including those occu- 
pied under the former franchise to another company, on condition 
that a certain portion of its system should be constructed within 
a specified time, the contract providing that delays caused by judi- 
cial restraint of the construction should not be counted, and delays 
caused by injunctions against the construction issued because of 
prior franchises should extend the time for completion for a stated 
period. The extension of the original franchise was afterward 
adjudged valid. Held, that the second franchise was not invalid, 
as granted under a mistake of law or of fact. 

February, 1899.] 



7. Where a street railway franchise required the company to 
complete its road on certain streets within a stated time, and an- 
other company, without authority so to do and without consent of 
the former company or of the city, forcibly took possession of such 
streets, and extended its road over them, the latter company could 
not complain that the former had failed to complete its road over 
such streets within the required time. 

8. Act June 4, 1861, sec. 12 (Rev. St. 1894, sec. 5450; Horner's 
Rev. St. 1897, sec. 4143), requires street railroad companies to first 
obtain the city's permission to lay their tracks over said streets, 
and provides that nothing in the act shall deprive a city of the ex- 
clusive control of its streets. A company organized under said act 
was by a city given permission to construct a street railroad system 
on all the streets of the city. It constructed a road on a portion of 
such streets, and left others unoccupied. Held, that it could not 
thereafter take possession of, and extend its road over, other 
streets without further permission from the city. 

9. A valid contract between a street railroad company and a 
city, whereby the former is given a franchise to construct a street 
railroad system on the streets of the latter, cannot be abrogated 
by an act of the legislature. 

10. Acts 1897, p. 154 (Horner's Rev. St. 1897, sec 4154). amend- 
ing act June 4, 1861, sec. 12, which provides that street railroad 
companies shall first obtain the city's consent to lay their tracks in 
streets, and that the act shall not deprive a city of the exclusive 
control of its streets, by adding that, on expiration of a street rail- 
road franchise, the right to use the streets shall forever cease, does 
not annul an existing franchise to operate on city streets granted 
by a city under charter authority. — (City Ry. Co. vs. Citizens' St. 
Ry. Co. et al. ; 52 N. E. Rep., 157.) 

LOUISIANA. — City Ordinance — Watering Street Car Tracks. 

1. An ordinance of the City Council of the city of New Orleans 
which requires corporations operating street electric cars within 
the limits of the city, upon tracks laid down in the public streets 
thereof, to water their tracks so as to effectually lay the dust within 
their tracks, is a legal exercise of the police power of the city. 
Such an ordinance tends to promote the comfort and convenience 
of passengers, and the health and comfort of the inhabitants of the 

2. It is neither indefinite nor unreasonable. — (State vs. Canal & 
C. R. Co., 24 So. Rep., 265.) 

NEW JERSEY.— Street Railroads— Use of Streets— Notice of 
Location — Judicial and Legislative Acts — Constitutional Law. 

A statute (3 Gen. St., p. 3237, sec. 126) authorized borough 
councils, upon public notice to all parties interested, to grant or to 
deny to a street railroad a location of its tracks conformably to its 
route; such grant, if made, to be upon such lawful restrictions as 
the interest of the public was deemed to require. Upon notice, 
consent to a location was given, upon the restriction, among 
others, "that the limit of this consent shall be twenty-five years 
from the acceptance of this ordinance." Subsequently, and with- 
out notice, a supplement to this ordinance was passed that elimin- 
ated the above restriction. Held: I. The municipal act of the 
"location" of the tracks of a street railroad operated by the trolley 
system does not involve any private rights. 2. Such location is a 
legislative, and not a judicial, act. 3. Apart from express statutory 
requirement, notice is not requisite. 4. The notice required by the 
act is satisfied when it has been complied with. 5. Whether the 
action of council was in bad faith is not a judicial question. — (State 
— Moore et al., prosecutors — vs. West Jersey Traction Co. et al., 
41 Atl. Rep., 946.) 

NEW HAMPSHIRE.— Extension of Line— General Law- 
Public Good. 

Laws 1895, c. 27, sec. 3, providing for the organization of street 
railway corporations by general law, and authorizing the court to 
determine whether the public good requires the building of a street 
railroad on a proposed route, has no application to an extension, 
by a previously and specially chartered corporation, of its road, 
which it was authorized by its incorporation to build. — In re 
Nashua Street Ry., 41 Atl. Rep., 858.) 

NEW JERSEY.— Statutes — Special and Local Acts — Eminent 
Domain — Compensation — Street Railroads — Franchise — Certiorari 
— Rights of Taxpayers. 

1. The act of June 13. 1898 (P. L., p. 461), entitled "An act to 
authorize boards of chosen freeholders to widen, straighten, grade 
and otherwise improve highways under their control, and to pro- 
vide for the construction of street railroads thereon," is not ren- 
dered special or local by the provision that nothing in the act 
"shall be construed to authorize the construction of a street rail- 
road on any public highway on which it is not lawful at present to 
authorize the construction of a street railroad." 

2. The direction contained in said act that commissioners ap- 
pointed on condemnation of lands taken for the purpose of widen- 
ing, straightening, or changing the location of a highway in mak- 
ing their estimate and assessment of damages, "shall take into ac- 

count the benefits conferred by the improvement on the remainder 
of any lot or tract of land partly taken," is not unconstitutional. 

3. The fact that a street railroad company, with which a board 
of chosen freeholders has made a contract, under said act, to con- 
struct a street railroad upon a public highway under its control, 
has no franchise, apart from such contract, to construct or operate 
a street railroad upon such highway, does not give a taxpayer 
owning land upon the highway a standing to attack the contract. 
(State — Randolph et al., prosecutors— vs. Board of Chosen Free- 
holders of Union County et al., 41 Atl. Rep., 960.) 

NEW YORK.— 1. Statutes— Subject and Title— Separable Pro- 

Laws 1863, c. 361, entitled "An act to authorize the construction 
of a railway and tracks in the towns of West Farms and Mor- 
risania," authorizing in the first eight sections the construction of 
a street railway, and in section 9 the construction of a railway to 
other towns, is not void in toto, as violative of Const, art. 3, sec. 
16, providing that no bill shall embrace more than one subject, 
which shall be expressed in the title, since section 9 may be disre- 
garded as unconstitutional, without affecting the rest of the act. 

2. Same — Amendments. 

Laws 1892, c. 340, amending Laws 1863, c. 361, entitled "An act 
to authorize the construction of a railway and tracks in" certain 
towns, by providing for the consolidation of companies formed 
thereunder, does not contain more than one subject, and that sub- 
ject is sufficiently expressed in the title (Const, art. 3, sec. 16), 
since the amendment is within the reasonable scope of the subject 
contained in the title of the original act. 

3. Charter — Forfeiture. 

The corporate life of a company formed under Laws 1863, c. 361, 
providing in the first eight sections for the construction of street 
railways in certain towns and in section 9 for their construction in 
other towns, is not affected by a failure to comply with such sec- 
tion 9, since no authority was acquired thereunder by reason of its 

4. Same — Special Privileges — Constitutional Law. 

Laws 1892, c. 340, amending Laws 1863, c. 361. by exempting the 
corporations formed thereunder from the provisions of the general 
railroad act (Laws 1890, c 565, sees. 93, 95, 98), relating to the sale 
of the franchise of street railroads, payment of percentage of gross 
receipts, and repairs of streets, is not violative of the constitution, 
as amended January r, 1875, prohibiting the granting of immuni- 
ties or privileges, since such provisions were conditions imposed 
by the Legislature, winch it had power to take away. 

5. Same — Construction — Consent of Municipal Authorities. 
The general railroad law (Laws 1890. c. 565, sec. 91) provides 

that the consent of municipal authorities having "exclusive" con- 
trol of any portion of a street on which it is proposed to build a 
railroad must be obtained before proceeding therewith. The de- 
partment of public parks in the city of New York was vested with 
exclusive power to locate and maintain all streets, etc., until Laws 
1890, c. 545, invested such power in the commissioner of street im- 
provements in the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth wards as to all 
streets therein. Held, that as the department of public parks did 
not have "exclusive " control of streets within the meaning of the 
railroad act, the commissioner has none such, and hence his con- 
sent for the construction of a railroad in such wards is unneces- 

6. Same — Extension of Lines. 

A company "extending" its lines under Laws 1892, c. 676, is not 
lestricted to a mere prolongation of existing branches, since the 
term "extended" is given a broader meaning by section 90, which 
provides that any corporation organized since 1884, for the pur- 
pose of building or extending a street railroad or any of its 
branches on or along any street or avenue in any city, town or vil- 
lage, may do so by compliance with the article in which such sec- 
tion is contained. — (Bohmer vs. Haffen. 54 N. Y. Suppl., 1030.) 


DELAWARE. — Action on the case — Declaration — Certainty — 
Carriers — Injury to Passengers. 

1. A declaration in "case" charged defendant with "so negligent- 
ly and carelessly omitting and neglecting to use proper care and 
caution in running one of its cars, wherein the said plaintiff was 
then and there a passenger for hire, that said car ran from the rail 
with great force and violence," whereby plaintiff was thrown out 
and injured. Held, sufficiently certain. 

2. A count in "case" is sufficiently definite where it charges de- 
fendant with "negligently and carelessly running two cars, upon 
one of which the said plaintiff was then riding as a passenger for 
hire, upon a certain track, which was then and there, through (he 
negligence and carelessness of the said defendant, improper and 



Vol. XV, No. 2. 

unsafe," whereby the car was thrown from the track, and plaintiff 
thereby thrown to the ground and injured. 

3. A count in "case," which charges defendant with "so negli- 
gently and carelessly running a certain car in which the plaintiff 
was then and there a passenger for hire, and was then riding, that 
the said car jumped from the track," thereby causing the plaintiff's 
injury, is sufficiently certain. 

4. A declaration in "case" charged defendant with "so negli- 
gently and carelessly operating a certain electric car, which was 
then and there running for the carriage of persons for hire, that 
thereby the said plaintiff, who was then and there a passenger on 
said car, was, through the negligence and carelessness of the said 
defendant as aforesaid," thrown from the car and injured. Held, 
insufficient, since the statement of facts admits of almost any proof 
to sustain it. — (King vs. Wilmington & N. C. Elec. Ry. Co., 41 
Atl. Rep., 975-) 

MINNESOTA. — Injury to Person on Track — -Evidence — Ques- 
tion for Jury. 

The plaintiff sued for personal injuries received while on de- 
fendant's track in a public street, and, against defendant's objec- 
tion introduced in evidence a special rule of the defendant street- 
railway company intended for the guidance of its motorman, which 
provided that "he must keep a sharp lookout to avoid running into 
pedestrians and vehicles, especially at cross streets. While the car 
is in motion, the responsibility for safe running rests with him. 
* * * He will be held responsible for any damage arising from 
negligence." Plaintiff did not know of the existence of this rule, 
nor was there any evidence showing how long it had existed. 
Held, error: that the rule imposed a higher degree of care on the 
motoneer than the law requiied, that the jury might have under- 
stood that this rule imposed upon him and the defendant an extra- 
ordinary degree of care as to travelers on defendant's track, where- 
as the law imposes only a reasonable degree of care and vigilance 
in such cases. Held, also, that there was sufficient evidence to jus- 
tify the trial court in permitting the question of the defendant's 
negligence and the plaintiff's contributory negligence to go to the 
jury. — (Isaacson vs. Duluth St. Ry. Co., 77 N. W. Rep., 433.) 

NEW JERSEY. — Expert Evidence — Question for Jury. 

1. The opinion of an expert witness as to the cause of an accident 
is incompetent when it is based upon the existence of certain facts 
and conditions at the time of the accident, of which he has no per- 
sonal knowledge, and has not heard all the evidence in the case, 
unless the opinion is elicited by a question entirely hypothetical in 

2. The opinion of a witness, that the kind of block signals used 
on a trolley road are not such as to insure reasonable safety to the 
employees operating the cars of that road, is incompetent and ir- 
relevant; that conclusion being a question for the jury alone to 
determine from all the evidence in the case. — (Bergen County 
Traction Co. vs. Bliss, 41 Atl. Rep., 837.) 

NEW YORK. — Personal Injuries — Excessive Damages. 

A verdict of $3,750 is not excessive for injuries to a healthy 
woman, fifty-five years of age, which bruised and sprained her, and 
confined her to her house for two or three months on her physi- 
cian's advice, and caused permanent prolapsus uteri and conges- 
tion, necessitating the wearing of a pessary. — (Rippe vs. Metropol. 
St. Ry. Co., 54 N. Y. Suppl., 958.) 

NEW YORK. — Injury to Person on Track — Contributory Neg- 

Where plaintiff, on a dark night, was driving along the track of 
a street railway on which its cars would approach from his rear, 
and there was no room for him to drive outside of its double 
tracks, and he was familiar with both the street and the street rail- 
way's method of operating its cars thereon, in an action for per- 
sonal injuries he is bound to show affirmatively that he was exer- 
cising that reasonable care which the obvious dangers of his situa- 
tion demanded, as there is no inference that he was free from con- 
tributory negligence, in the absence of evidence that he ever 
looked back or listened for the approach of the cars. — (Johnson 
vs. Brooklyn Heights R. Co., 54 N. Y. Suppl., 547.) 

In an action for personal injuries, caused by negligence, the trial 
court has discretionary power to reduce a verdict as being exces- 

2. Same — Appeal. 

In an action for personal injuries, the evidence showed that 
plaintiff was a boy eighteen months old, and that his leg was am- 
putated above the knee. The verdict was $15,941.25. The trial 
judge, in his opinion, stated that the amputation was below the 
knee, and that, if he could exercise any discretion, he would reduce 
the verdict, but erroneously decided that he had no such discre- 
tion. Held, that the verdict was not cleanly excessive. — (Kalfur 
vs. Broadway Ferry & M. Ave. R. Co., 54 N. Y. Suppl., 503.) 

NEW YORK.— 1. Review— Conflicting Evidence— Finding of 

The verdict of a jury on conflicting evidence will not be dis- 

2. Warning from Approaching Car. 

Workmen repairing a street about a street-car track are entitled 
to more warning of an approaching car than the noise it makes in 

3. Same — Collision with Street Car — Contributory Negligence — 
Question for Jury. 

Plaintiff was rightfully at work on defendant's street-car track, 
repairing the street, when he was struck by a car whose bell gave 
him no warning of its approach, but which he could have seen, if 
he had looked, at a distance of 1,500 feet. Before stooping down to 
pour tar on the paving, he looked and saw no car in sight. As the 
tar had to be poured while very hot, it could not be long delayed, 
and to do so he had to bend over. He swore he did not know the 
car was near him until he was struck. Held, that the negligence of 
plaintiff, in omitting to look after he began to empty his bucket, 
was for the jury. 

4. Instructions — Harmless Error. 

A refusal to give a specific charge, where the court had already 
charged correctly the proposition involved, was harmless error.— 
(Lewis vs. Binghamton R. Co, 54 N. Y. Suppl, 452.) 

NEW YORK.— Negligence of Motorman— Child on Track- 
Burden of Proof. 

In an action against an electric street railway for killing a six- 
year-old boy, the negligence alleged was the omission of the 
motorman to stop the car before striking the child. The car was 
running at a speed not to exceed the prohibited rate of more than 
12 miles an hour. Plaintiff's evidence showed that, when the car 
was 71 feet from where the boy was struck, the boy had passed 
onto the outside rail, and was running directly across the track, 
but was struck when he had nearly reached the inside rail. The 
rails were not quite five feet apart, and, if plaintiff's evidence was 
true, the car traveled more than 17 times as fast as the boy, which 
would make its speed at least 34 miles to the hour (assuming the 
boy was running at the rate of 2 miles an hour), which was in- 
credible, in view of the finding that it was not going faster than 12 
miles per hour. The motorman testified that when he first saw the 
boy he was running diagonally by the car, and, "quick as a shot," 
ran and fell over the rail, and that he immediately lowered the 
fender and applied the brakes, but to no avail. There was no evi- 
dence -that the motorman saw the boy, or heard any warning con- 
cerning him", except his own testimony. Held, that a verdict for 
plaintiff should be reversed, since it was as reasonable to infer the 
motorman was not negligent, as the contrary, and the burden of 
proof was on plaintiff. — (White vs. Albany Ry, 54 N. Y. 
Suppl., 445.) 

Decision on Cast Welded Rail Joint Patent 

In the case of the Falk Manufacturing Company vs. the Mis- 
souri Railroad Company and the American Improved Rail Joint 
Company, which has been pending since July, 1897, an opinion 
was filed on Jan. 10 by Judges Adams and Sanborn, of the United 
States Circuit Court at St. Louis. In this opinion the Court finds 
that while the Falk company's patent sued upon (No. 545,040) has 
five claims, yet each of them might be said to be practically based 
upon the following steps, viz. : 

1. Cleaning the abutting rails for a short distance from the ends. 

2. Heating such cleaned rail ends. 

3. Adjusting a mold around such rail ends, and 

4. Pouring molten metal into the molds. 

After commenting upon the result obtained, in the way of secur- 
ing what are known as "continuous rails," the Court says: 

"In our opinion, without entering into any detailed analysis of 
the evidence bearing on the state of the art, consisting generally 
of publications, technical works, mechanical operations, individual 
experiences, common knowledge and divers patents — all of which 
have been carefully considered — the efforts of the patentee, as dis- 
closed by this patent, belong to the domain of mechanical skill 
and not to the domain of invention." 

The Court further holds that the Norris patent of 1851 and the 
Stephenson patent of 1831 are anticipatory of the Falk patent. The 
Falk company contends, however, that these patents describe 
inventions which were never tried in practice, and, therefore, do 
not hold. 

It is understood that the Falk company will appeal this decision 
at once, carrying the matter to the highest courts if necessary, but 
it holds that even should the patent be finally defeated, it does not 
follow that its control of the cast welded joint business would be 
thereby weakened, since it holds numerous other process or detail 
patents, without infringing upon which it is claimed that no suc- 
cessful cast welded joint can be made. 

February, 1899. 



Recent Annual Reports 


In the first annual report of the Boston Elevated Railway Com- 
pany, the directors review the history of the company from its 
organization in 1894 to its Iea a e of the West End system and -its 
leased lines, which took effect Sept. 30, 1897. The summary of the 
business for the complete year, ending Sept. 30, 1898, is as follows: 

Gross earnings from operation $9,179 096.35 

Operating expenses 6,566,584.16 

Net earnings from operation of leased lines $2,612,512.19 

Subway rental $106,134.35 

Interest on West End funded debt.... 498,600.00 

Dividend on West End preferred 

stock, 8 per cent 512,000.00 

Dividend on West End common 

stock, 7 per cent 635,950.00 

Dividend on Somerville H. R. Com- 
pany's stock, 6 per cent. 9,180.00 

Taxes on West End property 435,86044 

Total payments under lease of 
West End St. Ry. Co $2,197,724.79 


Add interest on special deposits 78,156.59 


Taxes, Boston Elevated Railway Co.. $86,049.74 
Compensation tax under agreement 

with Commonwealth, act of 1897. . 80,317.09 


Balance $326,577.16 

Interest paid to holders of Boston Elevated Railway 
Company, receipts, Aug. 15, 1898, 2]\ per cent on 

amount actually paid in 112,500.00 

Surplus for the year $214,077.16 

The report shows that work on the plans of the new elevated 
line has been vigorously prosecuted, and within a short time a 
large proportion of the structure will be put under contract. 
Foundations will be begun in the opening of the spring of 1899. 
The plans for the terminal stations at Roxbury and Charlestown 
have been completed, and a large part of the required land has 
been taken by eminent domain or purchased. George A. Kim- 
ball is the company's chief engineer of elevated lines, and since 
the report was issued John Lundie has been appointed consulting 
engineer, particularly with a view to decisions of car service and 

The company's general balance sheet shows as its large items 
a capital stock of $5,000,000. and a lease account. West End Street 
Railway Company, of $1,362,023 in liabilities, and in assets, cash 
on hand and in bank, $5,532,445, and West End Street Railway 
Company and Somerville Horse Railroad Company bond, prop- 
erty and open accounts amounting ro $1,932,048. The company 
carried 209,561,175 passengers during the year, of which 28,239,- 
880 were free transfer passengers. The car mileage was 32,379,445, 
and the receipts per total passenger were 4.279 cents. 


The annual report of (he Columbus Street Railway Company 
for the year ending Dec. 31, 1808, show* the following interesting 


1897. 1898. 

Gross- earnings $605,921 $680,173 

Operating expenses 286,874 327,692 

Earnings from operation $319,047 $352,481 

Miscellaneous earnings 5,397 8,860 

Total receipts— all sources $324,444 $361,340 

Fixed charges 200,151 205,964 

$124,293 $155,376 

^ . I897- 1898. 

Eatings $ l68 $ lg3 

Expenses — 

Maintenance of way 006 .01 

Maintenance of equipment 007 .008 

Conducting transportation 046 .046 

Power 007 .007 

General expenses 013 .016 

Total expenses $.079 $.087 

Net earings 089 .096 

The balance sheet shows in liabilities, capital stock, $3,000,000; 
bonded debt, $3,000,000; Crosstown bonds, guaranteed, $572,000; 
reconstruction reserve, $28,531; current liabilities, $192,301. In 
assets are plant, property and franchises, construction and equip- 
ment, $6,346,755; Crosstown lease and ownership, $572,000; park 
construction and equipment, $33,115; current assets, $38,393; pre- 
paid accounts and sinking fund, $43,594. The balance sheet sur- 
plus is $231,025. 


The annual report for the year ending December 31, 1898, in- 
cluding the following figures of operation, is as follows: 

1897. 1898. 

Gross earnings $4,816,516 $4,832,806 

Operating expenses and taxes 2,908,982 2,926,490 

Net earnings $1,907,534 $1,906,316 

Interest 207,877 207,877 

Dividends 1,440,000 1,440,000 

Balance for the year $259,657 $258,439 

Depreciation, etc 50,000 90,000 

Per cent operating expenses 60.84 60.97 

Passengers carried, cable 41,444,646 38,482,628 

Passengers carried, horse 691,051 477, 313 

Passengers carried, electric 53,485,425 57,032,173 

Miles run, cable 12,562,610 11,678,020 

Miles run, horse 198,860 143,900 

Miles run, electric 11,616,530 12,563,380 

At the annual meeting, Joseph Leiter, formerly second vice- 
president, was made first vice-president, and D. G. Hamilton was 
made second vice-president; other officers and directors remained 
unchanged. An increase of $2,000,000 in capital stock was author- 


The annual report for the year ending December 31, 1898, in- 
cludes the following figures: 1897. 1898. 

Passengers carried 56,354,147 58,422,077 

Miles run 10,644,270 10,916,737 

Receipts from — 

Cable lines $1,421,848 $1,448,652 

Electric lines 1,375,638 1,456,908 

Horse lines 20,911 15.865 

Total $2,818,398 $2,921,425 

Other income 93,153 93.898 

Total income $2,911,551 $3,015,323 

Operating expenses 1,319,926 1,390,681 

Net earnings $1,591,625 $1,624,642 

Interest, rentals, taxes, etc 636,462 543,666 

Dividend paid, 12 per cent 791,943 870,957 

Balance, surplus $163,220 $210,019 


The annual report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1898, includes 

the following figures: 1897. 1898. 

Passengers carried 78,594,932 80/00,505 

Receipts from — 

Cable lines $1,451,984 $1,427,622 

Electric lines 2,382.76s 2,539,204 

Horse lines 13.859 1 1,634 

Advertising, etc 5L307 53.443 

Gross earnings $3,899,918 $4,031,903 

Operating expenses 1,929,664 2,017,946 

Net earnings $1,970,254 $2,013,957 

Fixed charges — 

Rental of leased roads $736,465 

Coupon interest $1,198,000 

Other interest and taxes 399.720 

Dividends paid 791,340 791,340 

Surplus for year $42,729 $24,617 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 


At the annual meeting of the Columbia Construction Com- 
pany, which has a general contract for building the Northwestern 
Elevated Railroad, President George A. Yuille announced that in 
December an arrangement was completed with Blair & Company, 
of New York, whereby the Northwestern Elevated Railroad Com- 
pany had secured a loan of $4,500,000 to pay off the outstanding 
obligations incurred for labor, material and right of way, and to 
complete the road and put it in operation. In order to secure this 
loan, the capital stock of the Northwestern Company had been re- 
duced from $15,000,000 to $10,000,000, of which $5,000,000 was in 
common stock and $5,000,000 in preferred, and the authorized 
bond issue was reduced from $15,000,000 to $5,000,000. It was 
agreed that the parties making the loan would receive as a bonus 
$1,000,000 of the preferred stock and $1,000,000 of the common 
stock, leaving for the Columbia Construction Company on the 
final completion of the road and payment of the loan $4,000,000 of 
preferred and $4,000,000 of common stock. 


The annual report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1898, includes the 
following figures: 

1897. 1898. 

Passengers carried 11,229,590 12,391,020 

Gross earnings $579,96i $633403 

Operating expenses 329,124 324,947 

Net revenue $250,837 $308,456 

Taxes 18,612 13.849 

Interest on bonds 227,605 221,677 

Miscellaneous interest 29,874 37.667 

Loop rental 15.707 61,954 

Total $291,798 $335.M7 

Extraordinary expenses 31,880 

Deficit for year 72,841 26,691 


The annual report for the year ending Nov. 30, 1898, is as 

1897. 1898. 

Gross earnings $1,239,256 $1,311,365 

Operating expenses 847,833 801,971 

Net earnings $391-423 $509,394 

Other income 39. T 50 

Total $548,544 

Fixed charges 380,013 

Balance $168,531 

Dividends, 5 per cent on preferred stock 125,000 

Surplus $43,531 


and dividends were for the first half of the year (steam and mixed 
operation) $98,973, and for the second half with electrical operation 
(mixed in July) were $196,933, or almost double the earnings of 
the first six months. 

The net earnings applicable to dividends on stock during the last 
six months were at the rate of 3^2 per cent per annum, as against 
but 1 per cent per annum for 1897. 

At the time the change in power was undertaken, the road need- 
ed about ninety cars to transact its business, and 120 seemed an 
ample equipment on the new basis, but with growing patronage it 
has become necessary to increase the total equipment to 180 cars, 
of which 120 will be motor cars and sixty trail cars. 

The operating expenses of the power plant, based on maximum 
power required of 8,oco h.p. for about four hours each day in the 
winter months, is about $8 per h.p. per annum, and adding to the 
above general expenses 10 per cent depreciation, interest, insur- 
ance and taxes, the total cost per maximum h.p. per annum does 
not exceed $15. 

Mr. Carter speaks of the Sprague multiple unit system as fol- 

"At the time of the last annual meeting we reported that the test 
of the train equipped by Mr. Sprague, made on the Metropolitan 
Elevated road, was satisfactory. We began using electric cars in 
April, had sixty-seven in operation in May, and gradually in- 
creased the number until July, when they finally superseded the 
steam trains. We had minor difficulties to contend with which 
were met and solved. None of them resulted in injury to any pas- 
senger, and none of them involving the control of the train, which 
has always been complete. I am assured that the difficulties and 
annoyances were not so great as they were in installing the excel- 
lent steam locomotives which they displaced. We believe that the 
Sprague multiple-unit system has fulfilled expectations. Exhaus- 
tive tests have proved the economy of rapid acceleration and long 
coasting. A schedule speed of 15 miles per hour is easily main- 
tained, and time lost is easily made up. If needed, in order to meet 
competition, your company has the ability to increase the speed to 
20 miles an hour. 

"The reliability of the equipment has been fully tested this win- 
ter, when 150 cars, all we had, were in daily operation (Sundays 
excepted) for many weeks. 

"We have not been in electrical operation long enough to defin- 
itely determine the cost of maintenance, but we have sufficient data 
to confidently state that it will be low, as low as any other line do- 
ing equivalent service, and lower than many surface lines with 
18-ft. single truck cars. The advantage of this flexible system on 
crowded days, for switching and changing the length of trains, is 

The use of storage batteries is also referred to at some length 
in President Carter's report, and the statement is made that their 
use is a success, certainly in the matter of keeping up voltage and 
enabling the road to operate more cars, to furnish increased facili- 
ties to patrons and to prevent damage to power house machines 
under a sudden demand for increased power, while it is claimed, 
though not as yet fully demonstrated, that the cost of power pro- 
duction is also cheapened. 

Another Consolidation in Baltimore 

In view of the equipment of the South Side Elevated Railroad 
Company, of Chicago, by a novel and hitherto untried electric 
system, the Sprague multiple unit system, the following abstract 
of President Carter's report to the stockholders, on January 26, 
will be of peculiar interest: 

The company's road was operated by steam power from Jan. 1 
to Apr. 20. In that time the operating expenses ranged from 80.8 
to 84.7 per cent of the gross receipts. From Apr. 20 to July 27, the 
operation was partly by steam and partly by electricity, the change 
being gradual and necessarily involving the additional expense of 
maintaining two systems. In these months the operating expenses 
ranged from 70.2 to 75.7 per cent of the gross receipts. Since July 
27, 1898, the operation has been entirely by electrical power, and 
the percentage of expenses to earnings steadily decreased from 63.7 
per cent to 55 per cent in December. 

All of the above figures include a loop rental of one-half cent per 
passenger. Not including the loop rental, but including all other 
operating expenses, taxes, car licenses, etc., the road was operated 
in October for 47 per cent, in November for 47.7 per cent, and in 
December for 45.4 per cent. Expenses have not only been on an 
increasing ratio, but gross earnings have been steadily increasing. 

If the entire year be divided into two periods of six months each, 
the contrast between steam and electric operation becomes more 
striking. The number of passengers carried during each period is 
approximately the same, The net earnings applicable to interest 

An agreement has been signed whereby a syndicate, headed by 
Alexander Brown & Sons, secures the right to purchase the entire 
capital stock of the Baltimore Consolidated Railway by March 30, 
payment to be made by April 30, and the price to be $37.50 per 
$25 share. Stockholders may elect to take cash or the securities of 
the proposed new company. This syndicate is the same one that 
purchased the capital stock of the Baltimore City Passenger Rail- 
way last month, and the agreement probably means the consolida- 
tion of practically the entire street railway system of Baltimore. 

Uniforms for Employees 

Hackett, Carhart & Company, of New York, one of the oldest 
and most reliable clothiers in the country, are now making a spe- 
cialty of supplying uniforms of all kinds for employees and offi- 
cials, and are paying particular attention to the requirements of 
employees on street railways and steam roads. This company has 
not been content with following the old methods of turning out 
this class of work, but has introduced a new and improved system 
whereby it is enabled to furnish high grade uniforms at reasonable 
prices. It cordially requests superintendents and purchasing 
agents to send for samples and estimates. 

February, 1899.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. to?. 

Chicago Street Railway Franchises 

The following official statement has recently been issued hy 
Charles T. Yerkes, relating to the Chicago street railway proper- 
ties : 

There is considerable misunderstanding regarding the legislative 
position of Chicago's street railway franchises. The impression 
which prevails in Wall Street is that it is necessary to secure an 
extension of franchises, before 1903, or the various roads will pass 
to the control of the city. It is also claimed that a repeal of the 
Allen law becomes necessary and a new measure adopted by the 
General Assembly of the State of Illinois before there can be any 
renewal of franchises, inasmuch as the City Council of Chicago 
has practically failed to extend the street railway franchises for 
fifty years under the present Allen law. 

These premises are wrong. The street railways of Chicago are 
nearly all operated under 99-year franchises; at least all of the im- 
portant lines, which include the Chicago City Railway Company, 
operating on the South Side, and the so-called Yerkes properties, 
operating on the West and North Sides. This disposes of the 
socialistic talk so recently rampant in Chicago respecting probable 
municipal ownership. 

The franchise position of the street railways is briefly as follows: 

Under authority granted by the State, the Chicago City Railway 
Company was granted a 99-year franchise from Feb. 14, 1859 The 
Yerkes properties on the North and West Sides hold franchises for 
99 years; that on the North Side dating from 1886 and that on the 
West Side dating from 1863. Under the terms of these 99-year 
franchises it was provided that the City Council of Chicago should 
grant ordinances in periods of 20 years, permitting the use of and 
designating streets under specific terms. The first 20 years was 
passed without feature, and not until 1883 was there any trouble re- 
garding the extension of time for the use of the streets. At that 
time the elder Carter H. Harrison, then Mayor of Chicago, saw fit 
to make political capital out of the street railway and demanded 
that a compensation be exacted for a renewal of the ordinances 
granting the use of certain streets already occupied and others 
which there was a desire to occupy. 

In 1883 there was need for improvement in the street railway 
systems of Chicago, and it was not deemed wise to antagonize in- 
vestors by precipitating a legal fight over the question of authority 
to declare occupied streets vacant. It was also important that new 
streets be acquired. In consequence the street railway companies 
agreed voluntarily to pay the city $50 per car per year for an exten- 
sion of ordinances for another 20 years. It is notable that the 
Mayor, the elder Harrison, publicly stated that he had invariably 
been advised by eminent counsel that the city had no authority to 
displace the street railway companies who were in possession of 
streets and that the 99-year franchises could not be abrogated. 

So far as the legal position is concerned there is no change at 
present. The same reasons exist to-day, however, for a peaceable 
solution of the franchise quesion that did in 1883. It is not desired 
to disturb the confidence of investors by what might be an almost 
endless litigation over the authority of the city to abrogate the use 
of streets in which cars are now operated. It was with this end in 
view that the Humphrey's bill was proposed and a compromise 
reached, which resulted in the Allen bill. If 50-year ordinances 
could have been obtained from the city under this bill there would 
have been no danger of a long legal fight. 

Since it has been found that there is little hope of securing any 
results from the existing state of things in the Chicago City Coun- 
cil, recourse is to be had to the State Assembly, which convenes in 
Springfield, Jan. 4. There is a rabid demand for the repeal of the 
Allen law, but this is ..ot likely to occur, but, instead, some sort of 
amendments made whereby a compromise is had. A number of 
bills have already been prepared, but it is yet much too early to say 
what the precise nature of the compromise will be. 

• ♦♦♦ 

Change in the General Electric Company 

John McGhie has resigned his position as manager of the adver- 
tising department of the General Electric Company, in order to 
■undertake important and responsible work with the "American 
Machinist." His headquarters will hereafter be at Cleveland, Ohio, 
to which city he will move his family from Montclair, N. J. Mr. 
McGhie's management of the General Electric Company's adver- 
tising business has been able and painstaking to an unusual degree, 
and the record which he leaves behind him is one with which both 
his principals and himself have every reason to be satisfied. 

W. J. Fransioli, formerly general manager of the Manhattan 
Railroad Company, of New York, has associated himself with the 
American Air Power Company. 


The Boston & Albany Railroad is ttying an interesting experi- 
ment which should also be of interest to street railway managers. 
This consists of sprinkling its roadbed with non-flamable and 
practically odorless oil for the purpose of freeing the tracks from 
dust. In addition to removing the dust the oil sprinkling keeps 
the rain from washing away the roadbed, destroys vegetation, pre- 
vents frost from penetrating and injuring the roadbed, lessens the 
noise of trains, and by preventing dust greatly reduces the danger 
of hotboxes. It costs $150 a mile to sprinkle the roadbed, and one 
sprinkling a year is sufficient. 

The Boston Elevated Railway Company has 456 miles of over- 
head electric feeder lines, 63 miles of underground electric feeder 
lines, 133 miles of underground conduit duct, 68 miles of under- 
ground electric return lines and 2.8 miles of submarine cables. It 
owns 3370 electric motors, 1274 electric box cars, of which 884 are 
twenty-five foot bodies, and 1292 electric open cars, of which 724 
are nine and ten bench, 11 mail cars, 3370 electric motors and 236 
cars and electric snow plows. 

The recent stoppage of traffic on the underground electric con- 
duit road on Sixth Avenue, New York, for several hours, was due 
nut to flooding of the conduit, as has been erroneously stated in 
the press, but to the overloading and consequent burning in two 
of a main feed wire furnishing current to one of the sections of the 
line. This line is now being operated in a somewhat temporary 
way pending the completion of the new 70,000 h.p. station, and the 
final feed wire system to be installed in connection therewith. 

A 15-ft. flywheel in the Birmingham Traction Company's plant 
at Pittsburgh, Pa., burst about 10 o'clock on the night of Dec. 11, 
and did considerable damage. A 300-h.p. engine was wrecked and 
a portion of the building suffered considerable damage. No one 
was hurt. 

The Rochester (N. Y.) Railway Company suffered serious loss 
on Jan. 1 from fire, which destroyed its State Street barns, and 
twenty-one cars that could not be saved in time. The cause of the 
fire is unknown. 

The following bills have been introduced in the Senate at Al- 
bany, N. Y. : One requiring all street cars to be equipped with 
' automatic, trip and drop front fenders" (violators are punishable 
by a fine of $100 for each day a car is run without such fenders; also 
one providing that whenever any street car is delayed for five or 
more minutes, passengers shall receive transfer tickets good at any 
time for a continuous ride on any line of the company. Violation 
renders companies liable for damages in $250, to be recovered in 
civil action by passengers to whom transfer is refused. 

The street railway company at Marinette, Wis., has decided to 
place heavy curtains on both ends of its car to protect the motor- 

All the surface and elevated railroad companies in Greater New 
York were compelled by the city authorities during the recent 
grippe scare to thoroughly fumigate all their cars, including all 
mats, matting, rugs, etc., used therein. 

President Gaston, of the Boston Elevated Railroad, states that 
for the year Oct. 1, 1898, to Oct. 1, 1899, the number of transfers 
issued by the Boston Elevated Railroad shows a larger increase 
than for any year in the history of transportation in Boston. In 
the past eight years the number of passengers carried have in- 
creased 52 per cent, while free transfers have increased 251 per cent. 
During the last fiscal year the number of passengers increased 5 
per cent, while transfers increased over 19 per cent. 

A suit was recently brought against the Rochester Railway 
Company for five cents, this being the amount the plaintiff claimed 
was. due him as change for ten cents which he handed a conductor 
on the defendant's road. The conductor swore that the plaintiff 
gave him five cents instead of ten, and as he was able to bring 
witnesses to prove this, the suit was decided against the plaintiff, 
who had to pay the costs. 



Vol. XV, No. 2. 

The Bloomington (111.) City Railway Company, on Dec. 17, 
turned the receipts of its Normal line over to the Normal Library 
Association, and the cars were in charge of the young ladies of 
that association as conductors. Nearly $200 was added to the 
funds of the library as a result of the day's operation. A chaperon 
rode on each car to assist the young ladies. 

It is stated that thirty employees of the Newport News & Old 
Point Railway & Electric Company, formerly the Newport News, 
Hampton & Old Point Railway Company, divided $16,000 between 
them recently, the gift of J. S. Darling, president of the old com- 
pany, and his son. Individual amounts were based on time of ser- 
vice. One man received a check for $1,000, and several conductors 
received $750 each. 

The Columbus (Ohio) Street Railway Company is considering 
the advisability of placing the weather forecasts printed on neat 
cards in all its cars. The local weather station will probably fur- 
nish the printed cards daily, and it is believed this departure will 
add to the popularity of the street railway lines. 

Definite plans are said to be under active consideration at pres- 
ent for a reorganization of the Kings County Elevated Railroad 
Company, with a view to its consolidation with the Brooklyn 
Elevated Railroad Company. The Kings County reorganization 
committee has recently held several meetings, and a plan will, it 
is said, before long be issued to stock and bond holders of the 
road. It is stated new securities will soon be issued for equipping 
the road with electricity, etc. 

The Rochester (N. Y.) Railway Company has adopted a novel 
carrier for cigars, and will place a number of them in its cars. 
The device is made of nickeled tin, and has places for four cigars, 
the idea being that when a man boards a car with a lighted cigar 
which he desires to save he can place it in the carrier until he 
leaves the car. 

The combination open and closed cars which have been in 
operation on the lines of the Nassau Electric Railway of Brooklyn, 
and which were described in the Street Railway Journal for 
November, 1898, have not been very popular with the public. To 
overcome some of the objections raised, the company has made 
a number of changes in five of the cars, and if it is found advisable 
the changes will be made in all of the combination cars on the 
road. The principal improvement consists of four levers placed 
on the rear platform, by which the conductor can open any one of 
the side doors without leaving his place. Both bell ropes have 
been placed on the outside of the car, so that conductors will not 
have to open a door to ring up a fare or give the motorman the 
signal to go ahead or stop. The loud noise caused by the slam- 
ming shut of the side doors 'is also done away with on the im- 
proved cars by the insertion of a rubber strip in the door jamb, 
while a rubber knob prevents a similar noise when the doors are 
opened. In addition to these improvements a rubber matting about 
half an inch thick has been placed along the side step of the car to 
keep the passengers and conductors from slipping in stormy 
weather, and the upright iron bars used as hand rails have been 
incased in rubber. A gutter has been added to the side of the car 
also to keep the rain and water from dripping down upon the con- 
ductor as he passes along the step. The gutter runs toward the 
rear of the car and empties the water over the rear platform. 

The lines of the East Liverpool Railway Company, of East 
Liverpool, Ohio, were tied up for several hours recently on ac- 
count of a strike of the employees. The trouble was caused by the 
discharge of a motorman who was a member of the motormen's 
union, but was finally settled by a compromise, and the men re- 
turned to work. 

The Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway Company has voluntarily 
placed in operation a new scale of wages for motormen and con- 
ductors. Since 1896 the pay of the men has been 13^ cents per 
hour for the first twelve months, 15 cents for the next twelve 
months and i6 l /> cents after that. From now on the pay for the 
first three months in service will be 14 cents an hour, for the next 
three months 14^ cents, for the next six, 15 cents, for the next six, 

15H cents, for the next six, 16 cents, and for the next six and 
thereafter the men will receive i6 z / 2 cents an hour. This new- 
schedule will be particularly advantageous to the new men, as un- 
der it the average pay per hour for the first two years will be 15 
cents, instead of 14 cents as formerly. Men who have been em- 
ployed by the company for more than two years will be given the 
best runs. In addition to the above increase in wages the com- 
pany has notified all its motormen that they will be furnished fur 
overcoats at the company's expense. The coats are to be worn 
only during the hours of duty, and are to be returned to the station 
foremen at the end of the day's run. 

The annual report to the Legislature of the New York Board of 
Railroad Commissioners was made on Jan. 4, and contained the 
following general statistics: 

Year ending June 30. 1897. 1898. 

Capital stock $126,978,482 50 $132,844,303 33 

Funded debt 104,823,698 57 130,179,166 90 

Unfunded debt 23,254,380 39 31,806,542 42 

Cost of road and equipment 221,665,039 63 233,635,396 51 

Gross earnings from operation... 29,911,428 02 31,884,384 20 

Operating expenses 18,117,799 48 19,153,716 55 

Net earnings from operation 11,793,628 54 12,730,667 65 

Income from other sources 1,262,358 95 1,457,501 55 

Gross income from all sources... 13,055,987 49 14,188,169 20 

Taxes and miscellaneous 1,408,719 61 1,459,469 96 

'''Interest paid and accrued 5-39 2 ,037 45 6,022,776 79 

*Dividends 5,387,164 96 5,799,359 32 

Surplus for the year 604,506 70 631,007 34 

* Includes respectively interest and dividends paid by lessors 
from rentals received from lessees as follows: 

1897. 1898. 

Interest $1,549,001 67 $1,666,068 34 

Dividends 2,581,054 96 2,729.894 32 

The Niagara Falls & Lewiston Railway (the Great Gorge line) 
operating down the bluff at Niagara Falls, carried 288,791 passen- 
gers during the year ending June 30, 1898, and ran 163,013 pas- 
senger car miles. Its average operating earnings per passenger 
were 25.4 cents, and its operating expenses 7.31 cents. Its total 
receipts, however, amounted to 29.64 cents per passenger, of which 
all but .15 cents was consumed in paying operating expenses and 
fixed charges. The cost of operation per car mile was 17.25 cents, 
and the total receipts per car mile were 52.44 cents. The total 
operating expenses and fixed charges on this line were 51.98 cents 
per car mile. 

An incident showing the fallacy of some of the arguments put 
forth by the advocates of municipal ownership of street railways 
occurred in St. Joseph recently, when the St. Joseph & Benton 
Harbor Railway & Light Company secured the contract to light 
and heat the court house and jail at St. Joseph for three years for 
$3,900. The county formerly did this work itself, and paid over 
$6,000 for the years 1896, 1897 and 1898. The building com- 
mittee refused to give W. Worth Bean, president of the above 
company, the contract for the lighting in 1899, but by persistent 
effort he finally secured it by showing actual results. The citizens 
are pleased at this saving to the county. 

The work of reorganizing the Metropolitan West Side Elevated 
Railroad Company, of Chicago, III, is about completed, and the 
company will soon be placed on a sound financial basis. 

The Chicago Electric Traction Company, of Chicago, 111, has 
filed a mortgage for $500,000 to the Manhattan Trust Company of 
New York, and John Kean for first mortgage 5 per cent thirty- 
year gold bonds. 

The Toledo Traction Company of Toledo, Ohio, principally 
through the efforts of Thomas H. McLean, general manager, has 
been able to entirely break up the labor union of its employees, 
and the leaders of the local union, which is known as Division No. 
49 of the Amalgamated Association of Street Railway Employees 
of America, have surrendered its charter to the head association. 

February, 1899.] 



The Union Traction Company, oi Rutherford, N. J., was sold at 
receiver's sale on Jan. 27, to the reorganization committee repre- 
senting 90 per cent of the bondholders. The purchase price was 
$20,000 over the indebtedness, which, as shown by the receiver's 
report, was $852,000. 

A serious head-on collision occurred on the line oi the Worces- 
ter & Suburban Street Railway on Dec. 22, near Leicester, Mass. 
A very heavy fog hung over the tracks at the time, and an in- 
bound car ran into an out-bound car that should have waited at 
rhe turnout. Neither of the motormen could see the other car 
until it was too late to avert the accident. Two persons were killed 
and several injured. 

It is stated that inquiries from China for railroad material and 
electrical equipment of American make are very numerous, and 
there are prospects of extensive deals in these branches in the 

Vice-President Webb, of the Baltimore & Northern City Rail- 
way Company, which company has recently purchased the capital 
stock of the Baltimore City Passenger Railway Company, and the 
Baltimore, Middle River & Sparrow's Point Electric Railway 
Company, has made the following statement: "The property is in 
the hands of people who are financially able to carry out any con- 
tracts they may undertake, and it may also be assumed that they 
are not only able but determined to vigorously protect their inter- 
ests from attacks by any competitor. While the syndicate has not 
yet fully developed its plans, the field has been sufficiently can- 
vassed to warrant the statement that certain territory will be en- 
tered that will add largely to the revenue of the combined lines. 
As the purchase was made for investment purposes, it will, oi 
course, be the general policy to fully develop the earning capaci- 
ties of the three roads, and one of the most effective ways of doing 
this is to give every possible convenience to the public. The City 
Passenger system, as is well known, lacked suburban lines, and the 
consolidation with the Baltimore & Northern and the Middle 
River road will not only give to the new system a suburban mile- 
age of fifty-three miles, but puts the new company in a position to 
acquire additional territory at any future time." 

It was announced last month that the Fifth Avenue Stage Line, 
New York, had been purchased by the Third Avenue Railroad 
Company, and that automobile electric carriages would be sub- 
stituted for the horse stages. 

While sawing down a dead tree in Brooklyn, recently, a laborer 
was stricken insensible by an electric shock. The tree had been 
used for supporting a span wire of the trolley road, and in some 
way the insulation had become worn. 

The Third Avenue Railroad Employees' Mutual Relief Associa- 
tion of New York gave its annual entertainment and reception at 
the Lexington Opera House, on Jan. 27. A very excellent vaude- 
ville entertainment was given, after which dancing was indulged 
in. This relief association is one of the most prosperous in the 
country, its success being largely due to the interest taken in it by 
the officials of the Third Avenue Railroad Company. 

The Northwestern Electrical Association held its annual con- 
vention in Milwaukee, Wis., Jan. 18, 19 and 20. The meetings 
were well attended and the papers and discussions were pro- 
nounced most interesting and valuable by all present. 

The National Electrical Light Association will hold its twenty- 
second meeting in New York, May 23, 24 and 25, 1899. The head- 
quarters of the association will be at the Murray Hill Hotel, where 
accommodations can be had on the American plan at $3.50 and 
upward per day, and on the European plan at $1.50 and up. The 
Electrical Exhibition Company will hold its annual electrical show 
at Madison Square Garden, under the auspices of this association 
during May. 


The Manufacture of Special Work 

The New York Switch & Crossing Company has made a num- 
ber of additions to its works at Hoboken, N. J., during the past 
year, and is now better able than ever to supply all classes of spe- 

cial work. Among the new tools installed by the company is a 
large 16 ft. planer with a range of 36 ins. X T 8 ins., used for plan- 
ing switches, a new cold saw for cutting the deepest girder 
rails, several radical drills and smaller planers, a punch for punch- 
ing a i l / 2 -in. hole through i-in. iron, an electric jib crane, etc. 

The company reports doing an excellent business during the 
past year, and among other street railway companies supplied by it 
with special work were the Union Railway Company, of New 
York; Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, and Coney Island & 
Brooklyn Railroad Company, of Brooklyn, the Consolidated Trac- 
tion Company, and the North Hudson County Railway, of Jersey 
City and Hoboken, and the Hartford Street Railway, of Hartford, 

The New York Switch & Crossing Company has also turned out 
a large amount of steam railroad and construction railroad parts, 
notably for the J. P. McDonald Company and for the United 
States Government railroads in the Brooklyn Navy Yard and In- 
dian Head Proving Grounds. The company has also supplied a 
large amount of special work for export mostly of the T rail type. 

New Interests in Compressed Air as a Motive Power 

Late in December and early in January, there were organized 
several companies with large capital, intending to use compressed 
air for various purposes, and in view of the financial standing and 
importance of the interests involved in this movement to place 
upon the market a new motive power, it is advisable to explain 
the status oi the parent and affiliated companies. 

The American Air Power Company, of New York, was organ- 
ized in January, 1898, as a consolidation of the American Air 
Power Company, of New Jersey, the General Compressed Air 
Company, of New Jersey, and the Compressed Air Power Com- 
pany, of New York. The first two companies had been engaged 
in developing the Hardie motor, and the third the Hoadley-Knight 
motor. The capital stock of the consolidation company was $7,- 
000,000, and A. A. McLeod, formerly president of the Reading 
Railroad system, became the company's president. 

In January, 1899, the International Air Power Company, of New 
Jersey, was formed with a capital of $7,000,000. Later on it was an- 
nounced that this company had secured from the American Air 
Power Company exclusive rights for all its letters patent in 
foreign countries; rights for all patents in North and South 
America, except those bearing directly upon street railway trac- 
tion, were reserved by the American Air Power Company. The 
principal stockholders of the International Air Power Company- 
are said to include some of the strongest and best known street 
railway and other capitalists in America. 

Following the organization of this second company is that of 
the New York Auto Truck Company for $10,000,000, and the Chi- 
cago Auto Truck Company, while a similar company for Philadel- 
phia is to be organized. The International Air Power Company 
will retain large holdings of stock in these three companies and in 
others which will be formed in different cities, and will manufac- 
ture and sell to them complete compressed air trucks intended to 
do a general city trucking business, replacing and gradually driv- 
ing from the field the present horse trucks. 

The directors of the New York Auto Truck Company are J. H. 
Hoadley, Richard Croker, ex-Senator Arthur P. Gorman, Robert 
McKinstry, Nathan Strauss and Lewis Nixon, owner of the Cres- 
cent Shipyards, of Elizabethport, and designer of the United 
States battle ships Massachusetts, Indiana and Oregon. The 
directors of the Chicago Auto Truck Company will include Joseph 
Leiter and associates. 

The International Air Power Company has purchased for 
manufacturing purposes the works of the American Wheelock 
Engine Company, in Worcester, and the Rhode Island Locomo- 
tive Works, in Providence. The new auto trucks will be built at 
the company's Providence works, and air compressors for the auto 
truck business in Worcester. 

The American Air Power Company is now equipping with com- 
pressed air motors and apparatus tweny cars for the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Company's Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth 
Streets crosstown line, and the Ingersoll Sargent Company has 
practically completed a four-stage compressor to furnish the neces- 
sary motive power. The compressed air power station for the 
Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Streets line is located at the foot 
of West Twenty-fourth Street, and work is going on rapidly upon 
the engine foundations, boilers, etc., while in a small temporary 
shop near by, the motors are constructed. 

A full description of the Hoadley-Knight motors of the Ameri- 
can Air Power Company and of the engineering features of the 
four stage compression was given in the Street Railway Jour- 
nal for August, 1897, page 487. 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

Latest Progress in the Application of Storage Batteries 
to Electric Railways* 


The history of the storage battery in this country is curious, and 
probably comprises more troubles and trials than any other branch 
of the electrical industry. I think it will be generally acknowl- 
edged that a storage battery "per se" should be one of the most 
useful adjuncts in every branch of electrical engineering, but the 
failures that were recorded in the earlier days proved that the stor- 
age battery was not then the commercial success those interested 
would have us believe. Until 1894, the use of storage batteries in 
this country proved most disastrous to all concerned. The reasons 
were many, but may be summed up briefly as follows: 

1. The batteries were poorly designed. 

2. No attention was paid to the mechanical features, the chief 
idea being to get the greatest capacity for the lightest weight. 

3. The batteries were much over-rated, their full capacity being 
given as their normal working capacity. 

In addition to this the storage battery business generally was in 
an unsatisfactory and weakly condition. Litigation was the princi- 
pal cause. The fear of protracted and costly lawsuits prevented 
capital being invested in the business, and frightened prospective 
users from purchasing storage batteries. 

Now, the conditions are very different. You are all lamiliar with 
the changes which have been made during the last five years in the 

causes the chemical action to take place more rapidly, or, to be 
more exact, causes more material to be subjected to the chemical 
action, and this, if not continued, too long, or repeated too often, 
does not affect a good storage battery. Moreover, if the overload 
is continued too long, it does not mean the sudden failure and col- 
lapse of the battery and complete interruption of the output, but is 
shown by the premature depreciation of the plates in the battery. 
It may not be noticed for months or even years. 

One of the most valuable features of a storage battery is that it 
will safely take care of any sudden and momentary overload in the 
system, such as grounds or short circuits, and if operating in par- 
allel with generators or rotary converters, will relieve them of such 
overloads and consequent strain. I have frequently seen batteries 
burn out grounds on an underground system, discharging for a 
short time at an enormous rate. And in the case of batteries oper- 
ating on railway loads, it is a common thing to see an occasional 
momentary discharge at a rate equal to twice the hour rate of the 
battery. The modern storage battery is designed to stand such oc- 
casional extreme discharges, and do so without injury. 

It may be well to consider, before going further into our subject, 
the question of the rates of charge and discharge of storage bat- 
teries, and their capacity at different rates. Of course, this will 
vary somewhat with different types of battery, but not to a great 
extent. The more rapidly you discharge a battery the smaller is 
its available capacity. For example, the curve, Fig. 2, illustrates 
the available capacity of a storage battery when discharging at any 
rate between the ten-hour and one-hour rates. That is to say, 


commercial end of the business. All the disturbing elements have 
been removed, and the business has been put on a proper and sub- 
stantial basis. These results are best seen from the diagram, Fig. 1. 
The figures for 1898 have not been tabulated, but they will show 
that the use of storage batteries is progressing more rapidly than 

Weight of 
plates alone.— Lbs. 

1894 349,ooo 

1895 1,112,800 

1896 2,215,300 

1897 3,007,300 

{Or ten times the business of 1894.) 

The storage battery is entirely different from any other piece of 
apparatus which is used for supplying electrical energy, being con- 
structed and operated on the principle of chemical action, instead 
of mechanical motion. There must naturally be a vast difference 
between these two principles. 

In the mechanically operated apparatus, or generator, the output 
of electrical energy is the result of the conversion of the mechani- 
cal energy applied to it while in action, and the regularity of the 
output is dependent on the steadiness of the mechanical energy 
applied, and the satisfactory running of the generator and motive 
power. The operation is purely mechanical, and is subject to the 
interruptions to which all moving machinery is liable. Again, such 
apparatus, if overloaded to an excessive degree, give visible 
signs of distress, and, if the overloading is very great, or is con- 
tinued, will probably give way in some mechanical feature. 

In a storage battery hundreds of horse power can be silently 
stored, and thousands of horse power delivered for a short period, 
with no apparent action or change in the battery. The action is 
purely chemical, and as long as the respective elements are there to 
be acted upon it will surely continue. 

It is this fact that makes the storage battery so reliable. Such a 
thing as instantaneous failure or interruption of the delivery of 
energy is impossible, except, of course, in the case of mechanical 
injury to the battery from an external cause. Any mechanically 
operated apparatus is liable to interruption through breakage or 
injury to one of its parts, but in a storage battery the chemical ac- 
tion will continue, and consequently the output of energy until all 
the material on the plates has been converted. 

An overload has not the same effect on a storage battery as on 
a mechanically operated generator. For a short period an over- 
load, even of great extent, does not injure a storage battery. It 

* Abstract of paper read before the New York Electrical Society Jan. 12, 1899. 

when the battery is completely discharged in ten hours and in one 
hour. It is only within the last few years that a one-hour dis- 
charge rate has been possible with a storage batteiy, and it is very 
largely due to the fact that storage batteries can be discharged at 
such rapid rates that their use has been growing so rapidly. 

In large engineering problems the storage battery is used chiefly 
to supply large amounts of electrical energy for short periods, and 
by increasing the allowable rate of discharge the size of the bat- 
tery required is consequently reduced. In connection with this 
question of the reduced capacity of storage batteries at rapid rates 
of discharge, there is frequently a mistaken idea that if the capacity 
of a battery is thus reduced, the efficiency is correspondingly im- 
paired. This is not so at all. It is only the available capacity of 
the battery which is reduced by polarization, or, in other words, 
the chemical action when taking place at such rapid rates can only 
reach the active material which is on the surface of the plates and 
immediately exposed to to the electrolyte. Hence, in reality, the 
actual capacity of the battery is not reduced, ' only the available 
capacity, and when the battery is recharged, only the active material 
that is acted upon has to be converted and not the entire amount 
of active material. There is a slightly greater loss in efficiency 
when discharging at a rapid rate due to the internal resistance of 
the battery, this being the C 2 R loss. 

Storage batteries are not free from trouble, any more than any 
other apparatus, but, under favorable conditions, the comparison 
is much in favor of the storage battery. No piece of apparatus yet 
made is perfect, and its usefulness and consequent general adop- 
tion may be said to be proportional to the predominance of its use ■ 
fttl features, over its weaknesses or troubles. The rapid growth in 
the use of the storage battery during the last few years is the best 
proof possible that its troubles are very small compared to its ad- 

As is the case with all machinery and apparatus which have to 
be operated continually for any length of time, the results obtained 
depend not entirely on the design and construction, but on the 
care and judgment with which it is operated. This fact is particu- 
larly noticeable to any one who is constantly brought into contact 
with different plants and installations, as I am, and under different 
management, or sometimes mismanagement, in all parts of the 
country, and this subject alone would afford a very interesting and 
profitable topic for discussion and consideration. 

In the early days the storage battery manufacturers, in order to 
maintain a bare existence, had to jump at every opening for the 
use of a storage battery, whether the conditions warranted it or 
not, and, in order to do business, accepted contracts drawn entirely 
from the purchaser's point of view, without regard to the capabili- 

February, 1899.] 


ties of the storage battery, and guaranteed results which, to say 
the least, were extremely difficult to realize. What the results of 
all this was you know very well. 

Now, things are entirely different. The business is on a com- 
mercial basis, and it is not a question of getting an order at any 
price, but securing business which will prove satisfactory and per- 
manent. Now, storage battery manufacturers will insist on proper 
conditions for the operation of their batteries, or refuse to put 
them in. This is as it should be, and I think I am perfectly safe in 
saying that during the last four or five years there has not been a 
storage battery installed in this country, except under conditions 
which justified its use. Of course some experimental applications 
have been made which may or may not prove satisfactory, but this 
does not come under the head of the general application of the 
storage battery. 

It should be distinctly understood that all conditions of electrical 
distribution are not suitable for the use of storage batteries, and 
that it is more to the interest of the manufacturer than the pur- 
chaser to confine himself only to those situations which are 1 suit- 
able, for every failure which is recorded is heard of one hundred 
times to every success. 

Now, that by this method of doing business, confidence in stor- 
age batteries is being regained, and proper relations have been 
established between manufacturers and users, the growth of the 
use of storage batteries will be still more rapid, for it is now real- 
ized that when storage batteries are installed and operated under 
proper conditions the result will invariably be satisfactory. 

The trend of electrical engineering is to-day toward the concen- 
tration of generating machinery, the highest possible economy in 
operation, and the utilization of motive power and generating ma- 


chinery to the fullest extent, so that the investment may produce 
the greatest return. These conditions make the storage battery in- 
dispensable, for without its aid it is impossible to maintain a con- 
stant load on the power house. 

Every application of electricity has its time of maximum output 
or "peak," and no matter how many different applications are sup- 
plied from the same system, their peaks will not fit in so as to even 
matters up, but, on the contrary, it is found that in many cases the 
peaks occur at about the same time. This is particularly noticeable 
with a railroad and lighting load. Again, concentration of gener- 
ating machinery means a much larger area for distribution, and the 
necessity of sub-stations, in order to keep down the investment in 
conductors, and experience shows that in the majority of cases 
storage batteries are cheaper than the copper alone, which would 
otherwise be necessary, leaving out the advantages at the power 
house. This means that the storage battery will now play a most 
important part in all electrical problems, and be of sufficient im- 
portance and value to warrant the conditions being made suitable 
for its use instead of, as in early days, being dumped in at any time 
to fill up a gap and smooth over any difficulties which cropped up. 

It used to be customary to refer to European practice, to show 
what could be done with storage batteries, and even now, I believe 
that some people think that European batteries and methods are 
superior to ours in this country. In connection with this idea 
there is one thing which I particularly wish to emphasize, and that 
is, the difference between American and European conditions. 

In Europe storage batteries are not subjected to the severe work 
they have to stand here. They are looked upon more as a reserve, 
and are not expected to discharge at their maximum rate every- 
day, and, perhaps, twice on some days. 

As an example of this, I will tell you what one of the Tudor 
Company experts from Germany said when he was over here last 
spring. He was attending the National Electric Light Convention 
at Chicago, and one of the features of that convention was the 
large storage battery plant, which the Chicago Edison Company 
had installed. During one afternoon, while the convention was be- 
ing held, a very heavy thunderstorm came on, and the battery was 

called upon suddenly for its maximum rate of discharge, and the 
full rated capacity was taken out. The maximum rating of this 
battery was a complete discharge in one hour. Our German friend 
thought that was doing pretty well, but, when I told him that this 
storage battery was installed under contract, which allowed the 
battery to be discharged at this rate every day during the winter, 
he was horrified, and said: 

"You must not let them work the battery in that way; tell them 
they must hold it as reserve." We told him that if we did that we 
should not be able to do any business, and that we simply had to 
meet these conditions, and could do so without any difficulty. 
This instance will show why batteries are maintained at a lower 
figure in Europe than here, and why it has been customary to 
refer to the behavior of the battery in Europe. It is a fact that 
we have now in this country many storage battery installations 
which surpass any thing in Europe, both in size and method of 

The methods of applying storage batteries in connection with 
electrical engineering work are so numerous that it would be im- 
possible to deal with them all this evening, so I have selected a 
few for consideration as showing clearly the great flexibility of 
the storage battery as an adjunct to any scheme contemplating 
the generation and transmission of electrical energy. 

In a lighting and power station the maximum load occurs for 
1 inly a very short period during the year. In one station I know of 
50 per cent of the investment in generating plant and under- 
ground conductors is only used for 154 hours during the year. 
This statement may seem astonishing, but will be found to apply to 
many such stations. Where these conditions exist it will readily 
be seen how great are the advantages of storage batteries as aux- 
iliaries. Their cost per kilowatt of output for short periods, such 
as these peaks, is less than the generating machinery which would 
have to be provided if they were not used, in addition to which 
there are other ways in which they prove advantageous in the 
operation of the plant. 

The application of storage batteries to such stations, such as this, 
can be made in two ways, viz., at the main power house or in sub- 
stations. Each method has its own advantages, and should be de- 
termined in each case by the conditions which exist. 

When batteries are placed in sub-stations they will relieve the 
generating plants of the maximum load as just described, and also 
effect a large saving ir. the underground system of conductors, as, 
at the time of maximum load, the conductors between the main 
generating station and the sub-stations are relieved of that portion 
of the load which is carried by the batteries, and distributed from 
the sub-stations. 

The use of large water power as a motive power for generating 
stations from which electrical energy is transmitted and distributed 
over extended areas is growing. Take, for example, the Niagara 
and other plants. In connection with such installations storage 
batteries play a very important part. The power from such a plant 
is largely sold for manufacturing purposes and is charged for at 
so much per horsepower per annum, the power being available 
twenty-four hours per day, while mills and factories using this 
power do not usually run for more than ten hours per day. There- 
fore, a man who requires a maximum of 100 h.p. for ten hours a 
day, or 1000 h.p. hours, really has to pay for 2400 h.p. hours, while 
he uses only 1000, and probably less; for the average, rarely, if 
ever, exceeds 70 per cent in the maximum. 

With a strong battery capable of supplying 50 h.p. for ten hours, 
or 500 h.p. hours, he need only pay for one-half the amount of 50 
h.p. for 24 hours, as the battery will furnish the remainder, and can 
be charged during the fourteen hours he is not using the power. 
In addition to this, the battery will take care of any fluctuation 
above the average and enable the man to buy the average amount 
of power he requires, instead of the maximum. 

Such an installation has been made by the Buffalo Street Rail- 
way Company. Before describing this installation, I would like to 
mention the different methods of installing storage batteries in 
connection with railway plants. These may be divided into two 

First — Where the battery is installed at the power house to take 
care of the peak of the load, and the fluctuation of the generators; 

Second — Where the battery is installed at the end of a long 
feeder to keep up the pressure at that point, and to obviate the 
necessity of sending the maximum amount of current over the 
long feeders from the power house. 

We will consider an installation of each kind and their respec- 
tive methods of operation. 

The Buffalo Street Railway Company's plant* is of the first class, 
and is especially interesting inasmuch as it is operated in connec- 
tion with the Niagara Falls power. They operate practically all 
the cars within the city limits, and have a steam plant capable of 

* See Street Railway Journal, July, 1898. 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

delivering 7,000 electrical h.p., in addition to which they take 2000 
h.p. from the Niagara Falls power, this current being transmitted 
in the form of high tension alternating current from the Niagara 
Falls to the power house, and being then transformed by rotary 
converters to the ordinary 550-volt direct current. 

The storage battery is installed at the main power house and is 
connected directly in parallel with the steam plant and rotary con- 
verters. When a storage battery is installed at the power house, 
and is connected directly in parallel with the generators on the 



bus bars some means have to be provided for regulating the volt- 
age of the battery to suit the generators. As you know, railroad 
generators are over compounded, the voltage rising as the load in- 
creases, while with the storage battery the reverse is the case, the 
voltage decreasing as the discharge increases. In order to make 
the battery work properly in parallel with generators of this type 
and take the fluctuation of the load, keeping the generators con- 
stantly loaded, means of compounding the battery have to be 
adopted. This is done by using a compound motor booster in series 
with the battery, which is so designed as to increase its voltage in 
proportion to the increase of the load, thereby enabling it to take 
its proper share and keep the load on the generators constant. 

The battery discharges during the morning and evening peak, 
and is charged between times, and also at night from the Niagara 

storage batteries near each end of the line, and are connected 
directly across the system without a booster. The charge and dis- 
charge of these batteries is controlled by the drop of the feeders 
from the power house to the batteries, this drop varying according 
to the load on the system from 10 to 80 volts. When the load of 
the system is light the drop in the feeders is small, and there is 
voltage enough to charge the battery. When the load becomes 
heavy the drop on the feeders is increased, this consequently causes 
the batteries to discharge into the line. The method of operating 
is entirely automatic, the batteries discharging at times of heavy 
loads, and charging at times of light load, thereby keeping the 
load on the generating station practically constant. The two bat- 
tery rooms, each containing 248 cells, have a capacity of 1000 h.p 
when discharging at the hour rate. The curves, Figs. 3 and 4, 
show the result which the batteries have had on their generating 
plant. The first curve, Fig. 3, shows the load on the generators 
when they were operating the entire system without batteries. The 
second, Fig. 4, shows the load on the generators under the same 
conditions with the batteries in use. 

It will be noticed from these curves that when the power house 
was operating without the battery during the peak of the load the 
maximum load was 7500 amps., with sudden fluctuations of 5300 
amps., while with the batteries in operation the maximum load at 
the power house under exactly the same conditions was 5700 
amps., and the fluctuations only 2000 amps. Thus, the batteries 
have increased the capacity of the power house by about 2000 
amps., and steadied the load on the generators to the extent of 
nearly 3000 amps. Those acquainted with the operation of street 
railway plants will appreciate such results. 

Each battery is connected to the power house by two special 
feeders in addition to the general system of conductors, so that the 
proportion of charge and discharge can be regulated according to 
the conditions of the load. 

. If it is found that a battery is being discharged more than it is 
3 being charged, an extra feeder is connected between it and the 
power house, so that it will be relieved of a portion of the load. 
By this means a very complete control can be maintained of the 
battery from the power house, and the most efficient method of 
operation secured. 

A battery installed at the end of a line in this way, not only in- 
creases the capacity of the power house and saves the investment 
in copper by making it only necessary to transmit over the feeders 
the average amount of current required, instead of the maximum, 
but at the same time it maintains the proper voltage at the end of 
the line, thereby enabling the motors to run at the point of highest 
efficiency. Of course the line must be long enough to justify the 
use of a storage battery and to supply sufficient drop in voltage 
over the feeders to make the battery operate automatically as the 
load varies. 

A variation in voltage at the end of the line, between conditions 
of maximum load and minimum load of 10 per cent, is ample to 
make the battery self regulating, and take care of the fluctuating 
load without a booster. The following figures taken from a stor- 

[ Eauailter ear ceupnng 


Falls power. By the aid of the battery they are enabled to make 
very much more use of the Niagara Falls power. Before they 
installed the battery they were only able to shut down 
their steam plant from 11:30 P. M. until 5 A. M., dur- 
ing which time the rotary converters carried the entire load, which 
averaged about 600 h.p., while they were paying for 2000 h.p. With 
the aid of the battery they are enabled to shut down their steam 
plant from 7 P. M. to 7 A. M., and about eighteen hours on 
Sunday. In addition to this they are enabled to utilize very much 
more of the Niagara power. 

An illustration of the second method of using storage batteries 
for railroad work is seen in the case of the battery in the installa- 
tion of the South Side Elevated Company of Chicago. This com- 
pany operates an elevated railroad about 9 miles long, all their 
trains being equipped with the Sprague multiple unit system. The 
power house is located approximately at the centre, and the two 

age battery installation of this description installed some two years 
ago, will show the advantage from a commercial point of view. 

The conditions were as follows: The length of this line at the 
end of which the battery was installed, was 7 miles from the 
main power house, running into the suburbs of a large city. The 
increase of traffic on this line warranted its extension 4 miles 
further, making a total of 11 miles from the power house. 
When the extension was made, it was found that the feeders were 
quite inadequate to carry the increase of load, and it was unneces- 
sary to provide additional power at the end of the line, either by 
laying additional feeders, installing a small power house at that 
point, or putting in a storage battery sub-station. Each method 
was carefully considered, and the following figures show the result. 
If additional feeders were laid of sufficient sectional area to pro- 
vide the proper working voltage at the end of the line the cost 
would have been $273,000, figuring on the basis of $1.00 per foot, 

February, 1899.] 



laid for 1,000,000 cm. feeders. This was, of course, prohibitive. 
The cost of a small power house of sufficient capacity to take care 
of the load in that section of 750 kw. would have been $85,000. 
The cost of a battery sub-station complete, including real estate, 
was $33,000, or a saving of $52,000 over that of the power plant. 

The cost of operation has proved exceedingly satisfactory, show- 
ing a saving of some $1,350 per month, or $16,000 per annum over 

load on the line is nearly 300 amps. Such an installation shows 
clearly the advantages of battery regulations on a fluctuating load. 
The size of the rotary is reduced practically one-half and the load 
on it kept almost constant. 

Most of the plants mentioned have been those of a large size, 
supplying a large amount of energy. It must not be imagined that 
storage batteries are applicable only to these large stations. The 

the cost of operating a power house of such a size. The cost of 
operation includes all attendance, taxes and depreciation and in- 

One of the most interesting and important storage battery in- 
stallations recently made is that in connection with the under- 
ground trolley system of the Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany of this city. This company's system covers a large area, and 
it has utilized storage batteries in sub-stations. Two are now in 
operation, one at the foot of West Twenty-third Street and the 
other at Thirty-second Street and Fourth Avenue. 

I will briefly outline this plant and method of operation. The 
battery consists of 540 cells, each containing fifty-one plates, 15 ins. 
square. The dimensions of the cells are 4 ft. x 21 ins. x 24 ins. 
The battery is divided into two sections, 270 cells in each, which 
are operated in parallel. This is done to keep the sizes of the cells 
within practical limits and to enable them to be more easily in- 
spected and cared for. A cell 8 ft. in length, which would be the 
size if but one battery were used, is too large to be satisfactory. 
The capacity of the complete battery is 8000 amp. hours, with a 
one-hour rate of 4000 amps. 

The function of this battery is to take care of a portion of the 
morning and evening peaks, and to take up the fluctuations of load 
at all times. The method of operation is as follows: Sufficient cells 
are provided so that the voltage of the battery just balances the 
average voltage of the system; consequently, when the battery is 
connected to it, it acts as an equalizer and does not charge or dis- 
charge except as the fluctuations occur. When the battery dis- 
charges on a peak and is being charged during the hours of light 
load, a booster is connected in series with it to regulate the amount 
of a charge and discharge. The output of the boostef and, conse- 
quently, the charge and discharge of the battery, is controlled by 
varying the strength and polarity of the shunt field. This is done 
by a special form of switch which makes the operation very simple. 

The daily work of the battery is about as follows: From 7 to 9 
A. M. it discharges on the peak. From 9 to 12 it floats cn the 
system as an equalizer. From 12 to 3 or 4 P. M. it is charging. 
From 4 P. M. to 8 P. M. it discharges on the peak. From 8 to 12 
midnight it is floating on the system, and after midnight the bat- 
tery is given its principal charge, this being continued until the 
battery is full. 

An interesting application of this sort has recently been made on 
a small railroad plant in Montpelier, Vt.* This plant was, I be- 
lieve, the first railway plant in this country operated exclusively 
from rotary converters with a storage battery auxiliary. The line 
operated is about 9 miles long, and the sub-station is located 
about 3 miles from one end. The power is furnished from a 
power house on the Winooski River, the current being generated 
by three-phase alternators at 2200 volts. This current is carried to 
step-up transformers and is raised to 6300 volts. At this pressure 
it is carried to the sub-station, a distance of 8 miles. In the 
sub-station step-down transformers reduce this to 480 volts, at 
which pressure it is fed into the rotary converter. The capacity of 
this converter is 160 kw., and is specially wound for running 
directly in parallel with a storage battery, its characteristic curve 
being similar to a shunt-wound generator. That is to say, as the 
load increases, its voltage would fall. By this meani the battery 
will take care of all fluctuations, maintaining a fairly constant load 
on the rotary. The battery consists of 248 cells, eacn containing 
eleven plates 10 ins. square. The one-hour rate of this battery is 200 
amps. The maximum load on the line is 300 amps. Of this the 
rotary carries 125 and the battery 175. The greatest amount of 

* See Street Railway Journal, September, 1898. 

variation of load on the rotary is 50 amps., while the variation of 
results obtained from their use are just as satisfactory in the case 
of smaller stations, but I have referred to the larger ones as being 
of more interest. 


Increase in the Use of Aluminum for Electrical 

The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, manufacturers of aluminum, 
report an extended increase in the use of this material for electrical 
purposes. The company itself has had 10,000 h.p. of current trans- 
mitted by aluminum conductors for the last two years, and the 
Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power & Electric Company has used a 
considerable amount of this material for electrical conductors. 
Among the longer lines which have employed this material is one 
at Snoqualmie Falls for the transmission of power from the Falls 
to Seattle and Tacoma, where more than 80 miles of wire is in use. 
The Standard Electric Company, of California, the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, the Bell Telephone Company, and others, have 
also employed the material to a considerable extent on their con- 
ductor systems for telegraph and telephone conductors. 

The Pittsburgh Reduction Company is installing two 14-in. and 
four 10-in. mills with continuous drawing benches for the manufac- 
ture of aluminum wire for use as electrical conductors, and expects 
to have as large facilities as any mill in the country for this work. 

Orders for Street Railway Supplies 

Elmer P. Morris, of New York, manufacturers' agent for some 
of the largest and most representative supply houses in America, 
reports an unusually large number of orders during the past month 
for the specialties he handles. This is particularly true of as- 
sembled commutators, made from drop-forged copper and tubular- 
iron poles and brackets. A cut of the poles he carries in stock is 
shown herewith. These are made in two or three sections as de- 


sired, and at each joint are bound with wire, which is swaged and 
keyed into place in such a way as to give enormous strength to 
the pole. These are guaranteed to stand a hydraulic pressure from 
the inside of 200 lbs. 

Mr. Morris has recently opened several new branch offices for 
the convenience of street railway companies at a distance from 
New York. One of these is in the Betz Building, Philadelphia, 
and will be in charge of George E. Pratt; another is at Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., and will be in charge of C. J. Harrington. 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

New Cars Built in St. Louis 

The accompanying illustrations show two new cars recently built 
by the St. Louis Car Company for the Bloomington (111.) & Nor- 
mal Railway Company and the Birmingham (Ala.) Railway & 
Electric Company. These furnish a good illustration not only of 
the new era in American street railway car building which has set 
in with the development of long suburban and interurban lines. 

Electric Locomotives on the Orleans Railway Terminal 

in Paris 

The plans for operating the terminal of the Orleans Railroad 
in Paris by electric locomotives, some particulars of which were 
given in the Street Railway Journal for June last, have since 
been determined upon. The line, whose service is very similar 


and which has had no little effect upon street railroading in cities 
proper, but also of the good work of the St. Louis Car Company 
itself, which, with its new factory, now practically completed, will 
be one of the greatest street railway car manufacturing establish- 
ments in the world. The lines of these cars are graceful, and it is 
evident that careful thought and care have been given to every de- 
tail of their construction as affecting the carriage of passengers. 
The twelve windows of the Bloomington and Birmingham cars 
guarantee lightness in winter and lightness and airiness combined 
in summer. The square sides give roominess of car inside, and the 
patent vestibules of the St. Louis Car Company protect the motor- 

in character to that of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in the 
Belt Line tunnel, in Baltimore, has a length of 3700 m., of which 
3100 m. are underground, and electric locomotives are to be em- 
ployed to avoid the gases of combustion in the tunnel. The 
substitution of electric locomotives for steam locomotives will 
take place at the Austerlitz Depot in the outskirts of the city, 
while a stop is made to discharge passengers, and from that point 
to the main station at the Quai d'Orsai trains will be drawn by 
electric power. The power station will be near the Tolbiac 
Bridge, and will contain two units of 1000 kw., each producing 
three-phase current at 5500 volts and 25 cycles. This current will 


men, conductors and passengers. In fact, the Bloomington car 
particularly, closely resembles in general appearance the passenger 
coaches of the Limited Express between New York and Chicago. 

These cars are mounted on the new No. 18 double track of the 
St. Louis Car Company, illustrated on page 115. Orders for large 
numbers of these trucks have already been taken by the St. Louis 
Car Company, in spite of the fact that they have been in the mar- 
ket but a short time. 

The Walker Company has received an order for the electrical 
equipment of eighteen cars in Krementschoug, Russia, and thirty- 
six cars for the Omnibus and Tramway Company, of Rome, Italy. 

be transmitted to three sub-stations, one in the power station 
itself, one at the Austerlitz Depot, and one at the Quai d'Orsai 
Depot, where it will be transformed to a 500-volt continuous cur- 
rent for lighting and traction. In the two latter sub-stations will 
also be located a battery of accumulators in parallel with the 
rotary converters to regulate the voltage and insure lighting at 
a period of the night when the power station is not in operation. 
Each power station will also contain static transformers for re- 
ducing the current from 5500 volts to 340 volts and two 250-kw. 
rotary converters operating at 500 r.p.m. Each of the batteries 
will have a capacity of 1100-amp. hours. 

The electric locomotives will be operated by a continuous 500- 

February, 1899.] 



volt current by means of a third rail carried on blocks of par- 
affined wood resting on the ties. There will be eight locomotives 
supplied by the General Electric Company, similar in general 
appearance to the Baltimore locomotives. Each locomotive will 
be of 500-kw. capacity, will. weigh, empty, 40 tons, and loaded, 
from 45 to 46 tons, the weight necessary to draw a train of 
jpo tons, including the locomotives, from the Quai d'Orsai 

4 «a.«£'«* ,1 


station to the Austerlitz station in seven minutes without inter- 
mediate stops. It is estimated that the traction consumption of 
power will be about 1,420, ooo-kw. hours per year for the normal 
number of 150 trains per day, empty or loaded. It is estimated 
that the trip from Quai d'Orsai to Quai Austerlitz in seven min- 
utes without intermediate stops will consume about 27 watt-hours 
per ton. The average train of 200 tons, including engine, will 
absorb, it is thought, 600 kw. at starting and 250 kw. at full speed. 
The expense of building the power station, sub-station, supplying 
the rolling stock and building the transmission line is estimated at 
$610,600, and it is expected that the entire road will be in operation 
by January, 1900. 


Calendars for 1899 

Numerous calendars for the year are still being received, and 
manyof these bear evidence of most careful designing, and in anum- 
berof cases very large sums of money must have been spent in their 
preparation. Among those received since Jan. 1 is one from the 
Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey City, bearing an in- 
teresting reproduction of a young college girl in gown and mortar- 
board, evidently on the day of her graduation; another one, issued 
by the Ashton Valve Company, of Boston, Mass., shows two 
little girls at play; a very elaborate calendar, by Mayer & Englund, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., shows a large lithographic reproduction of a 
young woman's head in colors; the Peckham Truck Company, of 
New York City, is sending out its large wall calendar, which has 
become well known to the street railway field; R. D. Nuttall Com- 
pany, of Allegheny, Pa., is sending out a calendar bearing a large 
cut of the Nuttall gears; the Van Dorn & Dutton Company, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, is sending one composed of twelve sheets, one 
for each month, each sheet showing and describing one of the 
Van Dorn specialties, including trucks, armature lifts, gears and 
pinions, etc. In addition to the above, two other very handsome 
calendars have been received, one from the J. G. Brill Company, 
and the other from the Sprague Electric Company. The one from 

the Brill Company is unusually elaborate, and consists of six 
large sheets, upon each of which is printed a reproduction of a 
famous painting, the six reproductions being "The Three Fates," 
"Spring," "Good Morning," "Love Wins." "Butterflies," and 
"Cinderella." Each sheet contains also the calendar for two 
months. The Sprague calendar is one of the handsomest and 
most thoroughly practical ones received. The upper part is a 
copy of a celebrated painting, while the calendar proper, printed 
from a good size type, forms the lower half. Both parts arc- 
mounted in a mat and nicely framed. D. E. Goe, manager of the 
advertising department of the Sprague Company, has a great 
reputation for doing this kind of work, and in doing it just right. 

Convention of Manufacturers 

The fourth annual convention of the National Association of 
Manufacturers of the United States was held at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Jan. 24, 25 and 26, 1899. The meeting was well attended, and sub- 
jects of interest to American manufacturers were discussed. The 
following officers for the next year were elected: President, Theo- 
dore C. Search, Philadelphia; secretary, F. P. Wilson, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; treasurer, Charles A. Schieren, New York. The next meet- 
ing will be held at Boston, Mass. 


Special Number 

The twentieth annual number of "The Tradesman" of Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., is a very elaborate number. It has been most care- 
fully prepared, and will be found valuable as a book of reference to 
all interested in the growth of Southern trade. 


Electric Locomotive 

The accompanying illustration shows an electric locomotive re- 
cently built for the Deadwood & Delaware Smelting Company by 
the J. G. Brill Company. It is a powerful little affair, although it 
measures but 8 ft. in length and is only 5 ft. 3 ins. wide. It stands 
2 ft. 3 ins. to the floor, and is furnished with a w.p. No. 5 motor, 
with two K 10 controllers. The wheel base is 4 ft. and the gage of 
the track 36 ins. Its small size and compactness made it possible 
to use a light pedestal gear arranged to take the motors. Four 
Brill sand boxes are placed within the frame to give an equal and 
complete distribution of sand when it is necessary. The conveni- 
ence of a machine of this kind is hardly to be estimated by those 
who have had no experience with them. One man can handle al- 
most all the loads that may be necessary about an establishment. 


In this case the machine is a fiat car as well as a locomotive. It is 
intended for use within a mine and on the surface as well. A third 
rail transmission of power is to be employed, and the General 
Electric Company put on the necessary electrical equipment. It 
is interesting to note that an electric locomotive, as adapted to 
every-day commercial uses, is coming to be more and more em- 
ployed. Electricity is available in a large percentage of all manu- 
facturing establishments and railway tracks are equally commend- 
ed. A small expense for overhead wires or for third rail con- 
ductors makes a machine of this kind possible, and its convenience 
is much greater than a pair of horses, while the economy is in 
favor of the electric machine, which, when not in use, is not "eat- 
ing his head off." 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

Water-Softening Plants 


The advantages of water softening are not generally under- 
stood or appreciated in this country. The process was discovered 
nearly sixty years ago by Dr. Clark, of Aberdeen, Scotland, and 
since that time it has been extensively adopted in England, not 
only for softening the water supply of whole towns and cities, but 
also for various requirements of the mechanical arts. Hundreds of 
water-softening plants are in successful daily use in Great Britain, 
France, Belgium and Germany. The mechanical features of these 
may differ according to the ideas of the designer, but all make use 
of the same chemical process. These plants are softening water 
for steam boilers, railways, woolen and cotton mills, paper mills, 
iron works, dye works, tanneries, etc. From this it will be seen 
that the process is not a new and untried one, still in the experi- 
mental stage, but one which is as well established, and whose ad- 
vantages are as well recognized, as are those of the exhaust steam 
heater in this country. As an apparatus for furnishing suitable and 
desirable feed water for boilers, it is also the cheapest purifier of 
any merit in the market. The common mineral impurities soluble 
in water are silica, iron, carbonate of lime and magnesia, sul- 
phate of lime and magnesia, and chloride of lime and 
magnesia, also the chlorides and sulphates of soda or 
potash. The lime and magnesia and iron salts are known as 
the scale-forming impurities, and are the ones which are re- 
moved by water softening. At the same time that these are re- 
moved, the mud or silt which the water may contain is also re- 
moved, and the organic matter reduced. The sodium and potas- 
sium salts do not form scale and are not removed by this process, 
nor is it possible to do so by any process of purifying water, with 
or without the aid of heat. The only means of removing sodium 
or potassium salts from water is by distillation, and this is the pro- 
cess which takes place in the boilers. The lime and magnesia 
salts are held in solution by means of the acids with which they are 
united. Water softening, therefore, is a process of removing from 
the lime and magnesia these acids which hold them in solution. 
The expense due to softening water is extremly low, first, because 
the carbonates are generally more abundant in waters than the sul- 
phates or chlorides; second, because the Clark process will remove 
a higher percentage of carbonates than any other method, which 
would be practical and economical enough to use for industrial 

The following table is copied from the report of W. J. Dibdin, 
chemist for the London County Council, who conducted a series 
of experiments on water of the New River Company: 

Date, 1895. 

Before softening. 

After softening. 

Percentage of reduction. 







December 11).. 








Hardness is expressed in degrees, Clark, and bacteria given in 
colonies per cubic centimeters. 

The most approved method for softening water is known as the 
intermittent settling tank plan, in distinction from the continuous 
method of purification, in which the water is always moving and 
is purified in transit. Where the quantity of water required is 
comparatively small, much more satisfactory results are obtained 
by using the intermittent settling tank plan than would be possible 
with the continuous system. 

The apparatus is extremely simple, and consists of two or more 
open tanks, or one tank and a storage reservoir. These tanks may 
be constructed of wood or iron, as preferred. They are generally 
made cylindrical, and usually located out of doors, convenient to 
the boiler room. This has the advantage of not crowding up the 
boiler room, while there is no danger of the water in the tanks 
freezing while the plant is in daily use. The size of the tanks de- 
pends upon the quantity of water required per day, and the num- 
ber of times it is convenient to fill them. Each tank is placed 
upon a heavy platform carried upon foundation piers, and is pro- 
vided with a mechanical stirring device to be used in mixing water 
with chemicals. This stirring device consists of a paddle revolved 
by the simple gearing turned by hand, or preferably by light 
power. This paddle stirs up from the bottom of the tank the lime 
sludge of previous precipitation; this floats in the water, hastens 
the chemical reaction, and causes the new finely-divided precipitate 
to gather into large flocculent or wooly flakes, which settle 
quickly as soon as the water stops moving. The simplicity of this 
means for stirring and agitating the water is self-evident; it does 

not have to be cleaned to keep it in working condition; it requires 
from Yi h.p. to 3 h.p. to operate it, so that the amount of steam is 
extremely small. 

The softened water after settling is taken from the tanks by 
means of a hinged floating outlet pipe, which rises and falls with 
the level of the water; by this means the clearest water is always 
drawn from top of the tank. , , 

Inlet connections through which to fill the tank, and wash pipe 
connections through which to wash lime sludge from tanks, are 
placed in the bottom. The washing of the settling tanks need be 
done only when lime sludge becomes deep enough to interfere 
with stirring; ordinarily, once a week or a fortnight is sufficient. 
All that is required is to open wash valve, start the stirring device, 
and mix up the lime sludge with the water, which is always left 
in the bottom of the tank, for it is soft enough to run out through 
the wash pipe. The time and labor of cleaning is but a small per- 
centage of that required for exhaust or live steam heaters, and 
it is not necessary to do the work on top of the boilers in a hot, 
stifling atmosphere. 

A sheet iron chemical tank is placed on top of the settling tanks; 
in this are placed the reagents used for softening; they are mixed 
with water and washed into the tanks while filling. By reason of 


the currents of water caused by the water rushing into the tank, 
the chemicals are partially mixed with the hard water; this mix- 
ture is completed by the revolving paddles of the stirring device, 
which are started as soon as the filling of the tank begins, and 
continues to revolve until the tank is full. This method is very 
efficient, involves no expensive apparatus which requires constant 
cleaning and repairs, and is very economical in steam. Tank in- 
dicators are generally placed on tanks to show level of water, and 
operating platform is arranged alongside of tanks from which the 
man in charge mixes reagents and tests the water. The testing 
of the water is made necessary because of the exact treatment, and 
the variation which takes place in all waters. The test is extremely 
simple, and any man of ordinary intelligence can understand and 
use it. 

The advantages of this apparatus are as follows: 
First: There are no automatic chemical feeds which continually 
vary, and thus furnish either an excess or an insufficiency of the 
chemical solution. 

Second: In moderate sized plants the apparatus can be operated 
by the engineer, or his assistant, without interfering with the regu- 
lar work. 

Third: The constant quantity of raw water collected in the tanks 
is treated with practically an uniform amount of chemical reagents, 
therefore an uniform character of softened water is furnished. The 
simplicity of this plant makes it possible for the unskilled work- 
man to obtain as good results as an expert chemist. 

Fourth: The mechanical stirring which results in agitating the 
raw water with the chemical reagents insures an intimate mixture, 
and very materially hastens and completes the chemical reaction. 

Fifth: The sludge of previous purification which has settled to 
the bottom of the tanks is mixed with the water by the action of 
the stirring device; this insoluble matter moving in the water 
gathers up the new finely-divided precipitate and hastens the clari- 
fication of the water. 

Sixth: The sludge collected in the settling tanks relieves the fil- 
ter beds, so that the filter can be run five or six times as long, 

February, 1899.] 



without cleaning, as would be the case if all the sludge was inter- 
cepted by the filters. 

Seventh: The settling tanks do not require washing oftener than 
once a week therefore, the amount of water required for cleaning 
is a very small percentage of the total amount purified. 

Eighth: The length of time which the water stands is necessary 
in order to get complete chemical reaction. No chemical reaction 
is instantaneous, therefore the element of time is necessary. 

Ninth: The perfect quiet of the water gives an opportunity for 
most complete settling, rendering unfiltered water clearer than that 
from any other apparatus not using filters. 

Tenth: The operations of this apparatus are the same as those 
followed by the chemist in the laboratory, with only such modifica- 
tions as are necessary to suit the conditions. 

Eleventh: This arrangement of settling tanks permits an accu- 
rate daily report to be kept of the amount of water evaporated in 
the boilers. 

. Inasmuch as it is not practical to use settling tanks having capa- 
cities sufficient to permit the water standing long enough to per- 
fectly clear itself, we advocate passing the water through a me- 
chanical filter, merely to clarify it by removing the floating lime 
sludge. For this purpose all that is necessary is to employ gravity 
or pressure filters, and use a sand-bed as a filtering medium. By 
this means perfectly clear, soft water is obtained. 

There are twenty-three water softening plants in this country, 

Maximum Traction Truck 

The illustration accompanying this article is the latest design 
of a maximum traction truck of the Lord Baltimore type, manu- 
factured by the Baltimore Car Wheel Company, and of which some 
particulars were published in the last issue without illustration. 
The design of the truck is such as to bring 66 per cent of the 
weight upon the driving wheels, without it is claimed any liability 
of derailing the small wheels. The metal bolster centre plates, as 
shown, may be pivoted directly above or near the centre of the 
driving axle; the body bolster centre plate at its front end is re- 
cessed to receive the main car body bolster, to which it is secured 
by bolts through the base and end. Double taper roller side bear- 
ings are provided, as shown, upon which the chafe plates of the 
body press. These rollers are self-oiling, by being made hollow, 
and packed with saturated waste, and revolve upon steel thimbles. 

The truck frame is made up of cast steel pedestals, having hous- 
ings for graduated spiral springs, which rest on top of the journal 
boxes, so that the entire load is cushioned. The side members 
are bolted directly to the pedestals, and are diagonally braced se- 
curely between the wheels. The end cross bars are bolted to the 
main pedestals, and are drawn in at an angle to support the sus- 
pension bars, so that in curving these members do not come out- 
side the rail. The truck is so designed that the motor is mounted 


erected in accordance with the most approved plans. These plants 
are furnishing softened water for ice factories, dye works, laun- 
dries, electric light plants, street railway power houses, steel works 
and various manufacturer concerns, some of which have been in 
results The illustration shows a 2,000 h.p. water-softening plant, 
daily use over three years, and all are giving most satisfactory 
which has been in service since April 26, 1896, at the Columbus 
Central Railway Plant. Columbus, Ohio. It was installed by the 
We Fu Go Company, of Cincinnati, which controls the sale of 
these plants. 

The following is an analysis of the raw water from the wells of 
that company, before softening, in grains per U. S. gallon: 

Silica 1.25 

Oxide of iron 4.250 

Carbonate of lime 10.650 

Carbonate of magnesia 5.325 

Sulphate of lime 5.525 

Chloride of soda 670 

Total residue 27.675 

A sample of the softened water from the plant while in actual 

service, was sent to Professor Webber, of Ohio State University, 

in May, 1896, and was analyzed by him, and found to contain the 

following impurities in grains per U. S. gallon: 

Silica 1.067 

Oxide of iron None 

Carbonate of lime 1.508 

Carbonate of magnesia 0.202 

Sulphate of lime 1.609 

Chloride of soda None 

Soluble salts (sulphates and chlorides of sodium and potassium).. 8.490 

Total -residue 12.876 


The Tramway Company of Brussels reports for the eleven 
months ending Nov. 30, 1898, gross receipts, 4,838,402 francs; num- 
ber of car kilometer, 6,183,939. A little over 40 per cent of the 
car kilometer run was by electric cars. 

outside the driving axle. There are two half elliptic springs sus- 
pended below the side frames by links, and to which the weight 
of the body and load is transmitted by steel flat-posts depending 
from and secured to the truck bolster, which play in guides formed 
by the bars of the side frames. 

The brake mechanism is so designed that the shoes are applied 
to the inside of the wheels, and the levers are so proportioned as 
to bring about 70 per cent of the braking power upon the driving 
wheels. The brake beams are operated by levers, acting from the 
pivotal point of the truck; the top end of the operating lever works 
in a channel in the base of the truck bolster centre plate, so that 
they are always held in line and no quadrant is required for oper- 
ating the brakes on curves. Spiral springs are introduced in the 
brake rods between the trucks, which equalizes the braking power 
on each truck, so that each wheel receives its proper proportion 
of the braking force. 

All the working parts of the brake mechanism have large bear- 
ings with steel thimbles and suitable oil holes, and are placed at the 
centre line of the trucks, out of the way of mud and dust thrown 
up by the wheels. These trucks have all the stability claimed for 
centre bearing trucks of most approved design with the advantage 
of maximum weight available for traction. With the exception of 
the brake shoes and wheels, all parts are of steel and malleable 
iron; and in the design, special attention has been given to re- 
lieving the shearing strain upon the bolts. Dust-proof and oil- 
tight axle boxes are provided, in which either felt or waste feed 
may be employed as desired. The care and thoroughness with 
which the trucks are built is in keeping with all the products 
turned out from this well-known establishment. 

The Barcelona (Spain) Tramway Company has petitioned for 
a number of additional rights for extending its trolley system. 



Vol. XV. No. 2. 

Portable Hot-Air Blower 

The accompanying engraving shows an interesting portable hot- 
air blower for drying armatures and fields, invented by W. R. 
Gaither, auditor of the South Chicago City Railway. The im- 
portance of keeping the insulation of these parti of an electrical 

in contact with the scale on the walls of the tube. This action causes 
the teeth to cut into and disintegrate the scale, which is then 
flushed out by means of a stream of water that is fed continuously 
into the tube by a hose as the process goes on. The cutting wheels 
not only remove scale, but when it is removed lose their vibratory 
motion and simply burnish the tube, and do not injure or expand 
the tubes, no matter how thin they are. The effect of burnishing 
the tubes after cleaning, serves to polish the interior by removing 
even the mill scale and so makes it impossible for scale to adhere 

Street HMway Journ*l,ff,Y. 


motor dry, and the advantage of doing this artificially after the 
motors have been in service on a wet day, is generally recognized 
by repair men, but the trouble and expense of removing arma- 
tures and fields from the casings and transporting them to a dry- 
ing oven are so considerable that it is not ofttn done. It is to 
simplify this process that the portable blower illustrated is in- 

The blower, which is mounted on flat wheels and is adapted to 
be drawn by hand, is brought alongside of the cars in the car 
house at night, over the pits as they stand. The blower is 
equipped with electric heaters and blowers, and has a trolley for 
making contact with the overhead wire. Upon reaching the car 
the blower is put in operation and the hot air 

is blown through the nozzle directly into •» ■ r—— 

the motor casing so that it acts directly on 
the armature and field insulation, accom- [ 
plishing the same results as if the armature i 
and fields were dismounted and transported 
to a stationary oven. Mr. Gaither estimates 
that it will require only 6 h.p. to generate 200 
deg. of heat in a volume of air discharged 
from the nozzle at a rate of 300 cu. ft. per 
minute. This would reduce the cost of cur- 
rent for operating the device to about 50 
cents for ten hours', use, and he thinks that 
in very wet weather the blower would pay 
for itself in a very short time in preventing 
burn-outs, especially with the open style of 

The special advantages claimed for the de- 
vice are: First, that no ext-a labor in drying 
out armatures and fields is required, as the 
device takes only a few minutes and no skill 
to operate it or move it; second, the blower 

is valuable anywhere that current can be obtained, and of course 
wherever there are cars whose motors should be dried out, this 
condition prevails; third, the blower is portable and cleanly; 
fourth, it can be used without the heaters if desired, to blow out 
dust and dirt from the motors; fifth, the heat can be regulated to 
any degree, so that quick or slow drying can be secured. 


Boiler Tube Cleaner and Flexible Shaft 


tenaciously. This renders subsequent cleaning relatively easy, 
while it adds greatly to the efficiency of the boilers, by improving 
the circulation, increasing the radiation, and thus economizing in 
fuel consumption. The head is adjusted in the tubes by means of 
a sectional rod united by snap couplings. The rod is given a 
rotary motion by means of a driving pulley, having a sleeve with 
a key way through which the rod slides, and by means of a handle 
at the outer end the operator can move the head at will back and 
forth in the tube, while the rotary motion continues. 

For cleaning curved tubes, a flexible head of the same shape 

The device illustrattd in the engraving herewith is for the pur- 
pose of removing scale from the tubes of boilers of the water- 
tube type. The cleaning device consists of a conical shaped head, 
1 having a taper of about 3/4 in., and composed of discs, with pivoted 
arms between each pair. At their outer extremities, these arms 
carry tooth cutters about ins. in diameter, and these arms with 
their cutter discs are set spirally in the head. A series of guide 
bars placed on the shaft back of the head not only serve to guide 
the tool in the tube, but provide bearings in which the operating 
shaft revolves. In the process of cleaning, the cone which is some- 
what smaller than the tube, is inserted, and given a rotary motion 
up to about 1600 r.p.m. The centrifugal force causes the arms to 
fly out, bringing the cutters by the impact of vibratory movement 


and a flexible shaft are employed. This shaft, as shown in Fig. 
2, is composed of solid brass links of peculiar shape, which hook 
into each other, and in turn are enclosed in a closely fitting 
spirally wound tube, which is flat on the inside, and provides a 
smooth bore in which the link chain operates. The whole is then 
encased in a tube of specially prepared rubber which is not 
effected by oil, which allows lor oil lubrication of the flexible 
shaft, while it protects it from the flushing water, which is led 
into the tube in the same way as described for the straight shaft. 

The tube cleaner and shaft are manufactured by the Union 
Boiler Tube Cleaner, whose works occupy part of the Imperial 
Power Building, 240 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, and which is 
equipped with a very complete assortment of metal working tools. 
The tube cleaner was put on the mr.rket in 1895, and the com- 
pany has received many flattering testimonials as to its efficiency, 
and guarantees that it will sustain all the claims made for it. It 
is the practice of the company either to sell the tube cleaning de- 
vice outright, or rent it to steam users by the year. The company 
also contracts to clean boilers for a stipulated sum per horse 
power. In all cases where a sale or lease is effected, an expert is 
sent without charge to install the device and give instructions for 
setting up and using. With this machine a man can clean from 
twenty to fifty tubes s. day, depending upon their condition, and 
whether it is the first or second cleaning. 

February, 1899.] 



The use of the flexible shaft, which the company manufactures, is 
not confined to the operation of the tube cleaner, but may be em- 
ployed in any situation where power is to be transmitted, or has 
been transmitted by any other type of flexible shaft. It is 
stronger in construction than most shafts of this character, and is 
especially adapted for use with portable electric motors for drilling 
or reaming bond or bolt holes in track rails or steel plates of any 

In the spring of 1898 the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company gave to the Milwaukee Railjoint & Welding Company 

A New Type of Cast Welded Joint 

The application of the system of cast welding in rail joints has 
become so general that any new methods of cast welding the ends 
of rails are matters of public interest. The accompanying engrav- 
ings illustrate a new type of cast welded joint brought out during 
the late fall of 1897 and the season of 1898 by the Milwaukee Rail- 
joint & Welding Company, of Milwaukee, Wis. As will be seen, 
this joint differs from other cast welded joints both in form and 
substance. It extends along the sides of the rail for about 15 ins., 
and projects out at the joint of the rail, but not below the rail. It 
is composed of both cast iron and steel and is put upon the track 
by cleaning a small space around the rail joint about 2 ft. square 
down to the top surface of the ties and by cleaning the rail ends by 
the use of sandblast. A steel sleeve, shaped so as to form a cavity 
around the rail ends, is then riveted upon each side of the rail at 
the joint. After the rail ends have been heated, this sleeve is filled 
with melted iron. The latter fuses to the web and flanges of the 
rail and the steel sleeve, making a solid joint composed of both 
steel and cast iron. 



As will be seen from this description but little work is required 
on the part of the street railway company in preparing its track for 
cast welding on joints upon this system. It is not necessary to re- 
move or displace any ties. The roadbed is not disturbed, and the 
blocking removed from around the joint is quickly replaced. 

About half a mile of track was welded with these joints in the 
late fall of 1897 upon the line of the Milwaukee Electric Railway 
& Light Company, of Milwaukee, and during the year 1898 ten 
thousand joints were welded upon the lines of the same com- 
pany, including the welding of a suburban line from the city of 
South Milwaukee to the city of Milwaukee, a distance of about 
eight miles of exposed track. On this line to South Milwaukee a 
joint was used at distances from 500 to 1000 ft. to provide for the 
contraction and expansion of the rails where they were exposed; 
but subsequent welding on other lines of exposed rail demon- 
strated that it is not necessary to have a slip joint in order to 
make a cast welding of rail joints upon exposed track. The work 
being properly done, these joints will hold as well on exposed 
rails as upon embedded tracks, and the contraction and expansion 
seems to be entirely overcome by the strength of the joint. 

This method of joint also seems to afford a perfect electrical 
bond. The electrical conductivity of the line welded between the 
city of South Milwaukee and the city of Milwaukee, by tests made 
by the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, varied 
from 118 per cent to 126 per cent, thus exceeding the conductivity 
of the rail itself from 18 per cent to 26 per cent, being the highest 
conductivity upon record given to any electric rail. 

The success of the joint is proved by the work it has done, the 
welding made in the late fall of 1897 having stood to the present 
time without a single joint breaking, and the percentage of break- 
age upon the 10,000 joints welded during the year 1898 has been 
less than one-half of one per cent, 

a contract for 1,000 joints, and in the summer another contract for 
10,000 more joints, and when these were completed, gave it 
a contract for 1899 for 20,000 joints, which will complete the weld- 
ing of the entire system of the Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company in the city of Milwaukee, it 
having had welded, during the sea- 
son of 1896-97. about 15,000 joints 
made by another company. 

( )ne of the cuts herewith shows the 
joint longitudinally as it looks upon 
the track, with the necessary paving 
cleared away to enable the making of 
the joint. (Fig. I.) Fig. 2 shows a 
sectional view of the joint sawed one- 
half of an inch from the meeting of 
the rail ends. It shows the steel jacket 
around the outer part of the joint, the 
web of the rail in the center united to 
the cast-iron filling, which is fused to 
the rail web and flanges and to the 
steel jacket around the joint. 

The Milwaukee Railjoint & Weld- 
ing Company reports a very encour- 
aging outlook for a large amount of 
welding during the season of 1899. It has its own patents, which, 
the company claims, cover very broadly this form of joint. 

A New Repair House 

The Ad vance Electric Company, which is an old established 
supply house in Indianapolis, has opened a department for the re- 
pair of street railway motors and other electrical apparatus. The 
company has engaged as foreman of its shops, David Fryer, a man 
of eighteen years' experience in this class of work, and whose 
ability and skill are recognized by many electrical men throughout 
the Central States. 

The company tests all its windings and coils before sending them 
out, and is proud of the fact that in a long experience in the light- 
ing field, it has never yet had a single piece of work returned on 
account of bad workmanship. Eighteen years' experience in the 
shop has bred a familiarity with every type of machine on the 
market, and the company keeps constantly on hand armatures and 
field coils for all the standard machines. 

Located in Indianapolis, one of the best railroad cities in the 
Central States, the shipping facilities of the new company are un- 
excelled. The company's standard is best work and best material 
at moderate prices. The company has lately been reorganized 
with increased capital and is able to do street railway repairing on 
a large scale. Harry B. Marsh, the newly elected president, and 
Charles H. Talmage are in charge of the active management, and 
the reputation of these gentlemen is a guarantee that their work 
will be satisfactory. »^« . 

A street railway company of San Diego, Cal., is using salt 
water for sprinkling its tracks. Electric sprinkling cars are em- 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

New Combination Car of the California Type 

Automatic Lubrication 

The Brooklyn Heights Railway Company has just put in opera- 
tion a new car of the California type, which, from its large size and 
arrangement of details, is of considerable interest. It is very simi- 
lar in general appearance to the large cars recently put in service 
by the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York, but 
differs from them in several important details. 

The first thing to be noticed is the fact that there is no step on 
the sides of the closed body of the car, and the body has no hand- 
1 ail. Experience with other cars of this style showed that this was 
a very necessary and important change. In the cars previously built 
for the Metropolitan Railway by the Brill Company, the sill ran 
through from crown-piece to crown-piece. This, of course, raised 
the rear platform, or that of the closed end of the car, very high, 
and considerable difficulty was found when old people and children 
attempted to enter. In the new car the sills run only to the end of 
the body, and the platform is dropped in the usual way, by the use 
of platform knees. This slight alteration brings the platform down 
practically as low as that of the open car, enabling it to be reached 
by a step only 13% ins. from the rail, with a 13-in. riser. All the 
new cars now in course of construction for the Metropolitan road 
are also having this change introduced. 

The length of the car over the corner posts is 36 ft., the length 
over the buffers being 44 ft. It is 6 ft. 6 ins. wide at the sills and 7 
ft. 2 ins. at the post. On the front or open end of the car the plat- 
form is 3 ft. 8 ins. Ample strength is secured for the side sills by 
plating them with iron. The closed section is 11 ft. 2 ins. over the 
end panels, and has two double doors. The open section has seven 
cross seats, two of which, setting against the forward bulkhead, 
have stationery backs. Along the open portion there are the usual 
folding steps at the sides. These steps are i8K- i ns - from the ground, 
with a 13-in. riser. The height in this case from the head of the rail 
to the under side of the sill is 28 ins. Brill maximum-traction 
trucks with a 4 ft. wheel base are used under the car. The wheels 
are respectively 30 in. and 20 in. in diameter. There are two w.p. 
50 motors. 

The ends of the car are provided with angle-iron buffers, and 
gates are used on one side of the rear platform, with a Brill folding- 
gate on the opposite side. The seats in the closed compartment 
are longitudinal and covered with spring rattan, seating fourteen 
passengers; the open portion accommodates thirty-five, making a 
total of forty-nine seats. The closed compartment is finished in 

The economy of power generation in an electric railway system 
is often the determining factor in the financial success of the road, 
and the modern power station is equipped with every device which 
tends to reduce the operating cost. Among the many minor im- 
provements in this line there is none which has met with greater 
favor, perhaps, than that of the automatic oiling of the wearing 
parts, for it not only reduces largely the labor of attendance, but 
provides a sure and cleanly system of lubrication. 

A very ingenious, but simple and effective, system of oil distri- 
bution is that used in the power station of the Missouri-Edison 


cherry throughout, with three-ply quartered oak ceilings. Cherry 
and ash are used for the finish in the open section. 

Push-buttons are placed on each post, to signal the conductor. 
There are two 12-in. Dedenda gongs with disappearing buttons. 
There are two sand-boxes. The headlights are in the dasher. The 
trolley board extends the whole length of the car. The grab- 
handles of the posts are of ash, set in solid bronze sockets. Each 
of the seats in the open part of the car is fitted with a Brill round- 
corner seat end panel; by their use it is possible to bring the cur- 
tains down to the floor without catching or tearing — a feature 
which renders the open part of the car dry and comfortable in 
storms, and is one of the reasons why cars of this class are being 
so favorably received. 

The weight of the car without motors is 17,200 lbs. The trucks 
weigh 3,250 lbs. each. The California car, with the modifications 
which are going on in its design and construction since its intro- 
duction in the East, is rapidly coming into favor wherever a large 
traffic has to be accommodated. 

The Compagnie des chemins de fer sur routes, of Algiers, has 
ordered eight new cars with double Walker equipment and Dick- 
inson trolley. 


Electric Company, of St. Louis. The system was designed by the 
Siegrist Lubricator Company, of that city. The oil is circulated 
under pressure, and the arrangement of the pumping apparatus is 
shown in the accompanying engraving. These pumps, which are 
four in number, are of the smallest size of du- 
plex steam pumps, were especially designed for 
this work, and are mounted on a slate-top table 
in a corner of the engine room. The pumps 
are connected in pairs, and one of each pair 
serves as a relay. One pair is designed to 
pump the engine lubricating oil, and the other 
the cylinder oil. The oil is pumped to the dif- 
ferent bearings, where the sight feed-oil cups 
are located. The rate of drip from each oil cup 
can be regulated at will by a thumb screw, but 
the piping system is so arranged as to close the 
drip feed if the pressure on the piping system 
is lowered more than 2 lbs. The only thing re- 
quired then to control the oiling system is to 
open or close the one globe valve placed in the 
main oil-supply pipe The closing of this valve 
stops the oil at every oil cup within a few sec- 
onds, thus preventing any waste of oil after the 
engine is stopped. The oil is piped back from all drips of the 
engines and generators to filters located in the basement. 

The cylinder oil is controlled in the same way as the engine oil, 
through sight-feed lubricators for each cylinder, placed at a con- 
venient height from the floor. The pressure maintained in the 
cylinder lubricating system is, of course, slightly higher than the 
steam pressure. 

The lubricators employed in the system are illustrated in section 
in the accompanying engiavings. Fig. 2 shows an ordinary pres- 
sure oil cup, which is placed in the same position as an ordinary 
oil cup. The opening D connects with the feed. As soon as the 
oil enters the cup it acts upon the diaphragm, raising the small 
valve from the seat C, thereby allowing the oil to flow in drops or 
in a stream, according to the wishes of the engineer, who can 
regulate it by the small regulating screw A. When the pressure is 
relieved the valve automatically closes the cup, as already de- 
scribed, preventing the waste of oil. 

The cylinder-lubricator is illustrated in Fig. 3. This device is 
screwed in the steam pipe in the same position as the ordinary 
lubricator, and the opening D is connected to the cylinder oil-pipe 
line by a small J4-in. pipe, so that the lubricator would be supplied 
with cylinder-oil under pressure. As soon as the oil enters the 

February, 1899.] 



lubricator it acts on the diaphragm B, lowering the small valve 
from the seat C, thereby forcing the oil in drops or in a stream up 
through the water in the sight-feed glass and into the steam pipe, 
to be carried by the steam into the cylinder of the engine. The 
rate of feed in this cylinder can be regulated by the screw A. The 

Carbon Brushes 

FIG. 2 

FIG. 3 

steam connection shown beneath the diaphragm acts instantly to 
close the valve in case the oil pressure should fall below that of the 
steam, thus keeping the glass free from oil. 

Oil Filters 

The handsome oil filters of the Kosmic Oil Filter Company, of 
Easton, Pa., are now found in many of the largest power stations 
throughout the country. In this 
filter the oil, instead of being clari- 
fied by passing downward simply 
through some straining materia 
is passed upward through a layer 
of cork, and, in addition, is per- 
mitted to rise for a considerable 

A treated carbon brush for motors, generators and dynamos, 
especially designed for saving the commutator, is manufactured by 
the Le Valley Vitse Carbon Brush Company, of New York. This 
brush has come into very extensive use, and numerous testi- 
monials to the satisfaction given by it are being received, one 
street railway company writing that the Vita; brush had run nearly 
19,000 miles on one of its street railway motors. Although these 
products have been in use for only two years they have been 
adopted as standard by a number of leading street railway and 
electrical companies after severe tests. 

The manufacturers claim that the Vitae brush does not cut or 
wear the commutator, that it wears many times longer than other 
brushes on the market, is thoroughly self-lubricating, never gum- 
ming the segment tips, requires little attention, runs from 7 to 10 
deg. cooler than other brushes, and having great conductivity it 
conveys the current without loss; and, further, that it leaves no de- 
posit of dust in the motor, which is one of the causes for short 

Special Types of Electric Fans 

The rapid development in the employment of electric fans for 
ventilating and other purposes, has led the B. F. Sturtevant Com- 
pany, of Boston, Mass., to prepare special designs suitable for 
special conditions. The shells of those illustrated are of cast iron, 
like the regular monogram blowers and exhausters manufactured 
by this company. The one upon the left, as is evident from the 
position of oil cup and oil tank, is designed to be attached to a ver- 
tical wall, and to discharge directly upward. That at the centre 
may be placed upon the floor to discharge in the same direction, 
while that upon the right is designed for vertical downward dis- 

The motor is of the bi-polar type, the field rings and pole pieces 
being of wrought iron, and the frame accurately centered and held 
securely in place by bolts intioduced through lugs projecting from 
the side of the fan. The general internal construction consists of 
drum-wound armature, having a commutator with ample brush 
surface, and of reaction brush holders with fibre graphite brushes. 
Yokes extending ''rom either side of the field ring, and provided 
with ring oiler boxes, serve to support the armature shaft. All 
trouble from oil is avoided by conducting the overflow through 
tubes to the small receiving tank beneath and attached to the field 
ring. Fans of this tvpe are built in sizes ranging from 18 ins. to 



distance through a body of water, this latter process effectively 
removing all impurities that might possibly make their way 
through the cork. 

As will be seen from the cut, a partition divides the filter into 
two compartments, this arrangement possessing the advantage of 
enabling one part to be cleaned without interfering with the other. 
By regulating the center valve, which controls the flow of oil from 
one compartment to the other, the degree of purity can be seen as 
it passes up through the water in the glass tube, and the whole 
process can be regulated by the engineer in charge according to 
the purity of oil desired. 

6 ft. high, and designed to deliver air under pressure ranging from 
1 oz. to 5 ozs. 

An instance of the progressiveness of the technical press was re- 
cently shown by "Lomotive Engineering" of New York. This 
paper's entire editorial office was burned out in the recent Home 
Life Insurance Building fire, and yet the paper appeared very 
nearly on time with its usual amount of valuable and interesting 
matter. This necessitated almost superhuman efforts on the part 
of the editors and managers, and they are certainly to be con- 
gratulated upon their success. 


Improved Hydraulic Damper Regulator 

A machine for accurately regulating the steam pressure of boil- 
ers by regulating the admission of air to the fires through the 
dampers is shown in the engraving herewith. This regulator can 
be easily erected in the boiler or engine room and connected to 
the dampers to control from one to twenty boilers. 

Referring to the illustration, B is the steam pipe connection 
coming through the wall from the boilers, W is the water connec- 
tion for supplying the water that operates the damper motor, and S 
is a strainer to prevent foreign matter from getting to the damper 
water valve. By unscrewing the cap at the end of the strainer any 
collection of matter can be cleaned out without breaking the pipe 


connection. The overflow pipe for carrying off the discharge water 
is shown at o. The valve controlling the water passing to and 
from the damper motor is operated by a lever, to which weights 
are attached, and by placing the proper weights upon the lever, 
the regulator can be set to close the dampers at any desired steam 
pressure. The machine can also be used for testing steam gages 
without removing them from the boilers. 

All the parts of the apparatus have been carefully designed from 
a scientific and engineering standpoint, and it is claimed that for 
simplicity of construction, neatness in finish and sensitiveness in 
operation this regulator is not surpassed by any other on the mar- 
ket. It is guaranteed that a change of one-half pound to the 
square inch of boiler pressure will open or close the heaviest 
dampers. The apparatus is made by the Patterson Damper Regu- 
lator Company of Baltimore, Md., and was designed by George F, 
Patterson, president of the company, who has been for many years 
almost exclusively engaged in handling damper regulators, and is, 
therefore, well acquainted with the requirements. 


The Increasing Demand for Car Fenders 

The danger to life and limb incident to the increased speeds at 
which electric cars are now run through crowded city 
thoroughfares as well as through less densely populated 
suburband and interurban districts has brought very forcibly, 
and often very painfully, to the minds of street rail- 
way general managers the necesity of equipping their 
cars with proper and efficient life-saving devices Up to 
a comparatively recent period, fenders, if used at all, were gener- 
ally added as an afterthought, whereas now they are rapidly 

coming to be considered a nearly indispensable part of the equip- 
ment, and are often given considerable attention in the specifica- 
tions for rolling stock. 

The magnitude to which the car fender business has grown is 
shown by a recent report of the Consolidated Car Fender Com- 
pany, of Providence, R. I., manufacturer of the Providence fender. 
Since starting in business four years ago, this company has 
equipped 5000 cars with its device, and the Providence fender is 
now in practical use in more than eighty cities and towns in the 
United States' and Canada. The Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company, of New York, has alone purchased 1 188 equipments. 

The Consolidated Car Fender Company reports that orders 
and inquiries already received this year clearly indicate that the 
demand for its fender during 1899 will far exceed that of any 
previous year. Among the orders just completed are fenders for 
all the motor cars of the Auburn City Railway Company. Auburn. 
N. Y. ; the Middletown-Goshen Traction Company, Middletown, 
N. Y. ; the South Chicago City Railway Company, Chicago, 111., 
and the Van Brunt Street & Erie Basin Railway Company, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. A large number of Providence fenders were also 
recently furnished the Ottawa Car Company, Ottawa, Ont., and 
will be placed on new cars now being built for street railway 
companies in Canada. The Consolidated Company is daily re- 
ceiving orders from cue or more of the many roads using its 
device for new equipments to be placed on new cars that are being 
added to the various systems. The business received in this wa}' 
alone is sufficient to keep its factory running full time without the 
new business that is continually coming in. In order to fill all 
demands promptly, it is found necessary to carry in stock not less 
than 1000 full equipments. 

The steady and rapid growth of the business of the Consoli- 
dated Car Fender Company is a practical illustration of making 
"the best" regardless of the first cost. 



MR. S. DANA GREENE has been appointed general sales 
manager of the General Electric Company. 

MR. A. E. BURLAND, superintendent of the Newport Street 
Railway Company, of Newport, R. I., on Dec. 25, was presented 
a testimonial of esteem by the employees of the line. 

MR. F. P. MOONEY has resigned his position as general 
superintendent of the Cortland & Homer Traction Company and 
the Cortland & Homer Electric Company, of Cortland, N. Y. 

MR. H. A. EVERETT has been elected president of the Cleve- 
land Electric Railway Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, in place of 
Mr. H. E. Andrews. Mr. Charles L. Pack has been appointed 

MR. O. M. RAU, chief electrician of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company, will temporarily fill the position of 
superintendent of the lighting department, in place of S. G. Cole- 
man, who recently lesigned. 

MR. HENRY N. RANSOM, who is well known in the street 
railway field as New York representative of the Consolidated Car 
Heating Company, will soon be married to Miss Gillet, daughter 
of Mr. Ainslie M. Gillet, of Albany. 

MR. T. H. ANDERSON has been elected general manager of 
the Somerset Traction Company, of Skowhegan, Maine, to relieve 
Mr. R. B. Shepperd, the president of the road, who has hereto- 
fore held the title of general manager also. 

COL. EUGENE GRIFFIN, of the Volunteer Engineer Corps, 
and first vice- president of the General Electric Company, was 
recommended last month for appointment as Brigadier General, 
for valuable service rendered in Porto Rico during the late war. 

MR. J. M. SHENK has resigned from the presidency of the 
Lebanon & Annville Street Railway Company and the Lebanon 
& Myerstown Street Railway Company, both of Lebanon, Pa., on 
account of other duties requiring his attention. Mr. S. P. Light 
was elected president in his place. 

MR. H. F. PARSHALL, of London, has secured the gold 
medal of the British Institution of Electrical Engineers, for his 
paper on "Earth Returns for Electric Tramways," delivered be- 
fore the Institution on April 28, and reprinted in the Street Rail- 
way Journal for June, 1898, page 322. 

MR. F. C. ARMSTRONG, engineer with Dick, Kerr & Com- 
pany, Ltd., of London, was married on Jan. 11, at Cobourg, On- 
tario, to Miss Helen R. McCallum, of Cobourg. Mr. and Mrs. 

February, 1899.] 



Armstrong sailed for Liverpool on the steamship Teutonic, Jan. 
2$, and will live in one of the suburbs of London. 

MR. CHARLES SHELDON has resigned the position of 
general manager and treasurer of the Consolidated Car-Heating 
Company, of Albany, N. Y., to become manager of the Chihuahua 
& Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at Chihuahua, Mexico. Mr. 
Frederick W. Kelley, who has been Mr. Sheldon's assistant, has 
been appointed general manager and treasurer of the Consolidated 
Car-Heating Company. 

MR. WM. E. COOKE, representing the London syndicate 
controlling the tramways system at Perth, Western Australia, ar- 
rived in Perth late in December and commenced immediately 
upon the work of converting the horse tramways to electric. He 
states that owing to the heat of the climate, the hilly nature of the 
city, the badness of the roads and the large and scattered area 
within the city boundaries, Perth is an excellent street railway city. 

MR. J. W. HICKS, superintendent of the Rochester Railway 
Company, and Mr. Thomas Hicks, assistant superintendent, were 
very pleasantly surprised by beautiful gifts from employees of the 
road, at Christmas time. These gentlemen are very popular with 
the company's men, and to show their esteem the employees raised 
a fund and presented Mi. J. W. Hicks with a handsome parlor 
cabinet of solid mahogany, and Mr. Thomas Hicks, with a fine 
easy chair of solid mahogany. 

MR. W. R. MASON, who was representing the Walker com- 
pany at St. Louis at the time of the consolidation of that company 
with the Westinghouse, has been appointed manager of the St. 
Louis office of the Siemens & Halske Electric Company. Mr. 
Mason is well known in the street railway field, and his large ac- 
quaintance, railroad experience and characteristic energy and per- 
severence would naturally make him a valuable acquisition to any 
company closely identified with the electric railway or lighting in- 
terests which secured his services. 

MICHAEL SIMONS, ex-members of the town council of the 
city of Glasgow, Scotland, and Mr. J. Murry Smith, of the "Glas- 
gow Evening News," are in America, and will visit a number of 
the principal cities of this country. The main object in making 
this trip is to interest the American Government in the Inter- 
national Exposition to be held in Glasgow in 1901. This exposi- 
tion will afford American manufacturers an excellent opportunity 
to exhibit their goods to the Scottish people, and advantage will 
undoubtedly be taken of this opportunity by a large number of 
firms. The gentlemen from Glasgow will also pay particular 
attention while in America to electric railways, and will inspect 
a number of prominent systems. 

MR. JOHN E. ANGER, recently with the John Stephenson 
Company, Ltd., has accepted the position of master car builder of 
the Electric Railway & Tramway Carriage Works, of Preston. 
England. The formation of this company was mentioned in a re- 
cent issue of the Street Railway Journal, and it proposes to do 
a large business in the manufacturing of tramway cars. Mr. Anger 
is well known in the car building industry in this country. He 
began his career in this business with the Gilbert Car Manufactur- 
ing Company, of Troy, N. Y., in 1869, and remained with that com- 
pany until the close of the year 1876, when he accepted a position 
in the car building shops of the New York Central Railroad Com - 
pany. He remained with this latter company for about five years, 
when he resigned to enter the employ of the Jones Car Manufac- 
turing Company, whose factory was then located at Schenectady, 
N. Y. When these shops were leased by the Gilbert Car Com- 
pany, Mr. Anger was offered a position with this company again as 
first foreman, but was soon promoted from one position to another 
until he was made superintendent of the Schenectady plant. When 
the Gilbert Car Manufacturing Company abandoned its Schenec- 
tady plant, Mr. Anger removed to the company's Green Island 
plant, where he was assistant to Mr. F. A. Stanley, then general 
superintendent. He remained with the Gilbert company until it 
became insolvent, when he accepted a position with the Jackson & 
Sharp Cojnpany, of Wilmington, Del., with whom he remained 
for about four years, or up to last spring, when he became associ- 
ated with the John Stephenson Company, at its Elizabeth plant. 
He installed the entire machinery at the latter plant and remained 
with the Stephenson company until the middle of December, when 
he decided to accept the offer of the Electric Tramways & Car- 
riage Company. Mr. Anger is forty-five years of age, and being 
naturally of an inventive turn of mind has made many improve- 
ments facilitating the construction of cars. He has also taken out 
a number of patents in the line of trucks and car seats, and at the 
present time is engaged on several other improvements in car 
building. He has always won the good will and best wishes of his 
employers and associates. 


MR. W. BARTLETT, chief engineer of the St. Louis & 
Suburban Railway Company, of St. Louis, Mo., died at his home 
on Jan. 16, 1899. 

MR. E. K. STONE, for many years general manager of the 
Quincy Horse Railway & Carrying Company, of Quincy, 111., 
died recently at his residence in Quincy. 

MR. M. C. BULLOCK, for many years president of the Bul- 
lock Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, 111., died in that city 
on Jan 12. Mr. Bullock was born in 1838, at Granville, N. Y., 
and spent the early years of his life on a farm. Being attracted 
to the trade of a machinest, he served his apprenticeship in a shop 
near his home, and then traveled from State to State for the pur- 
pose of gaining wider experience in his chosen vocation. He was 
connected with a number of well-known manufacturing com- 
panies, and also did considerable engineering work, until 1878, 
when he started the Bullock Manufacturing Company. Through 
his tireless efforts this business was placed upon a successful 
basis, and he gradually broadened its scope until it included the 
manufacturing of rock drills, air compressors, hoists, diamond 
drills, steam engines of all kinds, etc., the latest being the Willans 
high-speed engine. Mr. Bullock has been failing in health for 
over a year, but his death was unexpected. 



DICK, KERR & COMPANY, LIMITED, of London, have 
sold five Walker car equipments for the West Hartlepool Tram- 
ways, owned by the British Electric Traction Company. 

MESSRS. McCLAVE & HAMILTON, of New York, are 
representing in New York and vicinity, James Bonar & Co., 
manufacturers of steam appliances, and the Pittsburgh Feed Water 
Heater and Engineering Company. 

N. J., has published its new price list for all kinds of bare and in- 
sulated telegraph, telephone and trolley wires, underground 
cables, lamp cords, etc. 

of St. Louis, Mo., is sending out its new catalogue, containing 
five full-size reproductions of the various styles of direct and 
alternating-current incandescent lamps which it manufactures. 

GEO. A. PARMENTER, Cambridgeport,, Mass., manufacturer 
of the Parmenter fender and wheel guards, reports that among 
other orders lately closed is one for the equipment of the entire 
system of the City & Suburban Railway Company, Washington 
with Parmenter fenders and wheel guards. 

CARD CASE. — The Electrical Installation Company, of Chi- 
cago, 111., general street railway contractors, are sending to their 
friends a very handsome and useful pocketbook and card case. 
The case is- made of black leather and contains compartments for 
cards, papers, etc. This little souvenir will be heartily appreciated 
by all those fortunate enough to secure one. 

PENCILINGS.- — One of the daintiest catalogues of the season 
has just come from the press of the Dixon Crucible Company, of 
Jersey City, N. J. This little pamphlet bears evidence of most 
careful thought in its preparation, and tells in a very lively and in- 
teresting manner what the requirements of a good lead pencil are 
and how Dixon pencils fully fill all these requirements. 

THE BIBBER-WHITE COMPANY. Boston, is sending to 
its friends a very acceptable souvenir, consisting of a combined 
calendar and thermometer for desk use. The Bibber- White Com- 
pany reports that the past year has been an unusually good one in 
the street railway line for it, while business for the new year is 
starting off with a pace that bids fair to tax its present capacity. 

THE BAKER HEATER, manufactured by Wm. C. Baker, of 
New York, claims to satisfactorily solve the problem of heating 
street cars, particularly long interurban cars. This system of heating 
■was fully described in the last issue of the Street Railway Jour- 
nal, and the company reports that its apparatus is in use on a 
number of systems, and that inquiries and orders are being con- 
stantly received. 

N. J., has found it necessary, on account of the increased growth 
of its business, to establish a branch office in New York City. 
This office will be located in the White building, 95 Liberty Street, 


Vol. XV., No. 2. 

and will be in charge of Edwin S. Boyer, formerly of Philadelphia. 
All orders or inquiries sent to the New York office will have 
prompt attention. 

burgh, Pa., has placed an order for 5000-h.p. Pittsburgh feed-water 
heater and purifiers for its new plate mill. This is the third order 
placed with the manufacturers of these heaters by the Carnegie 
Company, and is good evidence of the fact that they are giving 
good satisfaction. This makes 33,500-h.p. Pittsburgh heaters in 
the Carnegie plants. 

JAMES BONAR & COMPANY, of Pittsburgh, Pa., have 
made arrangements for special agencies for the sale of their Pitts- 
burgh feed-water heater and purifiers, Bonar gage cocks and 
Bonar oil filters for the New York territory, with Messrs. Mc- 
Clave & Hamilton, 141 Broadway, New York, N. Y., for New 
England, with F. W. Ashcroft, 63 Oliver Street, Boston, Mass., 
and for Mexico, with Robert J. Campbell, City of Mexico. 

PANY, of Ind ian Orchard, Mass., announces that it has a complete 
stock of Chapman gate valves for water, high and low pressure 
steam, gas, oil, ammonia, air and brine. This stock has been 
placed in Philadelphia, so that the trade and users of valves in the 
Middle Atlantic States can have orders filled without delay. The 
headquarters of this company in Philadelphia are at 40 North 
Seventh Street. 

of Bridgeport, Conn., has met with pleasing success in the intro- 
duction of its wheel-grinding machines. A number of these are 
now in course of construction, and several have been shipped 
within the last few weeks. Among these may be mentioned one 
for the Boston Elevated Railway Company, and one to South 
America. One of the grinders now building will go to a large 
road in Japan. 

of Boston, Mass., among other contracts, recently supplied all the 
seats for the three handsome cars built by the Laconia Car Com- 
pany for the Newton Street Railway Company, of Newton, Mass., 
and which were described in the last issue of the Street Railway 
Journal. These seats are of the Henry reversible type, and were 
chosen for their handsome appearance and strength and sim- 
plicity of construction. 

LUNDELL MOTORS.— The Sprague Electric Company, of 
New York City, has published another of its elaborate and val- 
uable catalogues for which this company is famous. This pam- 
phlet is devoted to a detailed description of the Lundell motors 
and their application to Linotype machines, printing presses, 
metal and woodworking machines, elevators, horseless carriages, 
etc. The book contains a number of curves showing the remark- 
able efficiency of these motors. 

THE M. MITSHKUN COMPANY, of Detroit, Mich., reports 
that its business has increased largely of late, and that prospects 
in general are excellent. The company has been established a 
long time, and is well known throughout the entire country. It is 
able to furnish at short notice steel rails of any desired weight, 
and these are kept in stock and ready for immediate shipment. 
The company also has on hand locomotives suitable for con- 
struction purposes, steam shovels, and other railway and con- 
tractors' supplies. 

A GOOD LIGHT for night construction, shop work and 
heavy metal heating is a nearly indispensable part of the equip- 
ment of an up-to-date street railway. One of the best lights for 
this purpose on the market is the Wells light, manufactured by 
the Wells Light Manufacturing Company, of New York, and it 
has been adopted as standard by many of the leading railways and 
contractors of the country. It is being used extensively in the 
new conduit construction of the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company in New York. 

port, Mass., in its new catalogue for 1899 fully describes its very 
complete line of electrical heating apparatus. This company has 
gone very extensively into this subject, and manufactures heating 
and cooking articles of almost every conceivable description, in- 
cluding portable stoves, tea-kettles and stands, electric chafing- 
dishes, boilers, flat-irons and radiators, and heaters for waiting 
rooms and electric cars. The car heaters are in extensive use, and 
are giving good satisfaction. 

Manufacturing Company, of New York City, has issued its cata- 
logue for 1899, and in this will be found descriptions of the 
numerous street railway "Sterling" specialties. These include 

registers, safety brakes, insulation, commutator bars, car fenders, 
sand boxes, etc. There is no line of goods in the street railway 
industry more widely or favorably known than the "Sterling" 
specialties, and the company reports an excellent business for the 
past months and splendid prospects for the coming year. 

Conn., has just shipped several carloads of bridge material to the 
Hawaiian Islands. It is believed this is the first American bridge 
that was ever put up in these islands. The contract for this bridge 
was obtained through the Berlin Iron Bridge Company's regular 
established agency located at Honolulu, and men will be sent from 
the United States to put up the bridge, which is for highway 
travel. It consists of one span of 200 ft. 40 ft. wide, and will be 
located across a river in one of the larger towns of the islands. 

W. B. UPTON, who has been engaged as the principal 
assistant engineer of the Capital Traction Company, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, in its work of changing its cable railway to the open 
conduit electric system and in the building of the new power 
station illustrated in the last issue of the Journal, has resigned 
from that position, as his work has now been completed. Mr. 
Upton has resumed his practice as consulting engineer, with head- 
quarters in the Washington Loan and Trust Building, in Washing- 
ton, and is making a specialty of open conduit electric systems, 
electric power stations and building engineering. 

Ohio, is putting upon the market an express wagon so built as to 
be mounted on a truck adapted for electric railway track. Until 
recently three of these wagons have been running between Toledo 
and Bowling Green. They are connected up in a train, and are 
drawn by an ordinary motor car to distribution points. The rail 
wagon is then switched out of the main track, the wagon is run 
off the track, horses are attached, and distribution is commenced. 
On the return trip the wsgon reaches the main track, is run upon 
the truck and taken in train to the central city. This system 
appears to have some advantages in special places. 

PANY, of St. Louis, Mo., on account of the increasing demand 
for its goods in the Northwest, has decided to establish an agency 
at Chicago. The agency has been placed in charge of George B. 
Foster, late of J. Holt Gates & Company, who will make his head- 
quarters at room 1519, Marquette building, but will spend con- 
siderable of his time traveling through the territory of the North- 
west, placing before the companies of this section many Wagner 
specialties. Mr. Foster's territory includes the States of Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Northern Michigan, the western part of 
Southern Michigan, the northern part of Illinois, and the northern 
part of Indiana. 

MESSRS. J. G. WHITE & COMPANY, are the consulting 
engineers and purchasing agents of the Deep Leeds Electric Trans- 
mission Company, of Victoria, Australia, a company organized 
to erect a complete plant for supplying energy for all mining pur- 
poses to three mines in Victoria. Contracts have already been 
made for electric apparatus with the General Electric Company, 
for engines with the Buckeye Company, for boilers with the Bab- 
cock & Wilcox Company, for condensers and pumps for power 
house with the Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Company. The 
mine pumps themselves, which are to be mounted on the same 
bed-plate with the motors, but geared to them, are to be manu- 
factured in Australia. 

owned the German rights for all the patents of the General Elec- 
tric Company, of America, took possession on Jan. 1, 1899, of the 
electro-technical factory, operated hitherto by the Aktien Gesell- 
schaft, Ludwig Loewe & Company, whose entire business con- 
sisted in manufacturing the apparatus required by the Union Com- 
pany. Wilhelm Laue, formerly on the board of directors of Lud- 
wig Loewe & Company, has become a member of the board of the 
Union Company, and will occupy the position of managing di- 
rector. The Union Company announces that the large increase of 
its capital in manufacturing facilities enables it to comply most 
promptly with the steadily increasing requirements of its business. 

THE WORKS of the New Process Raw Hide Company, of 
Syracuse, N. Y., were destroyed by fire Dec. 19, resulting in a 
complete loss of the plant. At the time of the fire the company 
was running overtime on orders. Since the day of the fire this 
company has been working with its characteristic hustle to get a 
new plant in operation, and will be ready to run again by the first 
day of February. The new works will be located at 305-309 North 
State Street, Syracuse, the business office remaining at 348 West 
Washington Street. The product of the New Process Raw Hide 
Company has become known in about every section of the world 
that there is machinery in operation. Its raw-hide pinions are 

February, 1899.] 



well known in the electric railway field for their lasting qualities 
and freedom from noise. 

name of a new firm organized Nov. 15, 1898, in Berlin, the mem- 
bers of which are H. H. Boeker, formerly connected with the 
Bergische Stahl-Industrie, of Berlin, and Moritz Boeker, engi- 
neer, of Remscheid. The selling business of the Bergische Stahl- 
Industrie, which is primarily a manufacturing company, having 
become too large to be well taken care of under its own name, it 
has turned this business over to the new firm, which intends to 
furnish a medium between manufacturers and customers of dif- 
ferent countries, to handle agencies, etc. For instance, the new 
firm has received of the Standard Air Brake Company, of New 
York, the exclusive right of selling its air brake equipments in 
Germany, and other agencies are desired. 

LARGE ORDER FOR BOILERS — The Babcock & Wilcox 
Company has received from Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Com- 
pany the largest stationary boiler order that has ever been placed. 
The boilers are for the power plant which the Westinghouse 
Electric Company have contracted to build for the Third Avenue 
Railroad Company, of New York, at 218th Street and Harlem 
River, and which is to be constructed by Westinghouse, Church, 
Kerr & Company. The order covers sixty Babcock & Wilcox 
forged steel-type boilers of 520 h.p. each, or an aggregate of 31,200 
h.p. The boilers are to be capable of carrying 200 lbs. steam 
pressure. They will supply steam for compound condensing en- 
gines of 64,000 nominal h.p. in the aggregate. Further particulars 
of this order were published in the last issue of the Street Rail- 
way Journal. 

ARTHUR W. FIELD, of Boston, is doing an excellent busi- 
ness in the many street railway specialties for which he is agent. 
Mr. Field is now the representative in New England of a number 
of the most important manufacturing companies in the country, 
and represents the Peckham Truck Company, American Car Com- 
pany, Ruggles' rotary snow plows, Price's friction brakes, Wheeler 
reflectors, Brandon metal paints, etc. In fact, Mr. Field is ready 
to supply practically anything which goes into the equipment of a 
company's rolling stock. By enterprise, ability and careful atten- 
tion to the wants of his customers, he has succeeded in securing 
an excellent business. His recent calendar is extremely attractive. 
Mr. Field has also just sold, as New England agent for the Ameri- 
can Car Company, fifty open nine-bench cars and thirty open 
twelve-bench cars to the Boston Elevated Railway Company, de- 
livery to be made May 1. 

J. HOLT GATES & COMPANY, Marquette building, Chi- 
cago, report the following recent sales: Armour Glue Works, 
Chicago, one 225-kw. 500-volt generator, two 150-kw. 500-volt 
generators, seven 50-h.p. motors, two 100-h.p. motors, two 150- 
h.p. motors, one 30-h.p. motor, two 25-h.p. motors, all made by 
the Card Electric Company, Mansfield, Ohio; Deering Harvester 
Company, Chicago, seven 500-light transformers, five 400- 
light transformers, three 200-light transformers; Elkhart Lake 
Electric Light Company, Elkhart Lake, Wis., two 10-h.p. 
single-phase motors and transformers and direct dynamos, 
attached to large storage batteries for electric launches, Armour 
Glue Works, Chicago; one $3,000 switchboard, Pierce & Robin- 
son, Chicago; one $700 switchboard, residence of P. D. Armour, 
Jr., Chicago; one 300-light electric light plant, with Nash gas en- 
gine direct connected. 

ONE OF THE handsomest souvenirs that has come to hand 
is being sent out by the United States Projectile Company, of 
Brooklyn. The souvenir is for use as a paper-weight, and is a 
six-pounder projectile such as was used so effectively by our 
navy at Manila, Santiago and other places, but has been nicely 
nickel-plated so it will not rust. To comply with the Government 
ballistic test one of these projectiles must penetrate a steel plate 
3 ins. thick without showing a ciack or fracture of any kind. The 
United States Projectile Company is well known to the electric 
railway field as manufacturer of the patent hot-pressed pinions, of 
which upward of 50,000 have been sold since their introduction. 
The company has a very extensive and model plant, and during 
the w? r with Spain the Government orders for projectiles kept the 
plant running day and night, almost to the exclusion of all other 
work, but the company reports that it is again prepared to fill 
orders with reasonable promptness for its well-known pinions. 

WIRE GAGE AS A SOUVENIR— A very convenient sou- 
venir in the shape of a combination foot rule and wire gage is 
being sent out by the Standard Underground Cable Company, of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., as a reminder that it is prepared to promptly fill 
all orders, large or small, for bare copper, iron or steel wire, 
weather-proof annunciator, office or magnet wire, galvanized steel 
strands, rubber-covered wire or cables, lead-covered cables for 

underground or aerial use, armored submarine cables, cable hang- 
ers, terminal or junction boxes and underground conduits. These 
various products are the results of many careful and costly ex- 
periments and tests by the corps of skilled experts constantly in 
the employ of the company, and the sixteen years of experience 
that the Standard Underground Cable Company has had in this 
line guarantees its competency to satisfactorily fulfil all contracts 
intrusted to its care. The little rule and wire gage is made in 
three sections, which fold upon each other, and it will be found 
very convenient for frequent use. 

ING COMPANY has recently booked many orders from England 
for street railway motors. There are 262 motors and eight gen- 
erators to he turned out with all possible speed. An abstract of 
the contracts on hand is as follows: For the Hull Tramway 
Company, ninety-two electric ralway motors to equip forty-five 
cars and one track sweeper; for the Halifax Ttamway Corpora- 
tion, twelve motors to equip six cars; for the Bradford Tramway 
Corporation, forty-eight motors to equip twenty-four cars; for the 
municipality of Norwich, which has control of the tramways in 
that city, eighty motors to equip forty electric cars, and four elec- 
tric generators to be installed in the power house of the Norwich 
Tramway Corporation, to generate the current for the operation 
of the line; for Coventry, twenty motors have been ordered to 
equip ten cars, and the order has been augmented by a call for two 
power generators. Plymouth has an order for ten motors and 
two power generators for operation of local electric railways. 

PANY, of Sandusky, Ohio, has appointed J. Holt Gates & Com- 
pany, 1426 and 1427 Marquette building, Chicago, general agents 
for its apparatus in the Western territory surrounding Chicago. 
The Warren Electric Manufacturing Company has recently placed, 
through J. Holt Gates & Company, a 15,000-light alternating-cur- 
rent plant for the great new power and light plant of Armour & 
Company, at their extensive works at the Union Stock Yards, 
Chicago. This plant will consist of one machine of 7000 16-c.p. 
light capacity, at 1100 volts and 7200 alternations; also two 3600- 
light machines, at 1100 volts and 7200 alternations. These alter- 
nators are of the inductor type, and will be operated by rope 
drive from Corliss engines of 2000 h.p. and 1100 h.p. each, to 
which engines will also be attached Walker direct-connected 
power generators. It is stated that the Warren alternators were 
selected on account of their close regulation, high efficiency, low 
temperature and ability to stand "grief." The Warren Electric 
Company is now prepared to build 10,000-light machines, both 
single and two-phase, in its new factory, and has about sixty 
machines on order at the present time. Its new plant at San- 
dusky, Ohio, is modern and up to date. 

CHANICAL DRAFT.— The B. F. Sturtevant Company, of Bos- 
ton, Mass., has brought out within the past few weeks a number of 
new pamphlets and circulars setting forth the advantages of me- 
chanical draft for factories, power stations, etc. One of these cir- 
culars, entitled "Draft Without a Chimney," explains why the B. 
F. Sturtevant Company has taken down its tall chimney and sub- 
stituted mechanical draft, and states that an annual fuel saving of 
nearly $1,000 has been secured thereby. The company has also 
found it necessary to issue a second edition of the lecture on me- 
chanical draft for steam boilers, delivered at the Cornell University 
by Walter B. Snow, of the engineering staff of the B. F. Sturte- 
vant Company, in order to meet the demand for information on 
this important subject. In addition to its mechanical draft system 
the B. F. Sturtevant Company manufactures generators and 
motors and direct-connected units for all classes of service. Its 
catalogue, Bulletin G, illustrates a unique generating set, in which 
both the engine and generator are entirely inclosed, although 
practically accessible through suitable doors. Such a device is of 
manifest utility wherever the atmosphere is laden with dust. All 
these circulars will be mailed on request. 

BENT GLASS. — It is a well-known fact that bent glass adds to 
the attractiveness of any building or store front, in fact, a single 
pane gives extra tone to the whole structure. To those con- 
templating building or making alterations, it is important to know 
that common double thick glass can be bent to any part of a 
circle not exceeding half circle. Polished plate can also be bent 
in the same manner. The difference in appearance between the 
two lights after bending is hardly perceptible, in fact, when set in 
a building it would require an expert to detect any difference at 
all; however, there is quite a difference in the cost; bent double 
thick glass is only about one-fifth of the cost of bent plate glass, 
which is considerable of a saving in the construction of a build- 
ing. The curving or bending of double thick glass takes away 
the waviness, gives a polish to the glass, and adds to its strength 



Vol. XV., No. 2. 

and resistance to high winds and severe storms. This was clearly 
demonstrated in the city of St. Louis by the tornado that visited 
that city May 27, 1896. The largest manufacturer of bent glass 
exclusively in the United States is the Oriel Glass Company, of 
St. Louis, Mo. This company manufactures all kinds of bent 
glass for buildings, show cases, fancy furniture, etc., the product 
being all of superior make and finish, and shipped in large quanti- 
ties, not only to all points in the United States, but also to Canada 
and Mexico. 

St. Louis, Mo., has had a successful career of eight years in the 
general electrical supply business, and has experienced a phe- 
nomenal growth in its various departments. This is especially 
noticeable in the street railway department, which has developed 
through the company's tireless efforts to supply what the trade 
demand, into a very satisfactory and gratifying business. This 
company carries in its St. Louis stock a very large and complete 
assortment of all supplies pertaining to street railway business, and 
it has succeeded in establishing an excellent reputation for making 
shipments with promptness and despatch, and its growth is un- 
doubtedly due to a large extent to its prompt delivery of goods, 
as street railway companies fully appreciate the advantages of 
being able to secure the majority of their goods from stock, thus 
obviating the necessity of tedious and often exasperating delays on 
the part of manufacturers. It seems more than likely that the 
Western Electrical Supply Company, situated as it is, in the South- 
west, which enables it to reach a large and spacious territory, will 
continue to increase its large business in this line, and receive the 
hearty support of street railway companies. This company rep- 
resents some of the largest and best-known manufacturers of street 
railway supplies in the country, and is therefore able to furnish 
many specialties in this line which a street railway may require. 
It has recently issued a very complete catalogue, confined strictly 
to street railway supplies, and which may be had for the asking. 
This book was described in the January issue of the Street Rail- 
way Journal, and will be found of value to all street railway 

*♦* — 

New Publications 

Powers of Municipalities. By Allen Ripley Foote. Paper. 79 
pages. Published by the Robert Clarke Company, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

This is a discussion of the report on the municipal problem of 
the special committee of the National Municipal League. 

The Customs Tariff of Japan, in Effect January 1, 1899. Paper. 

Published by Japan-American Commercial and Industrial 

Association, Times Building, New York.- 
In this pamphlet are given the ad valorem and specific duties 
contained in the new tariff law published March 29, 1897. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Courses in Electrical En- 
gineering and Physics. Paper. 6s pages. Published by the 

This contains a full description of the laboratories, etc., of these 
courses, which have come to be the most popular in the Insti- 

American Trade Index. Flexible linen. 276 pages. Published 
by the Association at its office in Philadelphia. 
This is a descriptive and classified membership directory of the 
National Association of Manufacturers of the United States, ar- 
ranged for the convenience of various buyers, and is a valuable 
book for its purposes. 

Mechanical Features of Electrical Traction. By Philip Dawson, 
A. M„ I. M. E. Paper. 161110. 123 pp. 14 plates. Pub- 
lished by authority of the Council Institute Mechanical En- 
gineers, London. 
This is an excerpt from the minutes of recent proceedings of the 

Institute of Mechanical Engineers, containing a paper read by Mr. 

Dawson before the Institute and the discussion thereon. Many of 

the plates and tables are of much value. 

Third Rail Electric Traction. By Charles Henry Davis and W. G. 
Howells. 84 pages. Paper. Illustrated. Reprinted from the 
"Municipal and Railway Record," New York. 
In this article, which has been printed in pamphlet form, the 
authors briefly review the subject of surface contact and under- 
ground electric railway conduit systems. The greater part of the 
article is devoted to illustrations of the chief systems which have 
been proposed or are in use, and the authors deserve great credit 
for having collected and put in permanent form so much interest- 
ing data of this character. 

The Technology Review. A Quarterly Magazine published at 71 
Newbury Street, Boston, by the Association of Class Secre- 
taries of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Price $1 
per annum, 35 cents per copy. Volume I. No. 1. 143 pages. 
This is a new quarterly of interest chiefly to the students and 
alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but contain- 
ing articles of general interest to those working in scientific fields. 
Its first number contains an article on the "Function of a Labora- 
tory," by Silas W. Holman, together with reprints and fac simile 
of early institute documents and letters descriptive of the new 
buildings, and general institute news. 

Up-to-Date Air Brake Catechism. By R. H. Blackall, Air Brake 
Instructor and Inspector on the D. & H. R. R. 240 pages. 
Illustrated. Price, $1.50. Published by Norman W. Henley 
& Co., 132 Nassau Street, New York City. 
The increased use of heavy double truck electric cars has made 
the subject of air brakes an extremely interesting one, so that the 
book mentioned contains much of value to the street railway en- 
gineer. It is written in the popular catechism style and contains 
nearly a thousand questions with their answers. It is fully illus- 
trated, and the engravings include two large folding plates of the 
Westinghouse quick-action automatic air brake and the g l / 2 -'m. 
improved air brake. 

The Story of the Railroad. By Cy Warman. Cloth. 121110. 280 
pages. Illustrated. Price, $1.50. Published by D. Appleton 
& Company, New York. 
This book pictures the building of the earlier transcontinental 
lines across the true West. It tells the story of the engineer who 
found the way and who was the pioneer of permanent civilization 
among the Indians and the buffalo of the plains and in the moun- 
tains. Historically, the book is valuable, because it gives a com- 
prehensive sketch of a great subject in a brief compass, and, 
furthermore, the strange and picturesque phases of life which are 
depicted are full of immediate interest. An actual war, now for- 
gotten, for the possession of a canon in Colorado, is vividly de- 
scribed by the author, who has shared in the work of the railroad 
men, and who made a special journey through the West to gather 
fresh material for this valuable and entertaining book. 

Matter, Energy, Force and Work. A Plain Presentation of 
Fundamental Physical Concepts and of the Vortex-atom and 
Other Theories. By Silas W. Holman, Professor of Physics 
(emeritus) Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 257 pages. 
Price, $2.50. Published by the Macmillan Company, New 

To all who know Prof. Holman's keen, clear and intelligent 
brain, and his ability in putting before a student or reader an 
accurate conception of fundamental physical facts and theories, 
this book will instantly appeal as a valuable addition to their en- 
gineering library. Chapter I. deals with the established funda- 
mental facts about substance and matter, motion energy in its 
various forms, force work and measurements. Part II. deals with 
speculations on matter and energy, including treatises on the 
function of theory and hypothesis, the kinetic theory of gases, Le- 
Sage's theory of gravitation, the vortex-atom theory, and the 
nature of energy and matter. 

Trade Catalogues 

"Nir" Rubber Wire. Published by the National India Rubber 
Company, Bristol, R. I. 24 pages. 

Electric Fans. Published by the B. F. Sturtevant Company, of 
Boston, Mass. 8 pages. Illustrated. 

Who Uses Mechanical Draft? Published by the B. F. Sturtevant 
Company, of Boston, Mass. 18 pages. 

Lundell Motors. Published by the Sprague Electric Company, of 
New York City. 72 pages. Illustrated. 

Pencilings. Published by the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, 
Jersey City, N. J. 16 pages. Illustrated. 

Electric Heating. Published by the Simplex Electrical Company, 
Cambridgeport, Mass. 50 pages. Illustrated. 

Columbia Lamps. Published by the Columbia Incandescent Lamp 
Company, of St. Louis, Mo. 24 pages. Illustrated. 

Catalogue. Published by the Sterling Supply & Manufacturing 
Company, of New York City. 32 pages. Illustrated. 

Rubber Covered Wire and Strands. Published by the John A. 
Roebling's Sons Company, of Trenton, N. J. 6 pages. Illus- 

s 7 

Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XV. 


No. 3. 


There are few street railway companies in the country, 
whose systems were equipped several years ago, that have 
so thoroughly changed over their methods and appliances 
to adapt them to the requirements of the hour, as the com- 
pany named in the title of this article. The changes made, 
constitute, in some cases, radical innovations from stand- 
ard practice, not only in the electrical equipment, but also 
in the mechanical and architectural departments, so that a 
study of the system is a particularly interesting one. The 
chief engineer, who is also manager of the system, origi- 
nated all the plans and details, and is to be congratulated 
on the satisfactory results that have been reached, and 

tern when completed. An examination of the list and map 
on the following page will show the situation as it stood. 

It will be seen that none of these plants were well situ- 
ated with regard to coal and water supply, the most im- 
portant factors in the location of a large power house. The 
cable power houses were necessarily located on the streets 
along which the cables were operated, and therefore little 
regard was paid to coal and water supply. These plants 
stood on valuable ground, the cost of hauling coal by 
wagon was large, and lack of water rendered the use of 
condensing engines impractical. 

The electric power houses were somewhat better off in 


commended for the original and novel manner in which 
the peculiar local problems have been met and mastered. 

When the various cable and electric lines in the city of 
Pittsburg were consolidated, the new company found itself 
in possession of seven power houses; four of these, namely, 
Washington Street, Oakland, Wylie Avenue and Thirty- 
fourth Street, were cable power houses of the usual type; 
the other three, Forty-seventh Street, Ben Venue and Al- 
legheny Traction, were electric power houses. 

Before, and during the reconstruction of the system, 
these electric power houses were, of course, kept in opera- 
tion, but there arose the problem as to what arrangements 
must be made for supplying power to the much larger sys- 

regard to coal supply, but Forty-seventh Street and Al- 
legheny Traction were too far from centre of system, while 
Ben Venue had no suitable water supply, and only one 
source of coal supply. It became evident, therefore, that 
one or more new power stations were demanded in locali- 
ties not too far removed from centre of system, and where 
coal and water were easily and surely obtainable. 

Tn deciding between one large plant and two or more 
smaller ones, Pittsburgh's marked geographical peculiarities 
largely influenced the restilt. The street railways con- 
verged in the crowded business portion down town, and 
again at East Liberty, after traversing a district of heavy 
grades. This brought the centre of the system in the midst 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

of the hills, as shown on the map, at a considerable dis- 
tance from available coal and water supply, hence it was 
impracticable to put power house in this part of the system. 
Railroads are compelled to follow the Monongahela and 

Power Data of Orig nal Stations. 





I. H. P. 

Machine Driven. 









W. T. 





2-200 lew. gen. 





1-500 kw. gen. 


Ben Venue 


T. T. 





2-500 kw. gen. 





1-375 kw. gen. 





1-500 kw. gen. 




R. T. 




1-800 kw. gen. 


47th St 


R. T. 





3-100 kw. gen. 


34th St 


R. T. 





Cable Machine. 


Wylie A ve ... 


R. T. 






Washingt'n St. 


R. T. 





R. T.— Return Tubular. 

V. C. C. C. — Vertical Cross Compound Condensing. 
W. T. — Water Tube. 

H. T. C. C. — Horizontal Tandem Compound Condensing. 

Allegheny valleys, so that both coal and water are readily 
obtainable along the banks of these rivers. A location on 
the Allegheny River, on the other hand, offered advantages 
of far better water, with equally good coal facilities, nearest 

the daily operating expense. The value of the real estate 
of the separate plants is sufficient to cover the cost of con- 
struction of the new station. 

The location finally obtained was at Twentieth Street, be- 
tween Railroad Street and the Allegheny River; the prop- 
erty being 177 ft. deep, and 360 ft. to harbor line; the 
length of the building was limited to 265 ft. by a private 
right of way. Coal can be secured from either the B. & O. 
system, the Pennsylvania Railway, or from the river, while 
an unlimited supply of fairly good water is close at hand. 

The station is designed for a 12,500 nominal h.p. equip- 
ment, which will consist of eight units, six of which are at 
present installed. Each unit comprises a 1560 h.p. engine 
of the cross compound condensing type, with "Corliss" 
valve gear direct coupled to a 1000 kw. generator. The 
cylinder dimensions are 30 ins. and 54 ins.x 48 ins. The rat- 
ing given above is based upon a cut-off in the high pres- 
sure cylinder of 23 per cent and a terminal pressure in the 
low pressure cylinder of 6 lbs. above absolute vacuum, and 
running at 80 r. p.m., but with a higher percentage of cut-off 
the machines are easily capable of developing 2500 h.p. 
each. The steam and exhaust valve are operated by separ- 

to the centre of the system, and of less difficulty in obtain- 
ing land. 

With so little choice in location, the advantages of a 
single power house, rather than two or three in different 
parts of the city, seemed to the managers of the company 
evident. Danger of fire and of accident to a single plant 
can be eliminated by proper construction, while much of 
the initial cost and operating expense of the plant is inde- 
pendent of the size, and therefore, as great for each of the 
smaller plants as for the large one. To illustrate the 
economy of a single power station over the several original 
ones, it might be stated that the operating expenses of five 
of the old plants as compared with the new one are about 
two and one-quarter times as great. 

The new station is larger than the combined capacity of 
the old stations considered, yet runs for less than one-half 

ate eccentrics, and the governing mechanism controls the 
steam in both cylinders. Reheating receivers are placed 
between the high and low pressure cylinders, being located 
beneath the floor of the engine room, and the steam and 
exhaust pipes are attached to the under side of the cylin- 
ders. In this way there are no steam pipes visible in the 
engine room, and there is nothing to interfere with the 
operation of the traveling crane which is provided for 
handling all heavy parts. 

In the design of the engines, horizontal engines were 
chosen, because it was found that the type selected could 
more readily accessible for attendance and repairs, and less 
be put in even less floor space than vertical engines, are 

At first sight, there is nothing very striking in the de- 
sign of these engines, except that the outlines are graceful 

March, 1899.] 



for so large a mass of metal, but there is a combination of 
simple factors which renders them exceptionally efficient. 
The bed plate is of the Tangye type, the plate and pillow 
block being cast in one piece, while the cylinders are over- 
hanging and supported on a rest plate, which is adjusted 
for the support of the cylinder, after expansion has taken 


place from the action of the steam. Each pair of cylinders 
are steam jacketed, the barrel and jacket being cast to- 
gether. All the journal bearings and the connections for 
the valve gear have screw and wedge adjustment. The 
journal bearings have the adjustment on the sides, but the 
wedges are accessible through the top cap. The main 
bearings are 20 ins. in diameter, and 40 ins. long; this may 
seem very wide for a 44,000-lb. armature and 110,000-lb. 
fly wheel, but the engineers prefer to distribute the wear 
over a large surface, believing that there is much less dan- 
ger of the bearings wearing to a dangerous degree. The 
fly wheels are each 20 ft. in diameter and weigh 1 10,000 lbs. 

tension of the crank pin of the low pressure side. The 
condensers and auxiliary steam equipments are located in 
the basement of the structure, or rather chambers provided 
for them in the engine foundations, which are built up of 
concrete to the height of 17 ft. above the foundation floor. 
The condensing water is lifted by pumps from an intake 


pipe 40 ft. below engim room floor, and which extends 
under the bed of the river. The engines were built by the 
Pennsylvania Iron Works Company from specifications 
furnished by the engineers of the Consolidated Traction 

The boiler equipment consists of six batteries of forged 
steel type sectional water tube boilers of special design made 
by the Babcock& Wilcox Company. Two boilers constitute 
a battery, and each battery is rated at 750 h.p. In order to 
economize floor space, these boilers are shorter and higher 
than the usual type. Each is made up with three 36-in. 
drums, 20 ft. long, and 18 sections of tubes, each 15 ft. 


An automatic oiling system is used, and the caps of the 
main bearings have each three oil cavities protected by 
brass strainers. From the different bearings the oil is led 
to filters in the basement, from which it is pumped to ele- 
vated tanks, and descends by gravity to the different bear- 
ings. The air pumps of the jet condensers arc of the 
double acting type, and are operated by a rod from the ex- 

long, giving about 4000 sq. ft. of heating surface. 
They are designed for a pressure of 200 lbs., and were 
tested under hydraulic pressure to 300 lbs. The fire boxes 
are equipped with the Hawley down draft furnaces, having 
a grate surface of 66 sq. ft. The furnaces are guaranteed 
to show 10 per cent greater efficiency than the ordinary flat 
grate and to be able to burn 40 lbs. of coal per square foot 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

of grate per hour, and to reduce the smoke by 92 per cent. 
The boilers with the Hawley furnaces are guaranteed to 
develop 75 per cent efficiency with less than 1 per cent of 
moisture at full load, or i\ per cent at 50 per cent above 
rating. In tests which have been made the above guaran- 
tees have been attained. There are six unlined iron smoke 
stacks, one for each battery. Each stack is 66 ins. in di- 
ameter, and rises 147 ft. above the grate bars, giving a 
draft of 1 in. to 1^ ins. of water under ordinary condi- 
tions. The breechings and stacks are carried on special 
supports entirely independent of the brick boiler setting. 

The feed pumps are three in number, of the Worthing- 
ton duplex direct acting type, with outside packed plung- 
ers, and are capable of lifting 240 gals, per minute to the 
height of 20 ft. and delivering it against a pressure of 160 
lbs. The boiler feed pipes are of brass throughout, and are 
in duplicate, having both front and rear connections with 
the boilers. There is also provision for operating the 
pumps for fire purposes. The connections are so arranged 
that there are three sources of feed water supply, either 
from the city water mains, the river water direct, or the hot 
well of the condenser. All exhaust from the pumps is 
passed through closed heaters for boiler feed. 

A direct connected air pump was chosen for the follow- 

boiler is connected to a 20-in. steam main, which is located 
along the top of the boiler room above the back end of 
the boilers, and this main is provided with two copper ex- 
pansion loops. The main is divided by valves between 
each battery of boilers, and the steam enters it from the 
boilers through pipes having a long radius bend, which 
are tapped into the under side of the main. The pipes 
leading to the engines lead out from the top of the main 
and bend down along the wall and out under the floor of 
the engine room. The valves are of the Chapman manu- 
facture, and are operated from a gallery that runs along the 
entire side of the boiler room, back of the steam main. 
The throttle valves and by-pass valves are operated from 
wheels on four valve stands on the floor of the engine room 

mnear the cylinders. Each engine is pro- 
vided with a by-pass of sufficient capacity 
to run it up to speed without load, before the 
main throttle is opened. There is also a 
valve by which steam may be turned into 
the reheater, so that the engine may be 

ing reasons: The river level varies so much 
that any style of pump would have to be de- 
signed to do more than is ordinarily required 
of it, hence the pump will rarely be running at 
full load, and will therefore be less economical 
than in the case of more uniform water supply ; 
the effect on the economy, it was thought, 
would be less, however, in the case of a direct connected air 
pump where it practically forms part of the friction 
load of a large compound condensing engine, than in 
the case of either a single separate pump or a 
number of smaller pumps designed for economy. More- 
over, separately driven pumps, it was thought, would be 
more expensive (if equal workmanship is obtained) be- 
cause the cost of steam cylinders and valve gearing is 
added to that of the pump itself; starting with a direct con- 
nected air pump is very much easier, and practically no at- 
tendance during operation is required. The main disad- 
vantage, of course, is that the engine must be run non-con- 
densing in case of break down of its own pump. 
The steam piping is of cast steel throughout, and each 


started by the low pressure cylinder, should the high pres- 
sure side be on the center. The exhaust steam pipes ter- 
minate at each end of the building above the roof in two 
Marlin exhaust steam heads. These are each 15 ft. high 
and 12 ft. 6 ins. in diameter at the top, being among the 
largest exhaust heads so far erected in this country. 

Adjoining the boiler room, and separated by a wall run- 
ning the whole length, is a storage bin for coal, in the 
lower part of the separating wall are coal chutes which 
eventually will be used as ash pits whenever the station is 
enlarged, the structure being so designed that the coal 
space can be utilized for a boiler room whenever the ca- 
pacity of the station is to be increased. The main coal 
bunker, however, is an elevated steel structure made of 
plate girders 10 ft. deep and extends the entire length of 
the boiler room. This bunker has a capacity of 6 tons per 
running foot, or a total capacity of 1632 tons. A Mead 
coal conveyor with an automatic weighing bucket with a 
capacity for handling 40 tons per hour is used. This con- 

March, 1899.] 


veyor is driven by an electric motor, and takes about 15 The ground dimensions of the entire structure are 272 ft. 
h.p. to operate it. The coal is received by rail at the river x 1 15 ft., while the engine room is 55 ft. wide and the boiler 
end of the boiler room, and, after being weighed, is ele- room 60 ft., including the coal storage bin above described, 
vated about 50 ft. and passed to the coal bunker, being An electric traveling crane of 90,000 lbs. capacity spans the 
dumped anywhere desired. Afterward the conveyor passes 
into tunnel beneath the boiler room and is utilized for re- 
moving ashes. 

The exterior of the building is of Pompeiian brick with 
Cleveland sandstone trimmings ; the interior of the engine 
room is Pompeiian brick with enameled brick wainscotting, 
having a slate cap. The floor is of Mosaic known as 
"granito," with slate border. The roof is supported on 
steel riveted girders of the Warren type, having one in- 
clined top chord. The specifications for the framework 
called for open hearth steel having a tensile strength of 
from 60,000 to 65,000 lbs. The roof is cinder concrete with 
iron stiffing bars, having felt and crushed slag imbedded in 
pitch on the upper surface. Large ventilating and light- 
ing areas with wire screen guards as a protection against 
falling glass, are also provided. 

In the design of the foundations, it was necessary to 
avoid the possibility of a flood stopping the plant, hence 
the engine room floor level was fixed 1 ft. above the high- 
est recorded level of the river (a stage of 33 ft. 8 ins. in 
1884), normal pool level being stage of 6 ft. On the other 
hand, the intake pipe must at all times be completely cov- 
ered with water, thus requiring the top of the pipe to be 
below stage minus 1; the pipe had to be kept below this 
level underneath the engines, to keep the vacuum from be- 
ing lost in times of low water, hence there was required 



engine room and serves for the quick handling of any 
piece of machinery or piping. To provide for the lifting of 
the condensers, areas are left in the engine room floor. 

an excavation over 300 ft. in length and over 40 ft. deep 
from the surface, or 13 ft. below normal river level. This 
pipe was surrounded with concrete to make it permanent, 
and to secure good foundation for the engines above. Con- 
crete was chosen because of the ease of handling it in dif- 
ficult places, such as under caving banks, without remov- 
ing bracing in water, etc. 

These spaces are covered with iron grating that can be 
readily removed. Similar provision is made in the floor be- 
tween the back wall and engine cylinders for reaching the 
steam piping and the reheaters. The foundations of the 
building contain 20,000 cubic yards of concrete, the side 
walls being in some places 7 ft. thick. The whole founda- 
tion is built as a unit, and has a bed of river gravel upon 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

which it rests. In the process of building, a concrete mixer, 
referred to more particularly later, was used. The 
material, or rather the sand and gravel for the foundation 
was obtained from the river near by, and the material was 
hauled from the boats up an incline and delivered to an 
automatic measuring cylinder, which delivered the ma- 

1 3 3 i 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 JO 


Street ltailway Juurtta[,A'.Yl 


No. l—Volts at motor, with 1110 at switchboard ; scale 100 volts. 
No. 2— Amperes at motor for 1000 h. p. ; scale 100 amps. 

2100 x (list, x wat ts delivered ; 
No. 3- Circular mils required, per cent, loss x [volts at motor]*; scale 1,000,000 c. m . 
No 4_Capital invested in line, at $1,045 per mile of 500,000 c. m. cable ; scale $10,000. 
No. 5— Interest and depreciation (1254 per cent) on No. 4 ; scale $1,000. 
No. 6— Power lost in line; scale 10 h. p. May also represent necessary increase ill 
power station capacity. 

No. 7— Value of wasted power at $36.50 ; scale $1,000. 

No. 8— Cost of wasted power yearly at $44 per h. p.; scale $1,000. 

No 9— Interest 10 per cent, depreciation, etc., on increase in power house capacity, at 
%M) peril, p.; scale $1,000. 

No. 9a— Increase in power house investment at $40 per h. p.; scale $1,000. 
No. 10— Sum of No. 8 and No. 9; scale $1,000. 
No. 11— Sum of No. 7 and No. 9 ; scale $1,000. 

No. 12 Total variable portion of annual expenditure, sum of No. 5 and No. 10 ; scale 


No. 13— Total variable portion of annual expenditure, sum No. 5 and No. 11; scale 

terial, sand, gravel and cement in proper proportion to the 


There are three storage battery stations, each located 
about 3 miles from the power station, and so distributed 
that they serve to balance the load in a very satisfactory 
manner. The first of the battery stations was installed in 
1897, and the second soon after. The equipment of these 
two stations consists of 248 cells each, having a capacity of 
500 amps. The third, the one recently installed, has a ca- 
pacity of 1000 amps. For this station a new building has 
been recently erected on one of the business streets in East 
Liberty. In addition to its use as a battery station, the first 
floor will serve as a receiving house, as the batteries occupy 
the basement. The rear portion of this building will ac- 
commodate an emergency wagon of the automobile type, 

for which storage batteries will furnish the power. The 
rear of the second floor is finished up with sleeping and 
toilet rooms for the accommodation of the emergency 
force, and is fitted with a pole down which the men slide 
when a call comes, as in fire department stations. 


The generators are of 1000 kw. capacity each, and as 
mentioned in the Street Railway Journal for February, 
1898, are designed for operating the line by the three-wire 
system. The switchboard and all the connections are also 
thus wired, but the road is being operated by the single 
wire system at present. The term switchboard in connec- 
tion with this plant is a misnomer, for there is no switch- 
board in the ordinary sense of the term, but in its place 
there is a four-deck vault or room, 48 ft. x 9 ft., one side 
of which is formed by the foundation and brick wall, while 
the remaining walls are of brick. The floor is of slate sup- 
ported on steel girders, making the chamber fireproof. 
The cables, which are of 1,000,000 cm. capacity, lead out 
from each machine, through tile ducts located in the floor 
of the basement. These communicate with the lower gal- 
lery of the switchboard room, and from this the nine cables 
from each machine lead up into the second gallery, being 
held by iron supports having mica bushing, so that there 
none of the weight is supported by the circuit breakers. 
The circuit breakers are arranged in rows on each side of 
the second gallery, while the double throw switches are 
supported from the ceiling, and all are arranged to be 
operated by pneumatic appliances from stands on the upper 
deck. The circuit breakers are thrown in by single acting 
air cylinders, while there is also a small cylinder for trip- 
ping the circuit break when necessary. The switches are 


controlled by a double acting cylinder. There are thirty- 
two 1,000,000 cm. cables which form the return circuit, 
and these are connected to a vertical bus bar located in the 
middle of the second chamber, this, in turn, is connected 
to the neutral bars above. The bus bars proper are placed 
in a horizontal position and are located between two sets 
of I beams, the lower of which forms the support for 
switches in the room below, and the upper set supports the 
slate walks of the third chamber, being in plain sight and 
easily accessible. The bus bars, both for the positive, nega- 
tive and neutral limbs, are each made up of fifty copper 
strips of 3 ins. x £-in. section, each being of sufficient ca- 
pacity for the distribution of the current of all of the 1000 
kw. generators, when it becomes necessary to operate by 
the three-wire system. 

On the walls of the third chamber are placed two watt 
meters, rheostat face plates, air pipes, ammeter leaves, etc. 
In the center of this chamber are the rheostats, which are 

March, 1899.] 



protected by a perforated metal cover. The controlling 
stands are located on the upper deck, which is really a plat- 
form overlooking the engine room. From this plat- 
form all the current controlling appliances are operated. 
These stands are numbered, and there is one for each 
feeder and one for each generator. These stands are ar- 
ranged in two rows, with one stand in the middle, on which 
is placed the air pressure gage, alarm bell for low air pres- 
sure, and air valves for lighting switch and circuit breaker 
of the station lighting circuit. This latter is so connected 
to the leads of any of the generators, that should all the 
generator circuit breakers go out, the station would not 
be left in darkness. On the top of each controlling stand 
is a red tell-tale lamp, which lights automatically when the 
corresponding circuit breaker is thrown out. Below this 
is an ammeter illuminated by a shaded lamp, while near the 
middle of each stand are two handles which operate the air 
valves for circuit breakers and switches. These handles are 
so interlocked that the switch cannot be operated when the 
circuit breaker is in, nor can the circuit breaker be closed 
when the switch is in, so that it is impossible for the at- 
tendant to make a mistake. The generator stands have, in 
addition to the above, a small hand wheel for operating the 
rheostats, and a receptacle for plugs for connecting the 
volt meters to the different generators. At the middle of 
each row of stands is a revolving stand, on one of which are 
three volt meters, and on the other three ammeters, which 
can be turned so that they may be read by the attendant at 
any point on the platform. One volt meter is connected to 
the plug switch, and the other two give the voltage of the 
positive and negative bus bars, respectively, while the three 
ammeters give the current of the positive, negative and 
neutral bars. The instrument for the negative bar is double 
reading, and shows which side of the three-wire system has 
most load. 

From the switchboard the lead covered cables are carried 
through a subway to a brick tunnel, which leads off 
through the foundations of the building in the direction of 
Penn Avenue, and which extend a distance of nearly 600 
ft. The interior dimensions of this tunnel are 5 ft. x 7 ft., 
or sufficient to provide for the ultimate capacity of 40,000,- 
000 cm. of feeder cable, beside room for the free passage 
of the employees. In the construction of this tunnel, there 
was imbedded in the concrete foundation in two rows ex- 
tending the whole length of the tunnel thirty-two girder 
rail conductors, the rails being 63 lbs. section per yard. 
The ends of these rails are double bonded, and to these 
the return feeders are attached. At Penn and Liberty 
Avenues the cables are brought up through large distribu- 
ting poles, from which they lead off in eight directions, be- 
ing supported from the trolley poles. 

The diagram opposite shows graphically the calculation 
to determine the most economical size of feeders to 
employ, consideration on the one hand being taken of 
the loss of power through resistance, and, on the other, of 
the interest on the investment. 


Excavation for the power station was begun Sept. 1, 
1897, the material being shoveled directly into cars on the 
siding leading on to the property. After the excavation 
deepened, and the grade became so heavy that this method 
became impractical, two machines were used, one a bucket 
conveyor, the other a traveling hoist. The total excava- 
tion amounted to about 35,000 cu. ft. 

As the walls and the foundations proper of the engines, 
as well as of the building, were of concrete, hand mixing 
was out of the question. A machine mixer was therefore 
erected. It was about 20 ft. x 16 ft. and 32 ft. high, and 

although largely experimental, did good service, turning 
out on some days over 500 cu. yds. per day of twenty 




hours, when that amount could be used, and making a 
total of about 20,000 cu. yds. The following table gives 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

the cost of mixing concrete by the mixer, as estimated 
from actual experience during the past year: 

Cost of materials 1-4-10 1-3-8 1-2-5 

American Portland cement, @ $2.05 per bbl.. .$1.37 $1.69 $2.66 

Sand, @ 2.y 2 cents per bu 0.30 0.29 0.29 

Gravel, @ 2 cents per bu 0.38 0.38 0.37 

$2.05 $2.36 $3.32 

Cost of delivery to Mixer of materials $0.07 

Cost of measuring and mixing 0.05 

Cost of delivery 150 ft. and return by wheelbarrow gang. ... 0.23 
Cost of tamping 0.18 

Total cost of labor $0.53. 

(The above represents the average of an ordinary day's run, 
but does not include share of cost or depreciation of mixer plant.) 

An American Portland cement was used throughout, 
mixed with sand and gravel in proportions varying from 
1-3-8 to 1-2-5; 110 broken stone was used as actual tests on 
concrete blocks showed that an equally strong concrete 
could be secured at lower cost by the use of gravel alone. 

brick floor cement grouted. The second building in line is 
the repair shop proper, is 135 ft. x 576 ft. and is divided 
into the iron tool department, wood shop and erecting de- 
partment and paint shop. The operating house is 135 ft. x 
400 ft., and between it and the machine shop is a large area 
occupied by twelve storage tracks, all connected by a diag- 
onal cross track, having both single and double slip 
switches. The warehouse is located just outside the stor- 
age tracks, and is 50 ft. x 150 ft. Near it, and on a line 
with the main shop is the boiler house, in which is a bat- 
tery of tubular boilers which generate the steam for heating 
the buildings. 

The iron working tools in the repair department are 
driven by power derived from a 50 h.p. electric motor, 
which is belted to overhead shafting. There is also a motor 
of equal capacity for operating the wood-working tools in 
the carpenter department. This motor is located beneath 
the floor, as is also the main shafting, so that the individual 
tools are driven by belts that come up through the floor. 
Tn the machine shop the iron-working tools occupy one 


Each engine foundation contains about 350 cu. yds. and 
is quite complicated in shape. If brick work this would 
have cost at least $6 per yard, while the actual cost in con- 
crete was 50 cents for material and labor in erecting and 
removing the forms, and $4 for the concrete itself. 


The company has six new car houses, conveniently lo- 
cated in different parts of the city, and all have the same 
general equipment. The repair shops and principal build- 
ings, however, are located on Frankstown Avenue, and are 
known as the "Homewood Car Shops and Houses." 

This station comprises four large buildings, with two 
small buildings, all of brick, with the roofs supported by 
steel truss riveted girders of the Fink type, and all about 
the same general design. The three main buildings are 
placed in. line with each other in the direction of their long- 
est dimension, and are all of the same width. The first is 
known as the storage house, and is 135 ft. x 220 ft. with a 

side of the floor to the left of the main bay, and adjoining 
this space is the winding department. The tool equipment 
consisting of drills, planers, lathes, wheel-boring machines 
and slotters is very complete. There is also a lathe 
equipped with an axle key seating device. Along 
one side of the room adjoining the wall, a space is fenced 
off for a small tool room, which is in charge of an attendant 
who issues the cutting tools to the men on checks. This 
department is supplied with three machines for making 
small tools, consisting of a Brown & Sharp universal 
grinder, a milling machine of the same makers, and a small 
engine lathe. 

The main floor of the repair shop, which is paved with 
brick, is devoted to the overhauling and cleaning of motors 
and the replacing of wheels. The shifting is all done by 
means of a traveling electric crane of 40 ft. span, and a ca- 
pacity for lifting 20,000 lbs. It is operated by an attendant 
from a cage suspended from the main girder of the crane. 
The most interesting features, however, of the repair shop 

March, 1899.] 



are the dismantling pits, which are located at one side of 
the main floor near the center of the shop. These pits are 
so designed that a pair of wheels, or both axles with their 
motors, can be removed from the truck and a new set sub- 
stituted within the short space of twenty minutes. Five 
men only are required in this operation. The track over 
the pits is supported on steel girders, and is braced across, 
forming a truck, having small wheels on each side. This 
section of the track or truck is mechanically lowered or 
raised by means of four heavy screws, which are placed in 
the corners of the pit, and are operated simultaneously by 
means of connecting shafts and beveled gears. These 
screws are driven by a railway motor placed in a chamber 
to one side of the pit, and operated by an ordinary type 
"D" Westinghouse controller. In the operation of the de- 
vice, the car is run over the pit, when the ends of the truck 
are supported by means of four folding props, which can 
be turned out of the way when the car is to be run on or 
off. The motor connections being severed and the brake 
mechanism unshipped, the portion of the track carrying the 
wheels is lowered quickly by means of the screws. When 
the side wheels of the section rest upon the track placed in 
the bottom of the pit at right angles with the car track, the 
truck with its load is readily rolled to one side. This brings 


the wheels and motors into position to be readily picked up 
by the crane, by which they are deposited at any convenient 
point on the main floor. Here they are opened, inspected 
and cleaned. A new set of axles and motors are replaced 
by reversing the process. The crane deposits them on the 
truck, which is then run under the car, and the motor be- 
ing started, each wheel is lifted to its place and secured in 
position, when the necessary motor connections are made. 

The inspection pits of the shop are conveniently lo- 
cated adjoining the dismantling pits, and the rails are sup- 
ported on posts, thus giving free access from one to the 
other, beneath the iron grating floor which covers the 
space between the pits. Another important machine in the 
shops is a Murphy wheel grinder, by means of which 
wheels are ground without removing them from the car. 
This apparatus is placed over one of the pits, near the en- 
trance to the main floor, and is fitted with a frame work 
which supports a set of shafting and pulleys above the car. 
The truck is then supported independently of the wheels, 
when a portion of the truck under each wheel is removed. 
There are centering lathe heads on each side, so that by re- 
moving the journal box covers the axles are readily cen- 
tered and left to rotate, and are operated by their own mo- 

tors from the trolley current. In order to provide for 
proper control under these conditions, a section of the trol- 
ley wire over the cars is partly cut out of the main circuit 
by means of resistance coils, but there is sufficient current 
left in the trolley to bring the car into position. The emery' 


grinding wheels are so placed that they come in contact 
with the tread of the wheel on the under side and are re- 
volved in a direction opposite that of the car wheels. The 
emery wheels are driven by belts from the overhead pul- 
leys, the power being supplied from an electric motor 
placed beneath the floor, and belted to the overhead shaft- 

The blacksmith shop occupies one corner of the main 
floor, from which it is separated by a brick partition. There 
are four forges with draft flues, so designed as to remove 
all the smoke and fumes, a feature that is rarelv found 
working successfully in shops of this character. The equip- 
ment includes surfacing plates and the appliances usually 
found in this class of shops. 

Another interesting- feature is the method of heating the 


various departments of the shops and the operating house. 
This apparatus consists of two large fan cases, located at 
the sides and at the end of the main floor of the repair de- 
partment. The case incloses a nest of steam pipes, which is 
open on one side, when, by the revolution of the fan, which 

1 3 6 


[Vol. XV., No. 3. 


is driven by a small steam engine attached, the air is drawn in between the 
heated pipes and is forced out into large mains of galvanized iron, which 
lead in both directions along the ceiling. They are supported by the 
structural portion of the roof, and are furnished at suitable distances with 
branch pipes which lead half way down the posts that support the struc- 
ture, and open at angles, so that the heated air is delivered in a downward 
stream. Steam for operating the engines of the fans is brought from the 
neighboring boiler house previously described. A similar equipment 
serves for heating the operating house. 

Compressed air is used for blowing out motors, for cleaning car cushions 
and for removing the dust and shavings from the wood-working machines. 
The air is led to the various stations through pipes which terminate in a 
section of rubber hose with suitable nozzle valves. The air pressure is 
generated by means of a rotary compressor, driven by a 2 h.p. motor, 
which is started and stopped automatically by means of a pressure regu- 
lator in connection with the storage tank. This regulator shuts off the 




•iS ±-L3Hd31S 





Main'CH, 1899.] 



motor when the pressure reaehes 100 lbs., and it starts 
up when it lias fallen to 60 lbs. The use of compressed 
air as above described is considered by the general fore- 
man as a very economical feature in connection with car 
cleaning and repairs. 

The wood-working and erecting department has a full 
set of wood-working tools, consisting of band and circular 
saws, planers, gaining and mortising machines. These are 
located on one side of the main floor, and are driven as 
before noted, by an electric motor. In addition there is an 
electric transfer car, which serves for shifting the cars from 
the main track to any of the side tracks. Similar electric 
transfer tables are used in the other two departments of the 

The paint shop occupies the last section of the main 
building. Between each of the tracks is a row of posts 
which are equipped with pivoted iron brackets, which 
when swung into position toward a car serve to support 
the scaffolding, by means of which the painters are able 
to reach the sides and roof of the car. When not in use. 
these brackets are swung around in line with the cars, and 
are not in the way of the workmen. On one side 
of the paint shop is a small room, fenced off 
by a brick wall, in which the paints are mixed, and 
which is fireproof. Fire buckets filled with sand are 
placed in suitable position with which to extinguish an 
oil fire, should one start. There is also a separate room for 
storing the sash and blinds, and a curtain department in 
which the necessary supplies of trimmings, etc., are kept; 
the main supply being kept in the main warehouse. 

The operating house, which is also a receiving station, is 
provided with inspection pits, and with suitable appliances 
for washing and cleaning cars. The offices of the receiver 
and the operating foreman occupy one side of this building. 
These offices are finished in Georgia pine, and the coun- 
ter of the receiver's office before each window is a marble 
slab, which furnishes a smooth and durable surface, over 

frames are fitted with rollers and a track on which thev 
run to allow this to be done. The alternate sash can be 
readily shifted to any degree of ventilation by means of 
small chains that come down near the main floor, and 
which are readily accessible. 

The operating house, as well as all the other operating 
houses, with the exception of the one noted above as the 


storage house, are designed only as washing and inspec- 
tion stations, as the cars when clean are run out and held 
on the storage tracks ready for service, an arrangement 
that saves largely in the insurance rates on the buildings. 
For shifting cars about the Frankstown station, dummy 
motor cars are employed. These cars have short bodies 
and are provided with electric and wheel brakes. For 


which the envelopes and money are passed. In the par- 
tition are suitable letter chutes through which the con- 
ductors deposit their reports. Adjoining the receiver's 
office is a long room designed for a waiting and lunch 
room for the employees. Here are suitable tables and 
chairs and lockers, which are arranged along each side of 
the room, and also in a row down the middle of the floor. 
The lockers number 298, and are in double deck rows. As 
noted above, the main buildings have about the same gen- 
eral structure, and for ventilating the main floors, the deck 
lights on each side of the monitor roof are arranged in 
sections, each including a number of lights, so that every 
other one can be slid in front of the other. The supporting 

operating the trolley pole, the trolley cord is continuous, 
and passes through from end to end of the car under the 
ceiling with rollers so arranged that the motorman can 
free the trolley from the wire, reverse and return it, for 
running in the opposite direction without leaving the cab. 
These cars readily handle six or seven trail cars in a train, 
and pull them from the operating house to the storage 
tracks, where the motor cars, by means of the diagonal 
track above noted are able to pick up a trailer from any 
one of the storage tracks, and move with it to the street. 

The warehouse to which all supplies are delivered has a 
sunken track down the middle, so that goods may be de- 
livered to the platforms on either side from cars or trucks, 


The store room is fitted with stands or racks 6 ft. x 10 ft. 
and 10 ft. high, which are divided into suitable boxes, bins 
and shelves for holding the material, one rack being as- 
signed to each class of material. Each rack is labeled on 
the side toward the track in white letters, and designates 
the character of material which may be found therein; for 
instance, one reads, "rope, twine and power house sup- 
plies," another "carbon brushes and parts for standard 
motors," a third, " valves and pipe fittings," still another, 


[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

the amount of wear they have sustained. The cars are all 
of the same design, the trucks all of McGuire manufacture, 
the motors Westinghouse, No. 38, with the exception of 
120 new equipments mentioned below. The signal 
gongs are placed on the hood of the cars, and are sounded 
by means of a cord that hangs just above the controller 
handle. Recently a new type of illuminated sign has been 
adopted. To provide for the hauling of trailers, all the 
cars are equipped with the Van Dorn couplers. 

Each of the 120 cars which the company has recently 
added to its equipment is provided with two 50 h.p. rail- 
way motors and electric brakes, manufactured by the Gen- 
eral Electric Company. The motors are what are known 
as the GE-57 type, and contain all the latest improvements 
in construction and design. The frames are of cast steel 
and are fitted with laminated wrought iron pole pieces 
which are bolted to them. The bearings were designed 
with special reference to obtaining a large bearing surface 
and good lubrication. The armature is small and compact, 
having a diameter of only 14 ins. It is of the standard, iron- 

Street Rtdlway Joumal,N.Y. 



"arc lamp supplies," and so on for each of the racks. In 
addition, there are shelves and drawers along the side walls 
in which shelf hardware is stored, and there are sliding 
ladders provided which give ready access to the higher 
shelves. Every class of articles is known by lot number, 
and when issued is charged up to the different depart- 
ments, a most rigid system of accounts being maintained. 

Street Railway Jou 



In the matter of rolling stock equipment, the energies 
of the general manager have been directed to the stand- 
ardizing of all parts and appliances. All appliances of the 
same kind are treated as a unit and repairs are made on a 
specific equipment at stated periods, without reference to 

clad construction, such as is now universally adopted by 
manufacturers of this class of apparatus. The winding is 
of the three-coil per slot type, which has great advantages 
in the way of armature repairs and the ensuring of a high 
insulation. The weight of this motor is about 3000 lbs. 
complete. Each motor is fitted with a cast steel yoke, 
which is bolted to the frame on the commutator end of the 
motor. It is provided with two horns 
which project on each side of the axle and 
which are designed to support the brake 
.shoe. The latter is of the A J- 11 type and 
is 26 ins. in diameter. 

The brake disc which is keyed to the 
axle is the AK-18 and is, of course, of the 
same diameter as the shoe. The hub of 
the disc butts against the end of the motor 
axle lining, and the end play of the motor 
is limited by the disc which is provided 
with a suitable adjustment. 

The controller used on these equip- 
ments is the B-23, designed for operating 
two 50 h.p. motors with electric brakes. 
The braking is accomplished in the usual 
manner by converting the motors into 
generators and passing the current thus 
.generated through the brake shoes and 
regulating resistance. With this method 
of braking, it is immaterial whether the 
trolley is "on" or not. The braking effort 
is due to the "back" torque of the motors (acting as gen- 
erators) and the friction between shoes and discs. 

A good idea of this controller may be obtained from the 
photo-engraving showing the interior. The controller has 
a single operating cylinder which is rotated in one direc- 
tion for power and in the opposite direction for brake. 

March, 1899.] 



The various motor and brake connections for power and 
braking are made by the small commutating cylinder 
shown on the right hand side of the controller. This cylin- 
der is moved by means of a cam secured to the main cylin- 
der shaft which engages with the lever seen at the bottom 
of the controller. The reversing cylinder is shown at the 
top of the controller on the right hand side, and is of the 
usual construction. 

The main cylinder serves to series parallel the motors on 

;motor car brake shoe (type A J-Il) 

the "power" side and to regulate the resistance both for 
power and brake. As the usual interlocking mechanism 
between cylinders is used, all arcing takes place on the 
main cylinder where the efficient magnetic blow-out em- 
bodied in all controllers of General Electric manufacture, 
provides for its prompt and complete extinguishment. 

This controller differs from some of the earlier types in 
the arrangement of braking connections and enables the 


motormen to make a much quicker stop without skidding 
the wheels than was possible with the other types of con- 
troller, or with any form of power brake. The diagram 
on p. 138 shows the development of the controller and the 
connections of the apparatus for both power and brake. 

It will be observed that the brake shoe on each axle is 
directly in series with the armature of the motor on the 
same axle. If either brake tends to lock, due to a too rapid 
application of the brake, the axle will cease to turn, or, at 
least, slow down, with the result that the armature in series 
with the shoe ceases to generate as great a voltage as the 
armature of the other motor. 

The natural result is, that current will pass through the 
locked shoe in the reverse direction and demagnetize it, 
allowing it to release. As this action is entirely automatic, 

it is practically impossible to skid the wheels for more 
than a foot or two, which is not sufficient to cause a flat 
wheel. The maximum braking effort that can therefore 
be applied is dependent solely on the friction between 
wheels and track. 

The shoes are demagnetized in the usual manner by 


shunting a portion of the current on the first power point 
through them in a reverse direction. This current allows 
them to release and drop away from the disc. 

Provisions are also made for the use of electric brakes 
on the trailer cars. The shoe used is of the axle suspended 
type, being mounted directly upon the car axle. This shoe 
is the AJ-13 and is provided with brass axle lining and 
grease cup. The brake disc is the AK-13. Both shoe and 
dies are 28 ins. in diameter and they are mounted on each 
axle of the trail car truck. The shoe is adjusted by an axle 
collar and an adjusting screw, passing through a U bolt 
which is screwed into the axle. The shoes are kept from 


revolving by means of a bar which passes between the 
horns shown on the lower half of the shoe. 

Connection between motor and trail car is made by 
means of a special coupler which contains the lighting 
connection as well as the two brake connections. The 


sockets are secured to the dashers of the two cars and con- 
nections made by means of a flexible lead with a plug at 
each end. The trail car shoes are connected in series, and 
when in use are connected between the common lead from 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

the two motor car brake shoes and the equalizing connec- 
tion of the motor fields. Referring to diagram of the con- 
troller, these shoes are connected in the wire marked BB. 

The trolley bases are of the new type recently brought 
out by the General Electric Company, and known as the 
U. S.-6 base. The interesting feature of this type of base 
is the use of a single compression spring which serves 
the double purpose of a pressure and a buffing spring. 
A view of this trolley is shown on page 139, from 
which the action of the base will be readily understood. 
The buffing collar is seen on the inner end of the spring 
guide and is forced against the spring by the two lugs on 
the inside of the swivel head. The stud is very long, in- 
suring an easy swiveling action and allowing the wheel to 
follow the wire exceptionally well. The inside of the swivel 
head is fitted with a brass bushing, which reduces the 
swiveling friction and can be easily replaced when worn 
out. The minimum height of this base is 6 ins. with the pole 
in a horizontal position. The cars are provided with cir- 
cuit breakers connected according to our latest method, 
the circuit breaker at either end of the car being in circuit 
only with the controller at the same end. These circuit 
breakers are of the "MQ" type and contain a magnetic 
blow-out and other features found in circuit breakers of the 
General Electric manufacture. 


The business affairs of the Consolidated Traction Com- 
pany are chiefly under the direction of C. L. Magee, presi- 
dent, while the operating department, as well as the electric 
and mechanical features, are in charge of G. F. Greenwood, 
with the title of chief engineer and general manager. 


Some of the contractors and manufacturers of the ma- 
terial required for the erection of the new buildings, and 
the equipments noted in the accompanying description in- 
clude the following: The Pennsylvania Iron Works Com- 
pany of Philadelphia, engines and the auxiliary steam 
equipment; Babcock & Wilcox Company, boilers; West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, generators; 
Jones & Laughlin, Pittsburg, structural steel for roofs and 
coal bin; Alfred F. Moore, Philadelphia, lead covered 
cables; John A. Mead & Sons, New York, coal conveyors 
and automatic weigher; Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, storage batteries; The U. Baird Ma- 
chinery Company, Pittsburg, some of the iron working 
tools; J. A. Fay & Co., Cincinnati, wood-working tools; 
Marlin & Co., Pittsburg, exhaust steam headers, roofing 
and ventilators; Pawling & Harnischfeger, Milwaukee, 
electric traveling cranes; Laclede Car Company, American 
Car Company, Union Car Company, cars; A. French 
Spring Company, Pittsburgh, car springs. 


It has been proved that it is usually a waste of time, and 
very little has been accomplished, by attempting to instruct 
motormen and conductors other than in the simplest ideas 
of electrical problems, for while on some roads there may 
be a number of old motormen who have a fair idea of elec- 
trical equipments and whom it would probably be safe to 
allow to locate existing troubles, it would be difficult to 
draw the line between the men competent in this direction 
and those wholly lacking in such knowledge. I know of 
nothing more distasteful to passengers unwillingly de- 
tained than sitting in a car impatiently waiting while a 
motorman works over some part of the equipment in a vain 
endeavor to locate some trouble, the very nature of which 
he has not the faintest idea, and quite likely, at the same 
time, interfering with the movement of several other cars. 
From paper at the Boston Convention, 1898. 

Interurban Electric Railway in Titusville, Pa. 

A 1 o-mile electric railway has recently been completed 
in northwestern Pennsylvania, connecting the towns of 
Pleasantville, East Titusville, Titusville and Hydetown. 
The road was built and is operated by the Titusville Elec- 
tric Traction Company, which, in 1897, obtained a 999- 
year charter from the State. It was opened for business 
on June 3 of last year, carrying passengers from Pleasant- 
ville to Titusville, and in November, the 4 miles to Hyde- 
town were finished. Titusville is the largest of the four 
towns, and has a population of 10,000. Pleasantville, with 
it s population of 1200, does its shopping and marketing 
in Titusville, as does East Titusville and Hydetown. The 
total population of the four towns is about 15,000. 

Titusville is famous for having been the center of the 
great oil excitement of the early sixties. Petroleum was 
discovered here, and in a few years, what had been a strag- 
gling hamlet, became a bustling young city. Gradually 
the production of oil has lessened in the vicinity of Titus- 
ville, and the city has suffered a reaction. Several years 
ago, however, a Board of Trade was organized, and 
through its efforts and those of the Industrial Association 
the city is now enjoying a more wholesome and lasting 
prosperity. Among its leading industries are several large 
iron-working establishments; a tannery, which employs 
several hundred men; oil refineries, and a silk mill. 

For a number of years the people of Pleasantville and 
Titusville have been desirous of having the two towns in 
closer communication than was afforded by a stage line 
and George B. Dunham, of Pleasantville, took the initiative 
and succeeded in interesting R. D. Stoelzing, of that place, 
M. B. Dunham and A. J. Hazelton, of Warren, Pa., and a 
corporation was formed with a capital of $100,000. A 
survey was immediately made and work was begun in July, 
]897- Pleasantville is 6 miles from Titusville, and the new 
company was obliged to purchase the right of way for 
almost the whole distance from the eastern city limits of 
Titusville to Pleasantville. Two miles of the road run 
through a deep gorge along the path of a small but turbu- 
lent brook. The engineers at first thought it would be an 
impossibility to build the road through this gorge, and it 
was only accomplished after much blasting and bridging 
were resorted to, and finally the course of the stream was 
changed near the entrance of the gorge. About 1 mile 
from the entrance of the gorge the company has leased 
60 acres of woodland, which is being converted into a park, 
the place is one of great natural beauty, and, with the at- 
tractions that the company offer, it is expected that it will 
become a favorite resort, and will do much to in- 
crease the road's earnings. Next summer it is proposed 
to construct, near the park, an artificial lake, in the center 
of which will be a large electric fountain. The lake will 
be large enough to afford boating and bathing. 

The company's power station is at East Titusville. It 
is a substantial brick building 74 ft. x 58 ft., of which the 
engine room occupies 58 ft. x 35.5 ft. and the boiler room 
38 ft. x 39 ft. A steel stack 4 ft. in diameter is used. The 
floor of both rooms is of cement. Since the road has been 
iii operation one engine has been employed. It was built 
by the Atlas Engine Works, of Indianapolis, and is of the 
Corliss type, 16 ins. x 32 ins. During the past month a 
larger engine, 24 ins. x 48 ins., of the same type and make, 
has been installed and is now running. The smaller en- 
gine will be used as auxiliary in case of breakdown or 
when the load is too heavy for the newer engine. The bed 
plate is of the girder form, known as the "Corliss bed 
plate." It is cast in a single piece, unusually massive and 
rigid, the main shaft-bearing having removable parts with 

March, 1899.] 



wedge adjustment. The ends of the cylinder, which con- 
tain the valve chambers and the steam and exhaust parts, 
are cast and finished separately from the cylinder proper, 
through which the piston traverses. The parts are so con- 
structed and bolted together that the piston travels over no 
joint, while the clearance remains as low as in the usual 
form. The advantages afforded by this construction are 
a more perfect bore free from flaws and shrinkage strains, 
which the presence of small cored passages is apt to en- 
gender, and that, being made to gages on the interchange- 
able plan, it is possible to renew, without delay and at small 
cost, a part injured by accident, which otherwise might 
mean the loss of the entire cylinder. A steel plate lagging, 
which leaves a space packed with non-conducting material, 
covers the cylinder. The steam and exhaust valves are of 
the usual rocking or Corliss type, but are so constructed 
that they open their ports in two places, thus giving the 
full opening with half the usual motion. 

In the valve gear of the engine a wide departure from 
the ordinary is seen. The steam valves are operated from 

000 cubic feet. The steam pressure carried averages 100 
lbs. The gas requires but little attention, one man only 
being in attendance in the boiler room. The feed-water 
heaters and a 7-in. x 4^-in. x 10-in. pump in the boiler 
room were made by the Stillwell-Bierce Company. 

The trolley wire used was made by Washburn & Moen, 
and is No. 00. The poles are of chestnut, 50 ft. long, with 
a 7-in. top, and bracket construction is used almost en- 
tirely. The track in the city is laid with 60-lb. girder rails 
60 ft. long. Outside the city 70-lb. T rails are employed. 
Hewn ties, 7 ins. x 7 ins. 8 ft., are used generally in the 
country. Within the city limits the ties are sawed 6 ins. x 
8 ins. x 8 ft. The cost of track construction averaged 
$10,000 per mile. 

A temporary wooden car barn adjoins the power house 
and accommodates the four cars. The American Car Com- 
pany made the four closed cars now in service. They are 
full vestibuled, with 20-ft. bodies, 30 ft. over all. Three of 
the cars are finished in cherry, the other is in white ash. 
Extra-heavy extension Peckham trucks are employed, each 


the usual wrist plate, driven by an eccentric on the main 
shaft, but a separate eccentric is used for the operation of 
the exhaust valves. The cross-head and crank-pins are 
ol steel, and have unusually large wearing surfaces. 

The main shaft is of hammered iron, and the engine is 
provided throughout with the most improved automatic 
sight-feed oiling devices and is adapted for continuous 

Two of the General Electric Company's generators have 
been installed, and are belted to the engines. The smaller 
one, a no kw., has furnished the current since the com- 
pletion of the road. The new engine is connected with 
a 325-kw. generator, which is now in operation, the smaller 
one being reserved for emergencies. A General Electric 
Company's switchboard is used- fitted with instruments 
made by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company. 

The fuel used in the three 150-h.p. boilers is natural gas 
furnished by the Oil City Fuel Supply Company. This 
is a much cheaper fuel at Titusville than coal would be, 
costing 10 cents per 1000 cubic feet. The average monthlv 
consumption of gas since the road began operation is 52,- 

being equipped with two No. 49 Westinghouse motors. 
The New Haven registers are used, and the cars are 
heated by the Johns system. The New York Car Wheel 
Company's wheel 33 ins. in diameter, with 2-]-in. tread 
are used. The average life of the wheels on this road is 
about 20,000 miles. 

The cars travel at a schedule speed of 15 miles per hour, 
although on some parts of the road over 25 miles is 

The maximum grade of the road is 8 per cent, which is 
reached in the gorge. It is practically an up-grade from 
Titusville to Pleasantville. The western end of the line 
is mostly a light grade. Two steel bridges were built in 
the gorge, one 168 ft. and the other 80 ft. long. 

The fare charged in the city of Titusville is 5 cents, and 
outside averages 2\ cents per mile. Over $6,500 net was 
earned in the first six months of operation. 

The officers of the company are: President, B. D. Dun- 
ham; secretary and general manager, G. H. Dunham; 
chief engineer, A. A. Robertson. The main office of the 
company is at Pleasantville. 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

Train Resistance 


I have read with interest the formula for train resistance 
proposed by John Lundie in the last issue of the Street 
Railway Journal, but think that investigation will show 
that the method used by Mr. Lundie for obtaining his for- 
mula, i. c., by coasting, is not new. In fact it 
has now been practically abandoned, as it does 
not make the test under conditions of service, 
either as regards the condition of the bearings 
and the forces acting, or as regards the speeds. All en- 
gineers who are acquainted with the subject will know the 
benefits and disadvantages of this method, and the pre- 
disposition would be against it rather than in its favor. It 
is mentioned that the results indicated in Fig. 1, in the 
article last month, are obtained directly from 150 or more 
observations. It would seem that the results should check 
better within themselves, if such were the case. In the 
case of the 80-ton train the variation of the tangent of the 
angle is about 6 per cent. 

Train resistance has been a subject which has figured 
largely in mechanical engineering. A great many men in 
this country and in Europe have made attempts to formu- 
late it in some convenient manner. Some of these men 
have been eminent technically, while others have been in- 
terested in the subject more from an operating or practical 
standpoint. Most have desired to make an empirical form 
of an equation which would best represent the results ob- 
tained by experiment, irrespective of the different factors 
which go to make these results; few appreciated that train 
resistance was a combination of factors, and therefore if 
any one factor was pre-eminently above the average, the 
whole empirical formula would fall. Probably most of the 
people, who have worked on this subject, appreciated the 
different factors which go to make up resistance as such, 
but judging from their formula; they did not appreciate the 
function of these factors, and their relative amounts, and 
also that they were liable to occur in different proportions 
under different conditions. 

There are two methods of measuring this resistance. 
One, by observing it as a function of the retardation or ac- 
celeration, and the other by measurement direct as the re- 
sistance pull. The first mentioned was the original method, 
and the one almost universally used for twenty years. Re- 
cently actual measurement by dynamometer or indi- 
cator cards on the engine has been more frequent. The 
first method can be applied in three different ways : Eirst, 
by bringing the train to a known velocity and measuring 
the distance to a full stop, then by calculation with aver- 
ages the train resistance can be computed. After a while it 
was found that the average should be calculated as an aver- 
age of the square of the velocity rather than the direct 

Another method used was to bring the train to a known 
velocity and measure the loss in velocity at stated intervals 
until it came to a standstill. Still another method was by 
calculation from acceleration or retardation in connection 
with a force of gravity, on an up or down grade. In the 
second method of determining this resistance, namelv, bv 
direct measurement of the pull, this is done in three ways, 
namely, by use of a dynamometer, by calculation from indi- 
cator cards on steam engine, or by calculating from the power 
curves of an electric motor. The dynamometer and indi- 
cator have been used with very good results. The method 
of calculating from an electric motor has not been used to 
any great extent, principally from reasons that the speed 

attained in present installations are not high enough to 
give reliable points for use in a formula. 

The writer made some calculations a few years ago from 
tests which were conducted quite accurately on the Metro- 
politan West Side Railway in Chicago. The tests were 
not conducted for this purpose, and therefore the results 
are all the more gratifying because they check so accurate- 
ly. The tests show that between 22 and 26 miles per hour 
the resistance was from 17 to 18 lbs. per ton. 

With regard to the different methods of computing, it 
can be said that the second general method of measuring 
absolutely the pull is by far the best, as the conditions are 
as in practice. The first general method has been practi- 
cally discarded, because the bearings are not in normal 
condition on account of the fact that during retardation 
the force goes from the track and the friction of the bear- 
ings is constantly diminishing with the speed, whereas in 
the case of direct measurement with the speed constant the 
power is transmitted through the car, and the resistance 
force is constant at the time of measurement. If the speed 
is not constant during measurement, allowance must be 
made for the acceleration or retardation. 

Calculations from electric motors seem to me to present 
the best chance for accuracy. 

W e will now consider a number of the formulae in a 
chronological order: 

In 1854, D. K. Clark published a formula based on the 
experiments of Mr. Gooch, during some previous years. 
The formulae given out by him were as follows: 

R=- M ' 



M 2 


M = Speed in miles per hour. 

R = Total resistance of engine tender and train in lbs. 
per ton of 2240 lbs. 

R' = Resistance of train above in lbs. per ton of 2240 lbs. 

The formula now referred to as Clark's formula with 

tons of 2000 lbs. and giving resistance for train only is 

' M a 
R = 7.l4-j 

r 191-5 

Experiments were conducted at low speeds, and condi- 
tion of the bearings and tracks was not by any means as 
it is at present. It was soon found that the locomotive had 
more resistance than the ordinary train. 

Rankine proposed a formula which was as follows: 

P= [5-35 + -27 (v- 10)] (T + 2E). 

P = resistance in pounds. 

v = speed in miles. 

T = weight of train in tons. 

E = weight of engine in tons. 

Transposing and using our nomenclature, we have for 
resistance, exclusive of engine 
R = 2.6 + .27 M 
It will be noted here that he assumed that the locomotive 
would have just twice the resistance of the rest of the train, 
a very arbitrary assumption. This formula was based on 
low speeds. 

Searles proposed: 

P = 4.82 W + .005 v J W 2 + .00047 v 2 E 2 
W = weight of train plus locomotive. 
E = weight of locomotive, 
v = speed. 

P = resistance in pounds. 
This reduced to the form as follows if we assumed 
weight of locomotive 35 tons: 

M a 

R = 4.82 + .005 M"+ .6- - 

March, 1899.] 



This formula has been complimented and recommended 
quite largely. He appreciated that there was a factor in the 
resistance which was not a direct function of the weight, 
and also that the locomotive gave more resistance than or- 
dinary cars. The third factor of the formula takes these 
two facts into account. This formula was developed when 
low speeds were in vogue: 

Welkner in Bavaria as a result of his experiments gave 
the following formula: 

W = 3.125 4- .00079 
W = kilograms per tonne (1000 kg.) 
v == speed of train in kilometers. 
Transposed into English units 

R = 6.25 4- .004 M" 
These tests were made with low speeds. 
The Eastern Railway of France conducted quite elabor- 
ate tests and as a result gave four formulae as follows: 

(1) W = (i.6 5 + .o 5 v)Q 

(2) W = (i.8 + .08 v) Q 4- .009 A v 2 

(3) W = (1.8 4- .08 v) Q 4- .006 A v 2 

(4) W = (1.8 4- .14 v) Q + -004 A v 2 

Q =z weight of train in tonnes of 1000 kg. 
v = speed of train in km. 
A = cross section train square meters. 
W = resistance in kg. 
Stating that the first for use with freight trains from 
12-32 km. per hour; the second for use with mixed freight 
and passenger trains run from 32-50 km. per hour, the 
third for passenger trains run from 50-65 km. per hour, 
and the fourth for express trains running 70-80 km. per 

These engineers appreciated that there was a factor due 
to wind resistance which was independent of the weight of 
the train, and which varied as the square of velocity multi- 
plied into the cross section of the train. 

Transposing, and bringing these formulas into form for 
comparison we have as follows: 
(1) R = 3 . 3 + .i6iM 

(2) R = 3.6 + .258 M + .259 

(3) R = 3-6+ .258 M 4- .173 

(4) R = 3.6+ .451 M4- .115 

M 2 


M 2 
M 2 

R = lbs. per ton. 

M == miles per hour. 

T == weight of train tons (2000 lbs.) 
Cross section of train taken constant as 10 sq. yards. 
First for 7.5-20 miles. 
Second for 20-31 miles. 
Third for 31-40 miles. 
Fourth for 43-50 miles. 

The formula proposed by Mr. Wellington is as follows : 
P = 4 W + .28 v 2 4- .03 v 2 C 4- .005 v 2 W 
Where C = number of cars in train and the rest as be- 
fore. This reduces to 

R = 4 + .005 M 2 + (.28 + .03 C)Jp 

Or, if we take 6 as the number of cars in average train, 
we have 

M 2 

R = 4+.oo 5 M 2 +. 4 6 T - 

The first term of this formula is for friction of the jour- 
nals between the wheel and the rail, a quantity which is in- 
dependent of the speed. The second factor is what he 
terms head resistance, or the resistance of the first car on 
account of the wind pressure. The third factor is to repre- 

sent side resistance, or the resistance offered by the atmos- 
phere to the side of the train. The fourth factor he terms os- 
cillating resistance, or increase in journal or rolling friction 
depending on the speed. When we combine, we have here 
two factors which are proportional to the weight of the 
train, and two which are independent of it. 

From the "Engineering News," 1893, results are given, 
which if put into a formula would be as follows: 
R = 2 + .25 M 

D. L. Barnes has given as result of his observations 
R = 4 4- .16 M 

These two formulas have been developed in connection 
with higher speeds up to 100 miles per hour. 

Dodd proposed, Street Railway Journal, September, 

P = (18+ .2v) E4- (7+ .2v)T 
Th is is equal to the following if the train only is con- 

R = 7 4- .20 M 
Lundie gives as a proposed formula: 

R = 4 + S (.2 + 

35 4- T 
14 M 


Or, transposed, 

R = 4 4-.2oM , 

354- T 

Mr. Lundie's formula was gotten from tests with the 

40 50 00 


FIG. 1 

80 90 100 

Street Railway Journal,!?. T, 

cars using electric motors. The friction of the electric 
motor gears and eight extra bearings per car is a con- 
siderable factor in the total friction. His formula, there- 
fore, would give too high results. 

In ordinary train resistance there are three factors. The 
journals of the cars, the friction of the wheel on the rail, 
and the air resistance. In Mr. Lundie's test he should also 
consider a fourth, namely, the friction of the gears, and the 
bearings of the motors. All of the cars which he tested had 
mounted on one of the trucks two 60 h.p. motors. The 
friction of gears and bearings of these motors when 
running at 20 miles an hour is about 1400 watts, 
or 2800 watts per car. This is equivalent to 3.74 
h.p., or, reduced to the term of train resistance, 
would be equivalent to 3.5 lbs. per ton. From 
Mr. Lundie's curve the train resistance at 20 miles is 
12 lbs. per ton, with a 20-ton unit; subtracting this factor 
of motor friction, we have as an actual train resistance, ac- 
cording to the ordinary understanding, 8.5 lbs. per ton. 
We therefore see that in this case Mr. Lundie's error by 
assuming motor friction as nil, is 41 per cent, of the actual 
train resistance. 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

Journal friction, according to the laws of friction, should 
be practically constant in torque at all speeds. The friction 
of the wheel on the rail varies as first power of the speed. 
The resistance due to air varies as a higher power than the 



R = 4 + .20M + 

14 M 

40 50 60 


FIG. 2 

TO SO 90 100 

iStreet Railway Journal,?*. T, 

first of the speed, and is independent of the weight of the 
train. The resistance due to the motor friction is com- 
pound, the motor bearings which would be practically in- 
dependent of the speed and the gears which would in- 
crease with the speed. 

From the best information which I have at hand, the 
calculation for the friction due to the motor would be 

G = .1 M + 1.5 
where G is equal to the motor friction in lbs. per ton, and 
M is equal to the speed of the car in miles. 

For comparison we present all these formula? in a table: 










2 CAR 



3 C 





















































20. 30 


FIG. 3 Z 

40 50 

Street Railway J, urnal.N.F. 

Clark, 1854, 





R = 7.14 -f .006 M' 

R = 2.65 -f .27 M 


4.82 -f .005 M -f .6 -^r- 

Eastern Ry, France, 1885, R 

Wellington, R 

Engineering News, 1893, R 
Barnes, R 
Dodd, R 

6.25 -f .004 M 2 
3.6 + .258 M + .29- 


M 2 

4 +.oo5M 2 +. 4 6— 

2 -f 25 M 
4 + .16 M 
7 + .20 M 

35 + T 

R = resistance in lbs. per ton (2000 lbs.) 

M = miles per hour. 

T = weight train in tons (2000 lbs.) 
We note that at the start the speed in the second power 
was used. Rankine, however, used the first power. The 
errors of experiments were so large that at low speeds it 
was almost immaterial whether the first or second power 
was used and the coefficients. Most of these formulae with 
the second power were found to give too high results at 
speeds above 50 miles per hour, therefore a reaction came 
and new formulae with a speed as the first power are being 
recommended. Various modifications have been sug- 
gested. The engineers of the Eastern Railway of France 
had formulae with both a first and second power oi speed 
as a factor. They apparently appreciated that the second 
power was too high a power for the wind factor, and there- 
fore have given out formulae with small coefficients for the 
higher speeds. These engineers may not have appreciated 
that the power of the air resistance component should have 
been between one and two, but they certainly did find that 

10 15 


FIG. 4 

20 25 

Street Ratiway Jou.mal,N.Y. 

using the same formulae for high and low speeds was im- 

If we analyze the case we will find that there are three 
main factors which go to make up this resistance. First, 
the resistance of the journals, which is approximately con- 
stant at all speeds. Second, the friction between the rail 
and the track which varies approximately with the speed. 
Third, the wind resistance which is independent of the 
weight of the train, and which varies as a function of the 
speed to a power between the first and second. 

The general form of the formula would then be as fol- 
lows : 


R = B -)- W M + A-7p- 

Where \ fc 

R = resistance. 

M = speed. 

T = weight train. 
The coefficients 

B = journal coefficient. 
W = wheel and rail coefficient. 

A = air resistance coefficient. 

n =; exponent of air factor, which should be de- 
termined by experiment. It is between 1 and 2. 

It is folly to attempt to give a formula which would be 
universal. We must place a proper coefficient in our for- 

March, 1899.] 



inula depending upon the quality of the different pieces of 
apparatus in connection with the friction. If we have well- 
worn, nicely made bearings, with low surface pressures, 
the factor B can be taken from 3 to 4. If the cars are new, 
bearings not worn, or the pressures abnormal, this factor 
would have to be taken as 5 or 6. With rails of a proper 
shape, of sufficient weight, well laid, and a wheel with 
proper flanges, and perfectly round and the right size, the 
second factor W would be .15. If these conditions were 
discounted this factor would increase. In the third 
term of the right hand member of the equation 
the factor A would depend upon the cross section 
of the train, and the exponent n, should be deter- 
mined by experiment. The exponent n is certainly greater 
than 1, and in all probability is less than 2. Of course, if 
we make this exponent anything from an even number it 
makes the formula hard to use in calculation. At the same 
time, in high speeds the air resistance becomes of con- 
siderable moment, and must be determined accurately. 

In Fig. 4, I have attempted to suit this equation to the 
results of Mr. Lundie, using in the air resistance term the 

2 20 













A 2 









t 1 r 






\ — A 


















c 1 



T 1 

1 1 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 . 90 100 

MILES PER HOUR Street Railway Journal,N.T. 

FIG. 5 

second power in order to get a simple equation, and I have 
as a result the following: 

M 2 

R = 3 + .i5M + .20 — 

Fig. 5 shows the equation plotted for all speeds up to 
ioo miles per hour. 

The following table will show the relation of the friction 
to the different component parts, both with a 21-ton and an 
82-ton train: 


Air. Total. 




21 T. 

82 T. 


21 T. 

82 T. 







• 7 






































It will be seen that the motor friction is a very import- 
ant factor throughout the whole range. 

To the best of my knowledge in applying the most re- 
liable data which I have at hand, I would say that the for- 
mula which would represent good practice would be as 

M 1 •* 

R = 4 + .15 M + .30 ^r- 
This is given in curves in Fig. 1. Fig. 2 shows how the 

various formulae compare, and also shows points from best 
results which I have at present at hand. This figure will 
show how the curves compare with the results and with 
themselves. From this it will be seen that it is immaterial 
for trains over 200 tons, and running at less than 40 miles 
an hour, whether the exponent of the speed term in the 
equation was of the first or second power. The variation 
from the curves is less than the accuracy of the experi- 
ments among themselves. Again, the variation of the 
proper coefficients would, in all probability, be greater 
than the variation from the curve itself. 

Fig. 3 shows how this formula agrees with tests of trains 
of light weight. I have plotted here in this figure results 
of some tests made on the Eastern Railway of France, 
some ten years or so ago. These were made with single 
cars; in all probability 6-wheel cars, and of a weight con- 
siderably less than 20 tons. I have also plotted results of 
a test by Mr. Lundie on the Chicago and South Side Ele- 
vated Railway. These results contain, beside the usual re- 
sistance, an additional resistance of the gears of the motors, 
and of the bearings of the motors. There are two motors 
on each car, and this resistance is quite material compared 
with the total. From calculations from absolute tests at 20 
miles, this resistance would amount to 3.5 lbs. per ton. 
Taking this into account, it will be seen that these results 
agree quite well with this formula. 

I have plotted also, in Fig. 3, results of some tests men- 
tioned by Mr. Dodd in a paper read before the Civil En- 
gineers' Club of Cleveland, published in the Street Rail- 
way Journal for September, 1898. These tests, on ac- 
count of their variation, would not seem to be verv ac- 
curate. In all probability, although it is not directly stated, 
there is a motor friction to be taken from these results. 

[For a further discussion of this subject, see pages 149 
and 150 of this issue. — Eds.] 

A French Account of an English Accident 

One of the French electrical papers thus humorously 
describes a recent accident in one of the underground rail- 
ways in London: 

Even under ordinary circumstances, it is far from reassuring for 
the timid traveler to traverse tunnels, especially when these tunnels 
are some 60 ft. below* the surface of the earth, but when the box in 
which he is enclosed stops suddenly with no indication of ever 
starting again, no passenger ought to be considered a coward if 
he begins to feel cold chills run up and down his back. The situa- 
tion is certainly one which does not have many cheerful features 
in it. This is what happened the other week to a crowd of Lon- 
doners who were going to see a procession of the Guards returning 
from the Soudan. The trains, heavily loaded, were passing slowly 
through the single tube which extends under the Thames, and 
were approaching Waterloo station, when, all of a sudden, they 
came to a stop. Immediately the ventilation in the tunnel, which 
is secured by the rapid movement of the trains, ceased. The poor 
passengers began to get suffocated, the lights went out and the 
darkness added still more to their terror. Finally, half-asphyxiated, 
they climbed out of the cars in a crowd and on foot traversed the 
distance through the tunnel to Waterloo station, about half a mile 
away. The trouble was caused by the electric motors, which, not 
receiving sufficient current to propel the heavily loaded cars, re- 
fused entirely to work. It is fortunate that the accident happened 
in England, where stolidity is so common and everyone is cold 
blooded, as otherwise the accident might have had a more serious 


In dealing with the inspection of cars in the car house, 
we believe better results can be obtained by giving to each 
man some particular branch of the work, rather than as- 
signing to him a certain number of cars and expecting him 
to do all the work required thereon. From paper at the 
Boston Convention, 1898. 



[Vol. XV., No. 3. 


Notes on the Standard Rules and Regulations as 
Reported by the A. S. R. A. Committee 


Schenectady Railway Co., 

Schenectady, N. Y., Feb. 18, 1899. 

Editors Street Railway Journal: 

In an article in the February number of the Street 
Railway Journal, the qualifications and limitations 
necessary for a set of "general" rules for street railway em- 
ployees were outlined, with the intention of judging by 
them the set of "Standard Rules and Regulations" as sub- 
mitted by the committee of the A. S. R. A. and published 
in the December Journal. 

In this and succeeding articles this test will be made, 
and where the rules of the committee do not fulfil the con- 
ditions, criticism will be made, changes and amendments 
suggested and reasons given therefor. 

Taking the qualifications and conditions as enumerated 
in the February Journal and submitting the report to 
them, we wish to know — 

First — Are they all rules? Several of them are not, as 
a whole, and many of them are not in part. General Rules 
Nos. 1 and 2 are announcements regarding the rules, their 
place is on the title page or closely following. No. 7 is a 
notice to the employees of the policy of the employer in 
regard to promotion, etc. Its place is in an "Introduction" 
to the rules, or in a "General Notice." No. 8 is not a rule 
at all, it comes under the head of "unnecessary and axiom- 
atic remarks." Any reasonable being knows that a wil- 
ful, repeated or inexcusable act of the kind therein speci- 
fied should cause his dismissal from any position, and es- 
pecially from a service that deals with the public as a com- 
mon carrier, where the consequences of such acts are liable 
to be so serious to the employer. Of a similar character 
are the third paragraph and the last part of the fourth, un- 
der "Depot Masters." For what general reasons are the 
heads of departments hired except for "properly conduct- 
ing" their part of the "company's business," looking after 
the "safety of the property intrusted to their care," and 
seeing that employees under them are "prompt and effi- 
cient in the discharge of their duties ?" These are not the 
peculiar duties of a "depot master," they are the well- 
known and thoroughly understood principles of duty of all 
heads of departments or sections of departments. They 
are all the very axioms of duty, and to put such truisms in 
as rules is to insult the intelligence and common sense of 
the employee. General rule 15 and rule 13 for conductors 
and motormen are other similar cases, they contain the 
stereotyped phrases, "will be held responsible for the care 
and protection of the property of the company coming into 
his hands" and "will be held responsible for any damage 
caused by their neglect or carelessness." Of course they 
will be; all employees are; not only those of street railways, 
but those of "the butcher, the baker, the candlestick 
maker!" Care of the employer's property is a necessary 
qualification of any employee and cannot be too carefully 
fostered, but it must be done in other ways than by repe- 
titions of bald-headed truisms. If it is really the intention 
or practice of the employer to penalize carelessness or neg- 
ligence, such practice should be stated in positive terms 
under a "general notice" or should form one of the "gen- 
eral rules" and should read as follows: 

"Any damage done to company or other property, or 

any loss or expense incurred by the company by reason of 
neglect or disobedience of these rules will be charged to 
the account of the employee or employees responsible for 
the damage, loss or expense, and the amount so charged 

up will be deducted from their ." (Pay, deposit or 

bond, as the case may be.) 

Rule 14 for inspectors is not a rule, it is very good advice 
and might be put into a note at the end of the inspector's 
rules, or into the "General Notice." 

Under rule No. 3 for motormen the words, "and acci- 
dents can and must be avoided," and the paragraph follow- 
ing them are not only unnecessary remarks, but they are 
not true. The employer and the employees are both aware 
that by no amount of human foresight or care and by no 
use of appliances, can all accidents be avoided. Even the 
law — and coroner's juries — do not go that far; therefore, 
to make such an unqualified statement, and to put it in 
capitals, is to make the whole rule ridiculous instead of im- 
pressive, as a "safety rule" should be. These paragraphs 
should be cut out of the rules and only put in the "General 
Notice" in an amended and truthful form. 

The first part of rule 1 for conductors is objectionable in 
many ways; its intent seems to be that even around the 
depot — away from passengers — profane and filthy lan- 
guage is not to be used, but the wording of this part is un- 
happy, as — by inference- — it says that other employees may 
use such language around the depot and — as there is no 
other rule to the contrary — conductors may swear and use 
"improper language" in other places. Again, by placing 
such a rule under "Special Rules for Conductors" and no- 
where else, it would be apt to give the impression that 
either the conductors were the only employees with foul 
mouths, or that they used the depot as the only available 
place in which to express their feelings! These remarks 
have no place in this rule or in this section of rules. If it 
is thought necessary to touch on this matter, it should be 
placed in the "General Rules" for all employees, and 
worded about as follows : 

"They will — while on duty or about the premises of the 
company — entirely abstain from profane or indecent lan- 
guage and from improper or ungentlemanly conduct, and 
they will, in all cases, be polite and courteous in their deal- 
ings with one another and with everyone with whom they 
come in contact in the performance of their duties." 

Rule No. 15 for conductors is mostly unnecessary re- 
marks. The specific part of it in regard to "waste, etc." 
should be amplified and elaborated into a rule as will be 
shown further on, and the "good judgment" part entirely 
cut out. Good judgment is common sense applied to cases 
where experience or specific directions are lacking, and in 
a matter as important as the care of his car, specific direc- 
tions — either by rule or by oral directions from his depot 
master or inspector — should not be lacking. 

Rule 19 is of the same style — only worse. It should not 
reflect on the other employees by making the conductor 
the only person who — under the rules — is allowed to use 
his own judgment! It should be completed and made a 
"general rule" and should read: 

"They (all employees) will — in the absence of officials to 
whom they may apply for advice, assistance or authority — 
exercise common sense and discretion in dealing with mat- 
ters not provided for in the rules." 

Finally — as regards their being rules — the first para- 
graph under "General Requirements" — in fact the whole of 
this section, and the three paragraphs under "Penalties" 
(following rule 23 for motormen) are not rules. As they 
stand, they are recommendations and suggestions by the 
committee to employers, and should be put into the report 
as such, or incorporated into the "General Notice," or put 

March, 1899.] 



into shape as rules. As they are placed they are out of 
place, especially the matter under "Penalties" (about which 
something will be said further along) and the location of 
which under "Special Rules for Motormen" might suggest 
that this generally excellent body of men were the black 
sheep of the flock! 

By a difference of wording and arrangement most of the 
"General Requirements" would make excellent and neces- 
sary general rules. A uniform and generally known and 
understood set of "requirement rules" for certain employ- 
ees would be a blessing to all who had the hiring of them. 
They would make a "standard," and as such would save 
much trouble with labor organizations, with nepotic di- 
rectors and with politicians who had a "pull" and needy 
relations and friends, and they would save the labor of sort- 
ing out a lot of "dead-wood." These rules would use the 
word "must," they come under the "imperative case" 
spoken of, as they fix a standard. The raw material must 
come under rule and measure — afterward, when it is licked 
into shape, when it has been tested — flexibility may be al- 
lowed, but the "requirement" section of the rules should be 
absolutely positive. 

Second — Are they "general" in the sense of being of 
universal application within a certain territory — in this in- 
stance the United States? Could any road in either Maine 
or Florida, California or New Jersey, single or double 
track, urban, suburban or interurban, high-speed or low- 
speed, big or little; could any one of these roads pick out 
from these rules a full quota of general rules (those not 
local) for its use, or for guidance in formulating a code of 
rules of its own ? It is, of course, thoroughly understood 
that the most complete and perfect set of general rules 
could not be used as a whole by every road, nor hardly by 
any one road — snow storm rules would be slightly out of 
place in Southern California or Florida — but in such a 
complete set of rules any and every rule not caused by 
peculiarly local conditions should be found complete, or its 
spirit and principle should be indicated. 

On the ground of passing away, the committee has ex- 
cluded rules "especially applicable to street railways oper- 
ated by horse or cable power," and it has also — whether 
on the same grounds or not, is not stated — excluded rules 
especially applicable to single track roads, to roads oper- 
ated by open or closed conduits, by third rail, by storage 
batteries, compressed air or kinetic motors; while it has in- 
cluded rules especially applicable to roads operated by 
overhead trolley and on double track. These rules are not 
general therefore in the sense of being universal, and can- 
not be so until they can be used as general rules by every 
street railway in the United States, no matter what its mo- 
tive power or the character of its track, traffic or equip- 
ment. If such cannot be clone without bringing in rules 
especially applicable to some one system of motive power 
or to some special method of using it, then it would be 
better to leave out of these rules those that relate to such 
subjects except as they may be applicable to any motive 
power or method of using it, and to put the special rules 
for each system under separate heads. It is conceded at 
this present time that the overhead, under-running trolley 
is largely in the majority, but with the advances made in 
other methods and motive powers, it is not safe to say that 
such majority may continue for any great length of time, 
and it would therefore be wiser in the beginning to avoid 
in any general set of rules those applying to any special and 
transitory method, or apparatus. 

Third — Are they "general" in the sense of not being lo- 
cal or individual? This is best answered by asking a few 
questions. Is it general, or, is there a reason, good and 
sufficient enough to make it general to exact $10 for 3 

badge or $20 for a uniform ? Or to use one tap of the sig- 
nal bell as a signal for the motorman to stop at the next 
crossing or trolley station ? Or to call a rheostat or re- 
sistance coil a "diverter" — a name used by one special 
manufacturer? Or to charge 5 cents for every adult pas- 
senger or 5 cents for every child between the ages of three 
and twelve? Or to permit only five policemen, firemen or 
employees on a car at the same time? Or to allow smok- 
ing on the three rear seats of open cars? Or to make an 
employee send an excuse by special messenger if he is absent 
through sickness? Yet all of these, and some others not 
noted, are specified in the rules, and all of them are local 
and individual. If the idea has been in each case to suggest 
a principle, it should have been done by giving the skeleton 
of the rule and leaving the specific name, number and 
amount to be filled by each road according to its local con- 
ditions. For instance, it is a wise thing and one of general 
use to formulate a general rule limiting the number of 
"dead-heads" that should ordinarily be carried on any one 
car at one time, but it reduces a general rule to a local one 
to make such a number fixed and specific, as local condi- 
tions would govern that point absolutely. 

These rules are stated in the report as being for con- 
ductors and motormen, but the committee have included in 
the report those for "depot masters," "receivers" and "in- 
spectors." Leaving out the receivers, whose duties are dis- 
missed with a curt paragraph, the division of the officials 
immediately in authority over the conductors and motor- 
men into "depot masters" and "inspectors," and the defin- 
ing of their duties as such is an arbitrary and local action 
and not a general one. It is true that there must be some 
one in direct authority over the conductors and motormen 
when they are not on the cars, and there must also be some 
one in like authority when they arc on the cars, and that 
on a road of any size at all, these officials cannot be one 
and the same man. It may also be true that the division of 
these officials into depot masters and inspectors and the 
arrangement and division of their duties as suggested by 
the committee is a correct one for certain roads, but it can 
never be a general one and certainly could never be made 
a standard one, even within a State, as local conditions 
would influence the duties and division of duties of these 
officials so greatly as to prevent any such arrangement as 
is suggested by the committee being made general even by 
roads of similar size or number of employees. As a matter 
of fact, the office of "inspector" is quite different on differ- 
ent roads. Originally they were what their name implies, 
"inspectors" of men, cars or motive power, but, as street 
railways have enlarged both in size and aims their duties 
have been increased, broadened and changed until they are 
more "supervisors" than' "inspectors" on some roads. 
Even on the same road the duties and authority of one so- 
called inspector will be totally different from another one 
bearing the self-same official title. It is, therefore, to be 
easily seen that any attempt to generalize the title or to 
divide and specialize the duties of the officials directly in 
authority over the conductors and motormen, would be 
at this time an impossible task. 

Fourth — Are they comprehensive ? Do they cover every 
point in regard to the general duties of these employees in 
relation to their superior officers and officials, in relation to 
one another, to the property they are intrusted with and to 
the public ? On some of these points they are fairly full and 
complete, on others they are not, and on others they are al- 
most lacking. This may seem a strong statement but— 
as this head will be more fully treated under No. it 
("Classification and Arrangement") — a single instance will 
be given to prove the statement. The property intrusted 
to the care of the conductor — the car itself — is a valuable 


one and the proper care of it by him will be an important 
item in the maintenance account. The neatness and clean- 
liness of the inside of the car, the proper adjustment of the 
ventilation, temperature and lighting, will all tend to in- 
crease the comfort of the passengers and, consequently, 
their satisfaction with the service. Therefore, on both 
these points, the rules should instruct him and guide him 
to the fullest extent. In relation to these duties, the rules 
as reported by the committee are conspicuous by their 
absence, as they consist of the last sentence of rule 28 for 
conductors and motormen, and Nos. 15, 25, 31 and 33 for 
conductors, in all, a matter of a dozen lines on this subject, 
and of this dozen lines nearly a third are not instructions. 
As a matter of comparison, the following in relation to this 
point is given as a suggestion of a more complete rule: 


Rule No. — . CARE OF CAR.— As the conductor will be held 
solely responsible for the condition of car while in his charge, he 
will, when taking it from depot, from an inspector or from another 
conductor, make certain that it is clean; that no parts, such as win- 
dows, shades or seats, are broken; that the signal bells and register 
work properly; that oil lamps (if used) are trimmed and in order; 
that .... spare incandescent lamps (if used) are in their recep- 
tacles, and that all (imple- 
ments or tools used by conductor or in his charge) are in good 
order and in their proper place. In case the car is dirty or any 
apparatus, tools or appliances, or parts of car are missing, broken 

or defective he will at once note the fact on (form 

or portion of form for that purpose). 

He will see that car is properly and thoroughly swept and dusted 

at least (once, twice or thrice) during his iwing or run, 

or oftener if the weather necessitates it. 

(Or) He will thoroughly sweep the car and platform floors and 
the steps when on stand. 

He will take care to adjust the ventilation of the car according 
to the weather. In closed cars the doors must be kept closed in 
cold weather as much as possible, and ventilation given when 
needed by the ventilating sash in roof. In hot, sunny weather the 
blinds (or shades) should be closed on sunny side cf car. 

He will not allow the blinds and windows to drop when handling 
them, but will raise or lower them carefully; he will not slam the 
doors, and will turn the signs and all reversing seals carefully. 

(If used) He will keep the oil lamps turned low when first 
lighted; will not allow them to smoke, and will relight them AT 
ONCE if they become extinguished. 

He will keep all gloves, overshoes, rubber coats, waste, etc., in 
their proper lockers, and NO WHERE ELSE. 

He will not allow any person to put their feet or dirty articles 
or bundles on the seats; to put their feet on the dasher or the 
woodwork of the car; to spit on the floor or platforms or behind 
the seats; to scratch matches or write on the car; to throw paper, 
nutshells or other rubbish behind the window-blinds or on the 
floor, or to in any way UNNECESSARILY damage, disfigure or 
dirty the car. 

He will allow no advertisements, notices, show-cards or cir- 
culars to be placed in or on the car without direct order or writ- 
ten permission from his (proper officer for this pur- 

He will not allow newsboys, peddlers or solicitors of any kind 
to ply their vocation on his car. 

Finally: He will, in all other ways, take good care of his car, 
and do everything possible to preserve it and to keep it neat and 
clean, and make it comfortable and attractive to passengers. 

Fifth — Are they clear and explicit in language ? General 
rule No. 5 says: "No one will be excused for violation of 
the rules even though not included in those applicable to 
his department." What is "not included," the employee 
or the rules ? It can be read either way equally well. What 
is evidently meant is "No employee will be excused for 
violation of a rule even though such rule is not directly ap- 
plicable to him or his department." Of the reasonable- 
ness of this, something will be said further along. 

Rule No. 6, following above, has, in capital letters, 
"Ignorance is no excuse for neglect of duty." This is prob- 
ably intended as a paraphrase of the legal maxim, "Ignor- 
ance of the law excuseth no man," but it goes wide of its 

[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

mark in its present form, for ignorance by itself would be 
an excuse. As nearly as can be guessed from the preceding 
part of the rule, the intention has been to state that "ignor- 
rance of the true meaning of a rule or order will not be re- 
ceived as an excuse for the neglect of it," but that would 
be highly unreasonable and unjust and would be bettered 
but little by placing the word "wilful" before "ignorance." 
As a matter of fact, any and every ordinary and general 
rule or order should be so plain and explicit that any em- 
ployee of average common sense and in the class or group 
of employees for which the rule is intended, should be able 
to rightly comprehend it. If a rule or order is one that 
deals with technical or special matters which might be be- 
yond the understanding of the employee, or of a new em- 
ployee, care should be taken that such rule or order should 
be diagrammatically or orally or practically explained be- 
fore being enforced. Given an ordinary or general rule as 
carefully, plainly and clearly expressed as possible, and the 
employee who cannot or will not understand it without 
oral explanation, is not, as a rule, the proper employee to 
work under that rule. 

Paragraph 17, under "Depot Masters," says: "They 
must arrange to sand the rail when necessary." Rule 16 
for inspectors, says: "They should give special attention 
to sanding the track on hills," etc. In both cases, being 
officials or in authority, it means that they are to have it 
done, and the rules should read: "They must arrange to 
have the rail sanded when necessary" and "they should 
give special attention to the sanding of the track on hills," 
etc. Of course, it is understood that in an emergency case, 
there being no one else to do it, a depot master or inspector 
would sand the rail himself, but that is not the intent of the 

General rule No. 9 for conductors and motormen says: 
"Under no circumstances must a conductor and motor- 
man be away from a car at the same time unless properly 
relieved." What is meant is, "Under no circumstances 
must both motorman and conductor be away from a car, 
unless properly relieved." 

Rule No. 12 says: "The official badge must never be 
worn by anyone except to whom it is issued." This was 
probably intended to have the words "the employee" in- 
serted between "except" and "to." It is even then not 
complete, the rule in regard to badges should be: "The 
official badge must be worn in plain sight so as to be read- 
ily seen and read at all times. Under no circumstances 
will employees exchange badges with one another, nor will 
they lend them to anyone for any purpose. The official 
badge must never be worn by anyone except the employee 
to whom it is issued." 

Under rule 5 for inspectors, they are required to "keep 
themselves informed of all instructions issued by the offi- 
cials of the company and see that they are complied with." 
This is a "big order" for an "inspector," — in the first place, 
to ask them to "keep themselves informed," in the next 
place, to keep informed "of all instructions issued by offi- 
cials of the company," and, lastly, to "see that they are 
complied with!" If this were really the intent of the rule 
an inspector's life would be like that of the policemen 
in the "Pirates of Penzance," "not a happy one!" As a 
matter of fact, no official or minor official should have to 
"keep informed" as to any orders which affect him or his 
department. Such orders or instructions should reach him 
directly in writing or printing, should be posted in a place 
that he is expected to examine regularly for them, or, in 
case of emergency or of trivial matters, may be given ver- 
bally. In no case should he be expected to hunt up orders 
or instructions, nor should he be expected to be familiar 
with or responsible for the "compliance with" any orders 


March, 1899.] 



or instructions not affecting himself, his department or the 
employees under his charge. The rule should read: "They 
will make frequent examination of the bulletin board for 
orders or instructions affecting themselves, their depart- 
ment or the employees under their authority, they will 
make themselves fully conversant with them and see that 
they are complied with." 

Under rule 13 for motormen the words, "passing men 
on the street," should read "passing men at work on the 
street." Under rule 9 for same the word "junction" in 
second line should be "curve," and the word "the" before 
"junction" in the third line should be "a." 

Some of these may seem like trivial items to criticise and 

Power Station Records 

Trenton Street Railway Co., 

Trenton, N. J., Feb. 17, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I enclose the report of our power station for the year 
ending Dec. 31, 1898. The low cost in fuel consumption 
in April and October was due to our taking account of 
stock of coal on hand those months. The cost of power in- 
cludes the expense of lighting our park and of heating and 
lighting our cars. 

In our station we have one 100 h.p. and two 400 h.p. 
Watts-Campbell tandem compound condensing engines; 

Statement of the Cost of Operation of the Trenton Street Railway Company for the Year 1898. 






Repairs to 

Repairs to 

Repairs to 

Repairs to 

Repairs to 

Oil, Waste 
and Packing. 


Extra Labor. 























849-3 2 















1 18.71 






















































Il6. 16 
































11. 17 


































Total cost, 1897 I15.301.60 Car miles, 1897 1,484,885 Cost per mile $.01 

" " 1898 17,031.90 " " 1898 1,612,108 " " " 01. 1 

it may be that some of them — together with a lot more 
which have been criticised — may be due to the "intelli- 
gent compositor" or his able coadjutor, the typewriter, 
but there are many of these items that are evidently not the 
handiwork of these two, and are therefore subject to the 
criticism that in matters where a word or sentence mis- 
placed, omitted or wrongly used may alter cases of vital 
importance and lead to very harmful results, there should 
be nothing used but the clearest and most explicit lan- 
guage, brevity must be sacrificed to perspecuity in rules, 
especially in "safety rules." H. S. Cooper. 

(To be Continued.) 

Method of Keeping Accounts 

Baltimore, January 23, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I have carefully considered the article on "An Ideal Sys- 
tem of Street Railway Accounts," in your January issue, 
and it gives me pleasure to say that it seems to me 
thorough. Of course, its use involves much work, but 
without that work some detailed showing would be neces- 
sarily omitted. A simple system would give results but 
omit much desirable analysis. De Courcy W. Thom. 

The local conditions should govern the type of double 
truck used, the bolster type in most cases being preferable 
for long cars on high speed, suburban service, while for 
city service, where heavy grades and quick starts demand 
maximum traction, and short curves make it necessary for 
the wheel to turn under the sill, the bicycle type must 
necessarily be used. From paper at the Boston Conven- 
tion, 1898. 

six 100 h.p. return tubular boilers; four Short 100 kw. 
generators, and one G. E. 750 kw. generator. The genera- 
tors are belted with the engines. Our boiler pressure is 
100 lbs. Henry C. Moore, President. 


A Formula for Train Resistance 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Department of Engineering. 

Boston, Mass., Feb. 2, 1899. 

Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I should like to know more with reference to the original 
data of Mr. Lundie's experiments before I can make up my 
mind regarding his formula. I am inclined to agree with 
the remarks from "Locomotive Engineering," which you 
quote at the beginning of your article. Trains differ very 
much as regards every element in the problem. With refer- 
ence to Mr. Lundie's method, of course you are familiar 
with the tests which were made in connection with the 
Burlington brake tests, by which trains were allowed to 
run until they came to a stop, so that Mr. Lundie's work is 
not new in this respect. I do not think that it is shown 
very conclusively that these lines ought to "intercept each 
other with surprising accuracy at a single point," since 
the lines as drawn are plotted from the equation and must, 
of course, meet at this point. I think the form of Lundie's 
equation is better than that of Clark's, although S should 
not appear to the first power or to the second power, but 
to some intermediate power. The same result might be at- 
tained with two terms, one with S and one with S 2 . Can- 
not you publish an article giving all the details of Lundie's 
experiments, or does he wish to keep them for publication 


[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

in some original paper? They would, no doubt, be of 
much interest, and I should be glad to see them. 

Geo. F. Swain, Professor of Civil Engineering. 

The Chicago City Railway Company, 
Electrical and Engineering Departments. 

Chicago, 111., Feb. 3, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I am much interested in Mr. Lundie's formula for train 
resistance. The figures given by him are much lower than 
anything we are able to get in street railway practice owing 
to the difference in the conditions, as you have mentioned. 
We have in street railway work a rail almost buried in dirt, 
especially in this city, and you can readily appreciate that 
there is double, and more, the track resistance on such a 
rail than there is on a steam railroad rail lying high and 
dry; and I quite agree with you when you say that it is 
probable that no formula can be devised for street railway 
work where the conditions vary so largely. 

I remember a few years ago making a test in order to 
determine when it is time to replace a badly worn rail, and 
the wide range in differences in draw bar pull per ton may 
be observed in the following table: 

Average Speed 

Total Weight 

Draw Bar 

in Miles 

of Car 

Pull Per 

Per Hour. 




On badly worn rail 

.. 12.9 

4 i/3 

43-8 lbs. 


On badly worn rail 

. . 10. 

4 i/3 

40. lbs. 


On nearly new rail. 

. . 12. 

4 1/3 

26. lbs. 


On nearly new rail. 

.. 11. 4 

4 i/3 

30. lbs. 


On badly worn rail 

.. 8.6 

4 i/3 

37-5 lbs. 


On nearly new rail. 

.. 8.8 

4 1/3 

24.2 lbs. 

The rail was dry and comparatively clean, and the resist- 

ance small. In test No. 5, the time consumed in starting 
and stopping was eight minutes and forty seconds; and in 
test No. 6, nine minutes and forty seconds. The rate of 
speed attained in these two tests includes the time con- 
sumed in making stops and starts. With "badly worn rail" 
the flanges of wheels were, in many instances, running on 
the tram of the rail. In noting the difference in draw bar 
pull per ton with a new rail and an old one, it can readily 
be appreciated that it is false economy to try to operate a 
street rail after it becomes badly worn. 

I doubt if it is possible to adopt any given formula; that 
is, for practical use, for train resistance, no matter how 
carefully determined, when, in the majority of cases, the 
joints of steam railroad rails are very poor and irregular in 
the matter of alignment, and this difference alone would, 
in my opinion, vary the results very materially, to say noth- 
ing of the variations which would be caused by "spongy" 
sub-grades, etc. As I understand it, Mr. Lundie made all 
of the observations, from which he worked out his formula, 
on the Alley "L" or South Side Elevated Railway. He 
had, of course, in that track, ideal conditions existing in 
the way of a solid road-bed and well aligned and rigid 
joints and rails such as are rarely found with surface steam 

Mr. Lundie certainly deserves great credit for his efforts 
and their results in working out this formula, and the 
method he used gives an accuracy which has not hereto- 
fore been obtained. G. W. Knox, 

Electrical Engineer. 

New York, Feb. 14, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

While I have a very limited knowledge of the subject, I 
would say on general principles, that the formula which 
does not contain the square of the speed in one of the 
terms, cannot be true for widely different values. But if, 
as you say, the practical results within certain limits agree 

with the values found according to Mr. Lundie's formula, 
his work will not be the less welcome to engineers. 

Nikola Tesla. 

Sibley College, Cornell University. 

Ithaca, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

I am very much interested in the question of train re- 
sistance, and am entirely convinced that some of the re- 
cently proposed formulae that did not take into considera- 
tion a variation of the traction coefficient with the speed 
were wrong, but did not find it convenient to take up the 
matter at that time. A comparison of actual acceleration 
curves and those deduced from other formulae would indi- 
cate that Mr. Lundie's formula is more generally applica- 
ble than any yet proposed. S. B. Fortenbaugh. 

The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway Co., 
Engineers Department. 

Toledo, Ohio, Feb. 15, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

We have never made any scientific train resistance tests, 
so far as I know. Mr. Lundie's formula is certainly very 
interesting. Such an empirical formula, if carefully made 
from a sufficiently large number of observations, ought to 
have good results within those limits, and under conditions 
similar to those under which the observations were made. 
But it is difficult to pick out the value of the different 
causes which have contributed to make up the numerical 
factors of such a formula, or the effect upon these causes 
when the conditions under which they operate may be 
changed, so no one can say whether these numerical fac- 
tors are correct outside the limits of actual observation. 
Fortunately, however, most cases will come near enough 
within these limits, and consequently all such formulae have 
a value. I hope this one will have a large one. 

Samuel Rockwell, Engineer M. S. Division. 

University of Wisconsin, 
College of Mechanics and Engineering, 

Madison, Wis., Feb. 2, 1899. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

Mr. Lundie's formula appears to agree unusually well 
with experimentally deduced results, and it may rightly 
be looked upon as a decided improvement upon the older 
formulae. The insertion of the train weight as a variable 
in the formula follows the line of argument set forth, for 
instance, by Searles, when he premises in his field book 
that a formula of the kind here considered "must include 
at least the velocity and weight of the train and engine;" 
and it is a substantial service to engineering to put a 
formula of this nature into useful shape. Mr. Lundie is to 
be congratulated upon deriving a formula of so apparently 
wide application, but no fixed formula can be fitted to the 
widely varying conditions met in street car (surface) trac- 
tion as it now exists. D. C. Jackson, C. E. 

From the information before us, we feel sure that we can 
safely assume twenty-four years as the life of a creosoted 
tie, and with this assumption we will determine the cost of 
keeping the different kinds of ties under sections of track 
for twenty-four years. Creosoted ties will cost 24 cents per 
lineal foot of track ; therefore, 60 cents (36 and 24) will rep- 
resent the cost of labor and ties per lineal foot in rebuild- 
ing. Principal and interest on 60 at 6 per cent for twenty - 
four years, $1.46 — which is the actual cost per lineal foot 
of keeping ties under this track for twenty-four years. — 
From paper read at the Montreal Convention, in 1895. 

March, 1899.] 



The Next Convention. 

The eighteenth annual meeting- of the American Street Railway 
Association and the third annual meeting of the Street Railway 
Accountants' Association of America will be held in Chicago, 111., 
Oct. 17, 18, 19 and 20, 1899, at "Tattersall's," State and Sixteenth 
Streets. This building contains 50,000 sq. ft. of floor space, with- 
out a post or obstruction of any kind. 

Friday, Oct. 20, has been set as a day for an examination of the 
exhibits. No session of the association will be held, so that all 
may have plenty of time to view the exhibits. The association 
will especially request that managers have their heads of depart- 
ments present on that day. 

President Charles S. Sergeant, of Boston, Secretary and Treas- 
urer T. C. Penington, of Chicago; Walton H. Holmes, of Kansas 
City; Albion E. Lang, of Toledo; George A. Yuille, of Chicago; 
Frank G. Tones, of Memphis; John I. Beggs, of Milwaukee, and 
Ira A. McCormack, of New York, members of the executive com- 
mittee of the American Street Railway Association, met in Chi- 
cago, Feb. 6 and 7, and completed all the preliminary arrange- 
ments for the convention. The hall is well suited to the purposes 
of the exhibit, having a clear floor space, without columns, of 
50,000 sq. ft. The meeting rooms of both associations will be under 
the same roof as the exhibit, with ample retiring and committee 
rooms. The last day of the convention will be set apart for the 
systematic and careful inspection of the exhibits by the delegates, 
a fact which will be appreciated by all exhibitors. The banquet 
will be given on the night of the last day of the convention, at 
which the installation of the newly elected officers will take place. 
The committee resolved tc make unusual efforts to secure the at- 
tendance of representatives of the mechanical, operating and audit- 
ing departments, which will make the convention of great practical 
value to those branches of the service; the attendance having been 
largely confined to delegates from the administratis e departments. 
The hall will be well lighted and heated ; the light during the hours 
of the day leaving nothing to be desired. All the exhibits will be 
on the same floor, and there will be little choice as to location. 
All electric power necessary will be furnished. The hall is within 
300 ft. of the steam railroad tracks, and a special siding will be laid 
to the rear door of the hall so as to bring the heavy exhibits direct 
to the hall. 

The following subjects were selected, upon which papers are to 
be read at the meeting: "Maintenance of Car Equipment;" "The 
Modern Street Railway Shop; Its Design, Machinery and Shop 
Practice;" "Train Service, and Its Practical Application;" "Invest- 
ment in Street Railways; How Can They Be Made Secure and 
Remunerative?" "Construction and Maintenance of Railway 

The annual banquet will be held Friday evening, when the 
officers elected will be installed. 

The headquarters of the association will be at the Auditorium 
Annex. The Auditorium is across the street and is under the 
same management. Chicago is noted for its good hotels, so no 
trouble will be experienced in securing good accommodations. 
The rates charged at the hotels mentioned are: Auditorium, 
American plan, $5 per day each person; Auditorium Annex, 
European plan, $2 to $4 per day. 

All of the leading hotels in Chicago are within a radius of one- 
half a mile. They include the Victoria, Wellington. Great North- 
ern, Grand Pacific, Palmer, Tremont, Sherman and Clifton, and 
all are within ten-minutes' ride of the hall. 

The executive committee advises all who desire rooms to apply 
at once. The rooms at the Auditorium will not be assigned until 
Mar. 15. and will be assigned in the order in which applications 
are received. 

Railroad rates will, in all probability, be as before — one and one- 
third fare for the round trip, due notice of which will be mailed 
the members of the association in time. 

The representatives of the association who reside in Chicago 
intend to make the visit of all a pleasant and profitable one, so 
that no one will regret attending this convention. 

The following organization has been effected fcr the entertain- 
ment of the delegates and other attendants: 

Chairman, M. K. Bowen, president, Chicago City Railway. 

Secretary and treasurer, Geo. E. Yuille, second vice-president, West Chicago 
Street Railroad. . 

J. M. Roach, vice-president and general manager, North & West Chicago 
Street Railroad Company. 

Geo. C. Nagle, superintendent, Chicago City Railway Company. 

TT. M. Sloan, general manager, Calumet Electric Street Railway Company. 

H. H. Windsor, Editor "Street Railway Review." 

F. L. Fuller, general superintendent. West Chicago Street Railroad Company. 
Jas. R. Chapman, general manager, electrical department, North & West 
Chicago Street Railroad companies. 


J. M. Roach chairman, vice-president and general manager, North & West 

Chicago Street Railroad Co. 
T. M. Henderson, superintendent, N. C. Street Railroad Company. 
A. S. Littlefield, railroad contractor. 

Geo. C. Bailey, John A. Roebling's Sons Company, Chicago. 

Harry Kcegan, assistant superintendent, N. C. Street Railroad Company. 

Frank R. Green, secretary, Chicago City Railway Company. 

Geo. A. Yuille, second vice-president, W. C. Street Railroad Company. 


Jas. R. Chapman, chairman, general "manager, electrical department, North 

and West Chicago Street Railroad companies. 
C. E. Moore, master mechanic, Chicago City Railway Company. 
John Miller, master mechanic, North Chicago Street Railroad Company. 
F. T. C. Brydges, master mechanic, West Chicago Street Railroad Company. 
A. C. Heidlberg, assistant superintendent, Chicago City Railway Company. 
Geo. W. Knox, chief electrician, Chicago City Railway Company. 
W. F. Carr, superintendent, electric and track dept., W. C. St. R. R. Co. 
W. A. Harding, master mechanic, Calumet Electric Street Railway Company. 
N. C. Noe, engineer, General Electric Company. 


F. L. Fuller, chairman general superintendent, W. C. St. R. R. Co. 

W. Worth Bean, president and general manager, St. Joseph & Benton Harbor 

Electric Railway & Light Company, St. Joseph, Mich. 
Win. Walmsley, superintendent, South Chicago City Railway Company. 
Win. J. Cooke, McGuire Manufacturing Company. 
T. D. Miles, with West Chicago Street Railroad Company. 
J. M. Atkinson, of J. M. Atkinson & Co., of Chicago. 
John O'Keefe, with Chicago City Railway Company. 


H. H. Windsor, chairman, Editor "Street Railway Review." 

C. S. McMahan, Western manager, Street Railway Journal. 

D. B. Dean, Terre Haute Car Manufacturing Company, Terrc Haute, Ind. 
J. A. Hanna, Peckham Truck Company, Chicago. 

C. J. Riley, chief engineer, Chicago City Railway. 
John O'Keefe, Chicago City Railway Company. 


Geo. O. Nagle, chairman, superintendent, Chicago City Railway Company. 
A. S. Littlefield, railroad contractor. 

T. M. Henderson, superintendent, North Chicago Street Railroad Company. 
Maurice Coster, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 
T. C. Penington, treasurer, Chicago City Railway Company. 


M. L. Bowen, chairman, president, Chicago City Railway Company. 
D. G. Hamilton, Chicago City Railway Company. 

M. B. Starring assistant general counsel, Chicago City Railway Company. 

B. E. Sunny, General Electric Company. 

H. H. Windsor, Editor "Street Railway Review." 

C. S. McMahon, Western manager Street Railway Journal. 
Geo. C. Bailey, John A. Roebling's Sons Company, Chicago. 


H. M. Sloan, chairman, general manager, Calumet Electric St. Ry. Co. 

Theo. P. Bailey General Electric Company. 

Joseph Leiter, Chicago City Railway Company. 

Frank R. Green, secretary, Chicago City Railway Company. 

F. L. Fuller, general superintendent. West Chicago Street Railroad Company. 

M. K. Bowen, president, Chicago City Railway Company. 

C. K. Knickerbocker, Griffin Wheel Company, Chicago. 

L. S. Owsley, secretary and treasurer, North Chicago Street Railroad Co. 

J. Chas. Moore, secretary and treasurer, North Chicago Street Railroad Co. 


Geo. A. Yuille, chairman, second vice-president, West Chicago St. R. R. Co. 
C. R. Penington, with Chicago City Railway Company. 

J. Chas. Moore, secretary and treasurer, North Chicago Street Railroad Co. 
W. S. Bell, assistant secretary and treasurer, West Chicago Street R. R. Co. 
H. B. White, secretary and treasurer, Calumet Electric Street Ry. Co. 

Mr. John M. Roach, representing the local street railway inter- 
ests, entertained the committee during their stay in Chicago. On 
Monday night, at 6 o'clock, there was a dinner at the Union Club, 
at which the following gentlemen were present: F. L. Fuller, 
William Walmsley, T. A. Henderson, Albion E. Lang, John I. 
Beggs, H. M. Sloan, John M. Roach, Frank R. Greene, T. E. 
Crossman, H. H. Windsor, Ira A. McCormack, W. Worth Bean, 
A. L. Plimpton, H. F. Grant, Walton H. Holmes, T. C. Pening- 
ton, Chas. S. Sergeant, Frank G. Jones, George A. Yuille, George 
O. Nagle and J. R. Chapman. After the dinner the party attended 
the performance at Powers' Theatre. On Tuesday afternoon, upon 
the conclusion of the work of the committee, a visit was made to 
the office of the North Chicago Street Railway Company, where 
President Yerkes received the gentlemen. Subsequently a visit 
was made to the Western Avenue power station and other points 
of interest connected with the company. 


The Brown Hoisting & Conveying Machine Company, of New 
York and Cleveland, Ohio, has just been awarded a contract by 
the Navy Department for coal handling machinery for the coaling 
station at Mare Island Navy Yard, California. This is the sixth 
coaling station for the United States navy to be equipped with the 
Brown Company's machinery, and constitutes all the stations so 
far awarded. The Brown Hoisting & Conveying Machine Com- 
pany has also been awarded a contract for a 100-ton steel floating 
crane for the Brooklyn Navy Yard. This crane will weigh oyer 
1000 tons. 


[Vol. XV., No. 3. 

MHRCH, 1899 



Main Office : 

NEW YORK, Havemeyer Building, 26 Cortlandt Street. 

the station becomes thus antiquated, either in equipment 
or location, it is better to reconstruct or to continue the 
old equipment is a special problem of each situation. The 
best way is to carefully calculate the cost of operation in 
each case, including that of depreciation and loss of 
power, and compare the possible saving with the inter- 
est on the cost of new investment required. The operating 
expenses of modern power-house machinery are now so 
well known to engineers that, if the expenses of the exist- 
ing plan have been carefully kept, this comparison ought 
not to be a difficult one. In some cases the economy will 
be considerable, as in that of the Consolidated Traction 
Company of Pittsburgh, mentioned elsewhere, where it 
was found a saving in cost of generating power of 56 per 
cent could be made by the substitution of one modern sta- 
tion for several older ones. 

Branch Offices : 

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Moscow : Alexander L. Lineff, 9 Gt. Tchernishevsky Pereulok. 

Long Distance Telephone, "New York, 2664 Cortlandt," 
Cable Address, " Stryjourn, New York." 


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, Papers and correspondence on all subjects of practical interest to 
our readers ate cordially invited. Our columns are always open for 
the discussion of problems of operation, construction, engineering, 
accounting, finance and invention. 

Special effort will be made to answer promptly, and without 
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Street railway news and all information regarding changes of 
officers, new equipment, extensions, financial changes, etc., will be 
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All matters intended for publication in the current issues must 
be received at our office not later than the twenty-second of each month. 

Address all communications to 

The Street Railway Publishing Co., 
Havemever Building, 26 Cortlandt St., Neiv York, 

The power stations of practically all of the large street 
railway systems of this country, and of most of the smaller 
ones, have been in operation now for at least two years, 
and many of them for a considerably longer period. Dur- 
ing this time many improvements in the economical gen- 
eration of current have been made, so that the question as 
to what extent reconstruction should be engaged in is an 
important one. In many cases the need is intensified by 
a radical change in location of the "center of gravity," or 
center of the distribution circuit, caused by the construc- 
tion of new lines or consolidation with old ones, which has 
often put the existing power station far away from the 
most economical point for distribution. Whether, when 

The advantages of the "loop" idea in terminal arrange- 
ments, long well known and appreciated in street rail- 
road practices, are about to be demonstrated in steam 
railroad suburban service on a large scale. Hitherto the 
loop has not been used to any extent, if at all, in railroad 
city termini, because of the impossibility of getting the 
necessarily large radii of curvature within the limits of the 
terminal station, but in the enormous South Terminal 
station, just completed in Boston — the largest station in 
the world — sufficient room is found to use loop, instead 
of stub tracks, for suburban trains, and, as a consequence, 
the ultimate train handling capacity of the entire station is 
more than 2000 trains per day, of which the twenty-four 
stub tracks will handle 750 trains, while the two-track 
route will handle 1250 or more. This is a quite unprece- 
dented capacity. The effect of this terminal arrangement 
on the traffic conditions in Eastern Massachusetts is far 
reaching — much more so than might at first appear on 
the surface, for there is now no doubt that it is the inten- 
tion of the two great railroad systems which will use this 
terminus to run their suburban trains by electricity, and to 
give a frequent service at regular short-time intervals. 
With the advantage which comes with ownership of right 
of way and with possibility of high speeds, based upon the 
complete abolition of grade crossings, which is now 
rapidly going on in Massachusetts under compulsory 
legislation, it is much to be feared — or hoped, according 
to the point of view, — that the keenest kind of competi- 
tion will come between the railroad and street railway 
services in the same territory, and the result will quite 
probably be the usual one, namely, that the public as a 
whole will ride much more freely and frequently than 
ever before, the street railways will get the short-distance 
travel, and the railroads the longer hauls. 

The consolidation of properties in the same lines of 
business seems to be the order of the day, not only in in- 
dustrial enterprises, but also in those engaged in trans- 
portation. The economies obtained in consolidating 
steam railroad properties have attracted capitalists inter- 
ested in street railway companies, and press dispatches 
announcing the union of interests in some new city have 
been almost a matter of daily occurrence during the last 
two months. Among the most important events of this 
kind which have been consummated or announced during 

March, 1899.] 



the last month are the street railways arounu Buffalo, in 
jersey City, Baltimore, Lexington, Ky., and the two prin- 
cipal railway systems of Brooklyn, while there are 
rumors of important consolidations in other cities, includ- 
ing Washington and New York City. While a large 
system cannot receive the same personal oversight from 
the acting manager as a small one, there is such a large 
possibility for saving in many directions that these usually 
far more than counterbalance the few economical draw- 
backs, and this is especially true in electric railway sys- 
tems, where the replacing of several power stations by a 
single large one is an obvious economy of magnitude. 
A street railway system of a city, like its water, gas and 
telephone systems, is a natural monopoly, and is recog- 
nized as such by all students of political science, inde- 
pendent of ideas which they may hold as to whether such a 
monopoly should be owned and operated by the munici- 
pality or by a private corporation. It is, therefore, not 
improbable to expect the final union in most cities of cer- 
tainly the competing street railway lines. It has been a 
noticeable fact that in such cases the public has been 
directly benefited by the pooling of interests in this way. 
As a usual thing, more transfers are given by the consoli- 
dated system than by the individual companies, a result 
which amounts to a reduction in fare. We do not antici- 
pate, however, that combinations of this kind will 
materially lessen for any length of time the total number 
of electric railway companies in any particular section or 
in the entire country. The consolidations are usually 
made by the help of outside capital, which necessarily re- 
leases a considerable amount of money belonging to those 
owners whose properties have become absorbed. These 
persons, whose life has been spent in railroading, will 
naturally tend to remain in that field, and we think in most 
cases will turn to interurban electric railroading, which is 
as yet practically undeveloped, for an investment of their 
capital. We have referred in previous issues to the possi- 
bilities of this field, and to the fact that many of those who 
have previously made a success with street railway proper- 
ties are now paying considerable attention to its develop- 
ment. The proposition, taken as a whole, is an exceed- 
ingly attractive one, especially since the improvements in 
three-phase machinery, which have made the cheap dis- 
tribution of power over long distances an easy task. 

The blizzard of Feb. 13 severely tested the capabilities 
cf all the electric railways in the Eastern States in keep- 
ing their tracks clear of the snow and cars running. The 
siorm was admitted by all to have been the most severe of 
any experienced since the famous blizzard of 1888, and it 
differed from that in being more general and in being ac- 
companied by a low temperature, which added greatly to 
the inconveniences of the men in removing the snow from 
the tracks. All of the cities on the Atlantic seaboard, from 
Portland as far south as Washington, and even Richmond, 
were practically snowed in for several days, and traffic on 
most of the steam railroads in this section was brought to 
a standstill. As may be expected, the street railways were 
also affected most seriously. Being the furthest north 
of any of the large cities on the coast, Boston probably 
suffered more than any city, but in spite of this fact the 
Boston Elevated Railway Company had clear on Tues- 
day, Feb. 14, 320 of its 325 miles of electric track. 

The railway company in Boston has to cart away the snow 
which it clears from its tracks, and a good idea of the im- 
mense facilities which this company has for removing snow